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Biological Series 













LONDON : H. K. LEWIS, 136, GOWER ST, W.C. i 














M.A., Sc.D., Hon. Sc.D. (Harvard), F.R.S. 








First Edition, 1897. 
Second Edition, 1904. 
Third Edition, 1908. 
Reprinted, 1914. 
Fourth Edition, 1919. 


IN this edition the work is completely revised, and as far 
as possible brought up to date. The most noteworthy 
new feature is the incorporation of all the parts into one 
general dictionary, and the omission of Part I of previous 
editions. When first written this had certain advantages, as 
being one of the few presentations in English of the ele- 
mentary facts and theories of ecology. But this advantage 
has long disappeared, and it seemed to me that the space 
would be better employed in increasing the number of genera 
dealt with. On consulting Sir David Prain and other bota- 
nists, I found that they agreed with this idea. By a slight 
addition to the total number of pages I have found it pos- 
sible to include all the genera, and hope that in this way 
the usefulness of the work to botanists in general may be 
greatly increased. I have of course attempted no criticism 
of those included, but have tried to indicate, as far as space 
would permit, the genera from which they have been segre- 
gated in many cases, or to which they are united by the 
other of the two chief recent editors of the vegetable 
kingdom (Bentham-Hooker, Engler-Prantl). It is obviously 
impossible to do very much in this direction. As it stands, 
the book is convenient for use, but a very slight addition 
to the facts given for each genus would add a line to the 
entry and, as there are roughly some 20,000 entries, this 
would add 400 pages to the book, and make it unwieldy. 
The same remark applies to the geographical distribution, 
which could not in general be given in great detail. 

Before criticising, again, the inclusion of many obsolete 
technical terms and synonyms, it must be remembered that 

o I 


some who use this book wish to use it in connection with 
floras now long published, and also that it is impossible to 
reset such a book all through for each edition, so that it is 
necessary to insert a little "padding" on practically every 

Ecological, morphological, and other subjects have been 
dealt with by giving comparatively full accounts under se- 
lected genera. By referring, first to the subject, e.g. to 
Adventitious Buds, and then to the genera mentioned there, 
e.g. Begonia, Bryophyllum, &c., a fairly detailed account of 
each subject may be put together. In using the book, the 
subjects mentioned under a genus should always be looked up, 
to find other examples, e.g. under Aesculus look up Bud, Leaf, 
Leaf-mosaic, Cincinnus, Dichogamy, Change of Colour, >S:c. 
A book like this must obviously be a compilation, and 
I have to express my warmest thanks to Prof. A. Engler for 
permission to draw upon the vast mass of material con- 
tained in Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Owing to the 
war I have had no opportunity of asking him to renew this 
permission, and I trust that he will understand as much. 
When an article, as is frequently the case with the grouping 
of the sub-families within the family, is taken from the work 
mentioned, I have acknowledged the same by giving the 
name of the author. Otherwise I have in general: drawn 
upon the book for the genera accepted by its authors, for 
the number of species (which has been brought roughly up 
to date by aid of the Supplements to the Index Kewensis), 
and for their geographical distribution. 

The list of friends to whom I owe valuable suggestions, 
useful pieces of assistance, and the like, is very long, and I 
have no doubt that the following enumeration is incomplete, 
and must ask the pardon of those who do not figure in it, 
through some oversight on my part to note down their 
names at the moment the help was given. In the first place 


I wish to thank Sir David Prain and the staff at Kew, more 
especially Drs Hill, Stapf, and Rolfe, and Mr S. A. Skan, 
whose detailed knowledge of the library has been of the 
very greatest assistance in easing my labour. The writing 
of this edition has occupied very much time during the last 
five years, and I am particularly grateful to Prof. Seward, 
who placed at my disposal a table large enough to enable 
me to spread out 20 works of reference at once, and to 
Dr Moss and others of the Cambridge staff. The first two 
of the five years were spent in Rio de Janeiro and I am 
much indebted for help to my colleagues there, particu- 
larly the late Dr Alberto Lofgren and Dr Achilles de Faria 
Lisboa. I also owe many useful suggestions to my col- 
leagues in other Botanic Gardens, e.g. Prof. O. Ames at 
Harvard, Prof. I. B. Balfour at Edinburgh, Prof. N. L. Brit- 
ton at New York, Mr I. H. Burkill at Singapore, Prof. A. 
Engler at Berlin, Dr J. H. Maiden at Sydney, the late Dr 
H. H. W. Pearson at Cape Town, Dr Sargant at Jamaica Plain, 
and others. The late Dr E. A. N. Arber, and Mrs Arber, 
have laid me under very many obligations, and so have 
Sir Francis Darwin, Professors Bower, Farmer, Goebel, 
Goodale, Henry, Lang, Oliver, Scott, and Yapp, and Messrs 
Davie, Lock, Lynch, Riddle, Small, Smith, and many more. 
To my wife my obligations are unmeasured. Finally for the 
illustrations I have to thank Herr Engelrnann for permis- 
sion to copy some of the late Prof. Eichler's figures, and 
Dr Rendle for the use of some of those in his book on 



April 4, 1919. 




Abbreviations, Collecting, Concrescence, Description, Dimorphism, 
Literature, Nomenclature. 


Adnate, Adventitious, Aerenchyma, Aerial Root, Branch, Bud, Bulb, 
Bulbil, Cauli(fiory), Concrescence, Corm, Iso- (bilateral, &c.), Leaf, 
Phyllo-(taxy, &c.), Poly-(morphism), Rhizome, Stem, Stipule, Sym- 
( podium), Thorn, Tuber, Vegetative Reproduction. 


Aestivation, Aggregate fruit, Andro-(phore, &c.), Anemo-(philous), 
Aniso-(phylly), Apetalous, Apo-(gamy), Aril, Asymmetrical, Bee-flowers, 
Berry, Bract, Butterfly-flowers, Carrion-flowers, Cincinnus, Cleistogamy, 
Cyme, Dichasial cyme, Dichogamy, Dioecism, Dispersal, Endo- (sperm, 
&c.), Epi-(gynous, &c.), Floral, Flower, Fly-flowers, Fruit, Geo- 
(carpic), Gyno-(dioecism, &c.), Heter-(ostylism), Inflorescence, Loose- 
pollen mechanisms, Mixed inflorescence, Nectary, Nut, Ovary, Perianth, 
Pollination, Receptacle, Seed, Sex distribution, Stamen, Staminode, 

Nomenclature ; and cf. Key to Families at end of book. 



Beach-jungle, Chaparral, Climbing Plants, Dispersal, Epiphytes, Floral 
regions, Halo-(phytes), Insectivorous Plants, Mangroves, Myrme- 
cophilous Plants, Parasites, Pitcher Plants, Plant formations, Sapro- 
phytes, Water Plants, Xerophytes, Zones of Vegetation. 


Alcohol, Alkaloids, Arrowroot, Bamboo, Bark, Camphor, Cinnamon, 
Condiments, Cotton, Drugs, Dyes, Ebony, Economic Botany, Economic 
Products, Edible Products, Fibres, Fodder, Foliage Plants, Grass,. 
Gum, Guttapercha, Lac, Latex, Mucilage, Oil, Ornamental Plants,. 
Poison, Resins, Rubber, Sugar, Tan, Timber. 


The Index of English names, technical terms, &c., which formed 
Part III of former editions, is now incorporated with the list of 
genera, so that the work forms one dictionary from end to end, with 
the exception of the key to the families at the end of the book. 

All the genera of Bentham- Hooker, Engler-Prantl, and Linnaeus 
are now included, as well as all given in the Index Kewensis and 
Supplements (except many synonyms), together with a large number 
published since the last Supplement, and which, by the kindness of the 
Director of Ke\v, I have been able to obtain from the MS lists kept 
at Kew. The most recent of these are given in a little Supplement at 
the end of the main dictionary, and I hope to bring this supplement 
up to date at intervals during the currency of the edition, adding 
the entries later to the body of the work so far as the padding will 
allow. Besides the genera, all families and higher divisions are also 

The name of the genus is followed by the name of its author, often 
abbreviated, e.g. R.Br. (cf. Abbreviations), on the system explained 
under Nomenclature. The original description of the genus may be 
found by reference to the Index Kewensis. In the same way, the 
author is given after every species quoted, and the original description 
may be discovered from the same book. 

Owing to the continual changes that go on in many families and 
genera, names are often reduced to synonyms; a great number of such 
are given in this book, chiefly those used in well-known floras; e.g. 
Abildgaardia Vahl = Fimbristylis Vahl. Under some of the best known 
genera, e.g. Abies, a few specific synonyms have also been given, 
especially names frequently met with in gardens, and opposite to each 
of these is given the name now generally used; thus Abies alba Michx. 
must be looked for under Picea, Abies Douglasii Lindl. under Pseudo- 
tsuga, and so on. It is very difficult to decide when divergence of two 
forms is sufficient to entitle them to rank as genera, and this difficulty is 
the cause of much synonymy. A genus A is established by one author, 
and then it is discovered not to differ sufficiently from another genus/?, 
established by the same or another author, to remain as an independent 
genus. A is therefore merged in B and becomes a synonym. The 


species of A retain as far as possible their old specific Qames when 
placed in B. When an entry such as " Abildgaardia Vahl = Fimbri- 
stylis Vahl p.p." is found, it means that the genus Abildgaardia as 
established by Vahl is merged in his Fimbristylis. Many of the species 
change their names, but some retain their specific names, when the 
name is not already occupied. This latter case is often indicated by 
putting the name of the old genus in brackets after that of the new, thus, 
F. (A.) fulvescetts. In many cases the names of some of the genera 
thus merged in other genera are indicated thus: Axinandra Thw. (BH. 
inch Naxiandra Krasser) ; no attempt however has been made to give 
all such cases or a fraction of them, but only a few of the more im- 
portant. In particular those have been given where the genus as here 
defined differs from the definition in Engler and Prantl's Natiirliche 
Pfianzenfamilien or Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum by the 
inclusion and exclusion of other genera. 

The name of the genus is followed by that of the family to which it 
belongs, and after this is often a number (in brackets) indicating the 
section of the family, thus Acacia belongs to Subfamily I and Tribe 2 
of Leguminosae. The general plan upon which the book has been con- 
structed, and the necessity for condensation, render it essential, if the 
full advantage is to be derived from its use, that the student should refer 
to the family as well as the genus. There he will find the important 
general characters possessed by its members, and should examine the 
genus to see in what it agrees, and in what it disagrees, with these. 
A further reference to the classification given at the end of the article 
upon the family will point out the special characters to be looked for in 
the genus as a member of some particular sub-family or tribe. In this 
way a large amount of information about the particular plant in question 
may be obtained, and at the same time the student will get into the 
way of regarding plants not as so many independent and disconnected 
units, but as related members of one great whole. In this way too he 
will soon acquire an appreciation of the relative importance of the 
different characters in classification and will learn to recognise the 
approximate relationships of most plants after a brief inspection, or even 
at sight. 

The families are those given by Engler in his Syllabus and in Die 
natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, but sufficient reference is made to Bentham 
and Hooker's system of classification to enable any one who may prefer 
to use that system to do so. 

The name of the family is followed by a statement of the number of 


species in the genus, and its geographical distribution. The number, 
unless very small, is always only an approximation ; new research is 
always bringing new species to light, splitting up older ones, or com- 
bining two or more into one. This is all the information that is given 
about a very large number of the genera ; only when a genus presents 
some character of interest which is not common ta the order or group, 
is any particular mention made of it. The biological peculiarities of the 
most important genera are dealt with pretty fully, but much has been 
omitted. Thus in dealing with the pollination-methods of flowers a 
selection of important genera, illustrating the various methods, has been 
made for description ; so too with epiphytes, xerophytes, the morphology 
of parts, and so on. General discussions of all these subjects will be 
found under the title of the subject itself, and numerous examples are there 
quoted; these examples are mostly dealt with more fully. Numerous 
cross-references to other articles, e.g. Buds, Dichogamy, Fruit, Leaf, 
Parasite, Xerophyte, &c. (cf. Index), are made, and should be looked up. 

While in the morphology, &c. a selection has thus been made of 
genera for treatment, this is less the case with economic botany. This 
has been more fully treated, only a comparatively few genera being 
omitted. Space, however, has not permitted of a detailed description of 
economic products or the way in which they are obtained ; for this 
reference must be made to other works (see Literature). 

Turning now to the other articles upon the families, the same general 
principles apply to them. After the name of the family is given the 
order to which it belongs, marked EP. or BH. if necessary to distinguish 
between these systematists. This should be looked up in the key at the 
end ; this will show the families which are most nearly related to the 
one under consideration, and the characters that distinguish one from 
the other can be made out by comparison of their descriptions. The 
student should always endeavour to make out why a given family is 
classified in the position assigned to it. When the family as defined by 
Engler differs from that defined by Bentham and Hooker, as is so often 
the case, an attempt should be made to discover the reasons for the 

After the position of the family in the system follows the number of 
its genera and species, the morphology and natural history of its vegeta- 
tive and reproductive organs, its economic products, and finally, in the 
case of the more important families, its classification into sub-families 
and tribes, with the more important genera belonging to each. The 
student should work through this part and study as many of the genera 


as possible before leaving the family. This is easily managed in dealing 
with the outdoor collection in our botanic gardens. 

No particular attempt is made in the book to avoid technical terms. 
When a term or abbreviation is used that the reader does not understand 
he should look it up in the Dictionary, or under Abbreviations. 

To save space, in many cases in which there are several words in use 
beginning with the same prefix, e.g. aniso-, apo-, endo-, epi-, geo-, 
gyno-, halo-, heter-, iso-, phyllo-, poly-, sym-, xero-, &c., all are given 
under the heading of the prefix. If a word is looked up as a whole, there- 
fore, and not found, reference should be made to the prefix before saying 
that it is omitted from the Dictionary. 

Many genera are described by different authors under different 
spellings, and the most common and important of such cases are in- 
cluded ; thus Prunella is also described under Brunella, Eleocharis 
also under Heleocharis, c. 


A (fl. -class), fls. with freely exposed honey ; Acer, Euphorbia, 
Galitim, Hedera, Jlex, RhaniiiHs, Saxifrages, Umbelliferae. 

A-, An- (Gr. prefix), not. 

Aaron's Beard, Hypericum calycinuni L. 

AB (fl. -class), fls. with partially concealed honey; Caltha, Crataegus, 
Cruciferae, Fragaria, Poteniilla, Ranunculus, Scdtnit. 

Ab- (Lat. prefix), from; -axial (side), away from axis; -breviated, 
shortened; -errant, differing from type; -normal, varying from the 
rule; -original, strictly native; -ortion, imperfect or arrested 
development; -rupt, terminating suddenly; -sciss-layer, separation- 
layer for dropping the 1.; -sorption, taking up of fluids by r. or 1. 

Abaca, Manila hemp, Musa textilis Nee. 

Abasoloa La Llave. Compositae (5). i Mex. 

Abatia Ruiz et Pav. Flacourtiaceae (7) (Samydaceae, BH.}. 5 trop. 
S. Am. Fl. apet. L. opp. 

Abauria Becc. (Koompassia Maingay, EP.}. Legum. (n. 5). 2 Malaya. 

Abbevillea Berg. = Campomanesia Ruiz et Pav. p.p. (Myrt ). 

Abbottia F. Muell. Rubiaceae (n. 2). i N. Austr. 

Abbreviations. Descriptions of floral morphology are largely given in 
the terms of Floral Formulae, explained under that heading. When 
the name of a genus or family is repeated in the article dealing with it, 
it is represented by the initial letter only, e.g. A. for Abies. The 
name of a family is sometimes abbreviated by the omission of the 
terminal aceae, &c. ; e.g. Capparid., Compos. The term 'warm' is 
sometimes used instead of 'tropical and subtropical.' The expression 
BH. after a genus or family, &c., means "as defined by Bentham and 
Hooker in their Genera Plantaruni " ; EP. means "as defined by Engler 
and Prantl in the Pflanzenfamilien and Pflanzenreich" 

The following mathematical and other symbols are largely used : 

2 , hermaphrodite or O, annual 

tf , male or Q, biennial 

? , female 2+ , perennial 
( ) enclosing P, K, C, A, or G, h,, tree or shrub 

united or concrescent > , more than 

G superior, 'G inferior, ovary < ,.less than 

oo, indefinite, numerous , more or less than 

x , hybrid _L , at right angles to 

, section (of sp. or genus) ||, parallel to 

W. r 


= , equal to, merged in 

!, seen by author 

fi, micromillimetre, T(r V T mm. 

-ffi-, actinomorphic 

|- , zygomorphic 

The following abbreviations are largely employed in this and other 
botanical books : 

N. hemisphere 
S. hemisphere 
, Old World 
New World 












Am (erica) 




Ann(ual) (als, &c. ) 





Avchichl (amydeae) 










B(eatus), the late 








C(entral) (orolla) 

Cal(yx) (edonia) 





c.c., cubic centimetre 


Centr(al) (alblatt) 




cm., centimetre 

Collected by) (ection) 
Ed(ible) (ition) 

* Research Methods in Ecology. 







Evap (oration) 











Fl(ore) pl(eno), 

Fol(ium, a leaf) (iage) 
Hort(orum), of 






Ic(on), figure 

Inc(ertae) sed(is), of 
unknown position 

K, calyx 

Lat(in) (eral) 
L(oco) c(itato), in 

the place quoted 
mm., millimetre 

n(ovus), new 
N(atural) O(rder) 
Nat(ural) (uralised) 
Nat(iirlichen) Pfl(anz- 
Nom(en), a name 
Nud(us), naked, 

without description 
N(ew) Z(ealand) 
Ov(ule) (ary) 
Pecl(icel) (uncle) 

Pfl(anzen) R(eich) 
Poll(icaris), inch 
p(ro) p(arte), in part 

Rad(ix) (ical) 





S(eu), or 

Sandw(ich Is.) 


Sem(en), a seed 





Sicc(us), dry 















T(abula), a figure 

T(omus), a volume 

Tab(ula), a figure 












V(idi) S(iccam), 

dry specimen seen 
V(idi) V(ivam), 

living specimen seen 
W(est) I(ndies) 

Of course many of these abbreviations also signify the adjectival and 

I 2 


other forms of the word, e.g. albumen, albuminous, &c.; character, 
characterised, characteristic, &c. 

The following abbreviations of authors' names are in common use in 
giving the authority for genera or species : 



























B(entham and) 





















Br(aun, own) 






C.DC., Casimir 

de Candolle 


















DC., A. P. de 

Candolle (17/8- 


De Not(aris) 







































G rah (am) 





t Genera Plantarum, 186283. 

* Prodromus Theatri Botanici, 1620. 

J Ibid. 1836-40. 

Natiirlicken PJlanzenfamilien, 1889-97; Das Pflanzenreich, i9oo-(in progress). 






Hack (el) 


























Hook. f(ilius) * 


Hort(orum), of 


& K(unth) 


K(un)tze, O. 

L. f(ilius) 

Loud (on) 



















Mihi, of me 















Muell, F(erd. v.) 






























Ponted (era) 






R(obert) Br(own) 

























* SeeB. & H. 

t The starting point of modern nomenclature is the publication in 1753 of liis 
Species Plantarutn. 

\ Bachmann, 1652 1723. 






Tourn (efort) 










Warm (ing) 



















St Hil(aire) 









tanus) 1520-90 















Thorns (on) 










































Abdominea J. J. Smith. Orchidaceae (n. 20). i Java. 

Abdra Greene (Draba L. p.p.). Cruciferae (4). i N. Am. 

Abele tree, Popnlus alba L. 

AbeliaR.Br. (Linnaea Gronov. p.p. EP.). Caprifoliaceae (3). 15 As., 
Mex. Sta. 4, didynamous. 

Abelmoscbus Medic. (Hibiscus L. p.p.). Malv. 12 trop. , Austr. 

Aberemoa Aubl. (Ditguetia St. Hil.). Anonaceae (i). 30 trop. Am. 

Aberia Hochst. (Dotyalis E. Mey. p.p. EP.}. Flacourtiaceae (4). 
(Bixineae, BH.). 12 Afr., Ceylon. A. caffra Harv. et Sond. (Ivei 
apple), and others, eel. fr. 

Abies (Tourn.) L. Synonymy: A. alba Michx. = Picea a.; do. Mill.= 
A. pectinata DC.; A. americana Mill. = Tsuga canadensis; A. 
californica Hort. = Pseudotsuga Douglasii; A. canadensis Michx. = 
Tsuga c.; do. Mill. = Picea alba; A. Cedrus Poir. =Cedrus Libani; 
A. Deodara Lindl. =C. D.; A. Douglasii Lindl. = Pseudotsuga D.; 
A. excelsh Link = A. pectinata; do. Poir. = Picea e. ; A. Kaempferi 
Lindl. = Pseudolarix K. ; A. Larix Poir. = Larix europaea; A. 
iiiontana Nym. = Picea excelsa; A. miicronata Rafin. = Pseudotsuga 
Douglasii; A.nigra Desf. or Duroi = Picea n. ; A. Omorika Nym. = 
Picea O.; A. orientalis Poir. = Picea o. ; A. pectinata Poir. = 
Picea rubra; A. Picea Lindl. = A. pectinata DC.; do. Mill. = Picea 
excelsa; A. rubra Poir. = Picea r. ; A. vulgaris Poir. = A. pectinata. 
Coniferae (Pinaceae, 2; see C. for generic characters). 24 N. temp. 

The firs are evergreen trees with needle 1. borne directly on the stems. 


No short shoots. On the main stem the symmetry is radial, whilst on 

the horizontal branches the 1. twist so as to get their surfaces all much 

in one plane. If the top bud or leader be destroyed, however, a branch 

bud below it takes up the vertical growth and radial symmetry. Cones 

large, arranged much like Finns; ? often brightly coloured, though 

wind-fertilised. The carpel-scales are large and appear on the outside of 

the cone between the ovuliferous scales. The cone ripens in one year. 
A. pectinata DC. (silver-fir, Mts. ofS. Eur.) yields a valuable wood, 

'Strasburg' turpentine, &c. A. balsamea Mill. (E. N. Am., balsam 

fir) yields the turpentine known as Canada balsam. Many others yield 

useful timbers and resins. Handsome trees; commonly cult, are A. 

concolor Lindl. et Gord. (N. W. Am.), A.firma Sieb. et Zucc. (Japan), 

A. nobilis Lindl. (N. W. Am.), A. Nordmanniana Spach (Caucasus), 

A. Pinsapo Boiss. (Spain), A. Webbiana Lindl. (Himal.). 

Abietineae, a tribe ofConiferae Pinaceae. 

Abildgaardia Vahl. = Fimbristylis Vahl p.p. (Cyper.). 

Abiogenesis, spontaneous generation. 

Abobra Naud. Cucurbitaceae (3). t temp. S. Am. 

Abola Lindl Orchidaceae (n. 19). i Colombia. 

Abolboda Humb. et Bonpl. Xyridaceae. 10 S. Am. 

Abortion, imperfect or arrested development. 

Abroma Jacq. Sterculiaceae. 10 trop. As. to Austr. A. augusta L. 
(Indomal.) bark yields a good fibre. 

Abroma Juss. Nyctaginaceae. 30 N. Am. Anthocarp winged. 

Abrophyllum Hook. f. Saxifragaceae (v). i E. Austr. 

Abrotanella Cass. Compositae (7). 15 Rodriguez, Tierra del Fuego, 
Austr., N.Z., Auckland Is. 

Abrotanum (Tourn.) L.= Artemisia Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 

Abrus L. Leguminosae (in. 9). 6 trop. A . precatorius L. has hard 
red seeds with black tips (crab's eyes), strung into necklaces, 
rosaries, &c., and used as weights (rati) in India (cf. Adenanthera). 
See Keiv Bull. 1890, p. i (Weather Plant). The roots are used in 
India as Indian liquorice. 

Absinthe, Artemisia. 

Absinthium Tourn. ex L. = Artemisia Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 

Absolmsia O. Ktze. (Astrostemma p.p.Bff.). Asclepi.(ii. i). i Borneo. 

Abundance |CI.), the total number of individuals in an area. 

Abuta (Barr.) Aubl. Menispermaceae. totrop. S. Am. A.rufescens 
Aubl. (Guiana) yields white Pareira root. 

Abutilon Tourn. Malvaceae (2). 100 trop. and sub-trop. Noepicalyx. 
Fl. mech. like Malva silvestris, but some are self-sterile; the sta. do 
not move down, and the styles emerge through the anther-mass. Many 
visited by humming-birds. A. Avicennae Gaertn. cult, in China for 
fibre China jute. 

Abyssinian banana, Musa Ensete}. F. Gmel.; primrose, Primula. 

Acacallis Lindl. (Aganisia Lindl. EP.). Orchid, (n. 13). i N. Brazil. 

Acacia (Tourn.) L. Leguminosae (r. i). 500 trop. and sub-trop., 
mostly trees (wattles); typical leaf-form bipinnate with oo leaflets and 
small scaly slips. About 300 sp., forming the Phyllodineae (chiefly 
in Austr., where they are char., and Polynes.), have simple leaf- 
like phyllodes, i.e. petioles flattened so as to place their surfaces 


vertically this exposes less surface to radiation. A mere inspection, 
though it shows the phyllode to he a leaf-structure (it has an axillary 
bud), does not show that it is not a 1. turned edgewise, though it 
shows no twist at the base. Occasionally however there are reversions 
to type (i.e. to the ancestral form) on the plant, some phyllodes 
occurring with leaf-blades of the ordinary bipinnate type. This is 
still better seen in germinating seedlings. The first 1. are typical 
bipinnate 1., followed by others with slightly flattened stalks and less 
blade, and so on, until finally only phyllodes are produced. In A. 
alata R.Br. and others, the phyllodes are decurrent on the stem, like 
the 1. of thistles. In many the slips, are repres. by large thorns, 
swollen at the base. In A. spkaerocephala Cham, et Schlecht. (Cent. 
Am.), the thorns are inhabited by colonies of ants, which bore into 
them and clear out the internal tissue. The ants live on the A. and 
are fed by it. Extrafl. nectaries occur on the petioles, and yellow 
sausage-shaped food-bodies on the tips of the leaflets. These consist of 
parenchymatous cells containing food -st lifts, and are eaten by the ants. 
If attempt be made to interfere with the tree the ants rush out. (Cf. 
Cecropia, and see Nature, Aug. 1893, for an account of the leaf- 
cutting ants: and cf. Schimper, Plant Geogr. p. 140. This was the 
first case of myrmecophily (symbiosis with ants) discovered; see 
Belt's Naturalist in Nicaragua.) Other sp. are myrmecophilous also. 
A few are twiners, others hook-climbers. Most are xerophytes, 
often forming char, features in vegetation and scenery, e.g. the babul 
(A. arabica Willd.) with its low, spreading habit, is almost the only 
tree in many parts of the dry plains of India, and others are common 
in S. Afr. &c. In Austr. (esp. S. Austr.) the A. take a great part in 
the formation of the scrub, a concourse of shrubby plants of many 
genera, which covers the almost waterless country with a waste of veg. 
about 6 10 feet high, of a general bluish green effect, and with few 
herbs or grasses beneath. 

The fl. (diagram, see order) has oo long sta. , affording little pro- 
tection to the pollen. In A. hotnalophylla A. Cunn. (S. E. Austr.; 
Myall) the seed hangs out on a long red funicle. 

Many valuable products. A. Senegal Willd. (Soudan) yields the 
best gum-arabic; the gum exudes from the branches principally 
during the prevalence of the dry desert winds. Other sp. yield 
inferior qualities. A. catechu Willd. (E. Ind.) yields catechu orcutch 
(used in tanning), by digestion of the wood in hot water. With this 
the true khaki cloth is dyed and shrunk. A. decnrrens Willd. (Austr. ; 
black wattle) yields good tan bark; inferior barks from A. pycnantha 
Benth. (S. E. Austr.; golden wattle), A. dealbata Link (Austr.; 
silver wattle) &c. That of A. arabica Willd. is largely used in 
India. The wood of many is valuable, esp. Australian black-wood, 
A. mclanoxylon R.Br. Many have sweetly scented fls. ; those of 
A. Farmsiam Willd. (trop.) are the Cassie flowers of perfumery. 
A. annata R.Br. (temp. Austr.; kangaroo thorn), A. horrida Willd. 
(S. Afr.) &C. form good hedges or sandbinders. 

Acacia, false, Robinia Pseud-acacia L. 

Acaena L. Rosaceae (in. 9). 80 =fc, Mex., Calif., Polynes. Fr. 
hooked. Some sp. bud from junction of leaf and stalk. 


Acajou (W. I.), Guarea trichilioides L. 

Acaju, Cashew, Anacardium occidental L. 

Acalypha L. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). 300 trop. , S. Afr. Anther 
lobes twisted ; stigmas branched. Several cult, for varieg. 1. 

Acampe Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 16). 12 Indomal., China, (Afr. BH.). 

Acamptocladus Nash (Eragrostis Host, p^p.). Gramin. (n). i S.W. 

Acamptopappus A. Gray ( Comp. (3). 2 N. Am. 

Acanthaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Sympet. Tubiflorae). 140 gen., 
2000 sp., esp. trop. but also Medit., U.S., Austr. 4 chief centres 
of distr. : Indomalaya, char, by Strobilanthes and Andrographidae, 
Afr. (Thunbergia and Barleria), Braz. (Mendoncia and Ruellia), and 
Centr. Am. (Aphelandreae and Odontonema). Many biological types 
climbing plants, xerophytes, marsh plants, &c. and much variety 
in habit. Very many in. damp places in trop. forests. Trees are rare ; 
most are shrubs or herbs with opp., usu. decussate and entire, exstip. 1., 
usu. thin. Cystoliths, visible as streaks or protuberances, are usu. 
common on 1. and stems. Infl. most commonly a dich. cyme, in its 
ultimate branchings tending to monoch., and frequently condensed in 
the leaf-axils as in Labiatae. Racemose infls. also occur, and sol. fl. 
are common. Bracts and bracteoles usu. present, o'ften coloured; the 
latter frequently large, enclosing the fl. 

Fl. $, hypog., zygom., usu. with nectariferous disc below ov. 
K (5 4), C (54), commonly two-lipped (upper lip sometimes not 
developed, e.g. in Acanthus). A rarely 5, usu. 4 or 2 epipet., usu. 
exserted ; i 3 stds. frequently present ; anthers often with one lobe 
smaller than the other, or abortive; connective often long (rf. Salvia). 
The pollen exhibits great variety of patterns (see Nat. Pfl.); these 
are generally constant in the genus, and may be used in classification. 
G (2), 2-loc. with axile plac. each with 2 oo usu. anatr. ov. in two 
rows. Style usu. long with two stigmas, the post, often smaller. The 
general arrangement of the fl. for visits of insects, protection of pollen, 
&c. is like Labiatae or Scrophulariaceae. 

Fr. a bi-loc. caps, (with few exceptions), usu.. stalked, loculic. 
to the very base. Seeds usu. exalb. Their modes of distribution are 
interesting (see Nat. Pji.). The capsules of iv explode and the 
seeds are thrown out, largely by the aid of peculiar hook-like out- 
growths from their stalks (retinacula or jacnlators). Many have 
superficial scales and hairs which on wetting become mucilaginous 
(cf. Linum, Collomia), e.g. Crossandra, Ruellia, Blepharis. 
Classification and chief genera (after Lindau) : 

I. NELSONIOIDEAE (Ovules oo ; jaculators papilla- 

shaped) : Ebermaiera, Nelsonia. 

II. MENDONCIOIDEAE (Ov. 4, seeds not more than 2. 

Drupe; no jac.): Mendoncia. 

III. THUVBERGIOIDEAE (Ov. 4 . Capsule; jac. papilla- 

like): Thunbergia. 

IV. ACANTHI01DEAE (Ov. 2 co . Capsule; jac. hook- 

shaped) : 

A. Contortae (cor. conv., or never ascendingly imbr.): 
Strobilanthes, Ruellia, Eranthemum, Barleria. 


B. Imbricatae (cor. ascendingly imbr., or with no 
upper lip) : Blepharis, Acanthus, Crossandra, 
Aphelandra, Andrographis, Dicliptera, Fittonia, 
Odontonema, Justicia, Beloperone. 

Acantbella Hook. f. Melastomaceae (i). i Orinoco valley. 
Acantbo- (Gr. prefix), thorny; -carpous. spiny-fruited. 
Acantbobotrya Eckl. et Zeyh. Lebeckia Thunb. p.p. (Legum.). 
Acantbocardamum Thell. (Lepidium p.p. BH.}. Crucif. (2). i Persia. 
Acanthocarpus Lehm. Liliaceae (in). 3 S.W. Austr. (June. BH.} 
Acantbocepbalus Kar. et Kir. Compositae (13). 2 W. As. 
Acantbocereus Britton et Rose (Cereus p.p.)- Cact. (in. i). i S. Am. 
Acantbochiton Torr. Amarantaceae (2). i Texas, Arizona. 
Acantbocladus Kl. (Polygala L. p.p. EP.}. Polygalaceae. 3 S. Am. 
Acantbococos Barb. Rodr. (Cocos L. p.p.). Palmae (iv. 2). i Paraguay. 
Acantbodium Uelile = Blepharis Juss. (Acanth.). 
Acantbolepis Less. Compositae (11). r W. As. 
Acantbolimon Boiss. Plumbaginaceae. 80 E. Meclit., desert pi. 
Acanthomintba A. Gray. Labiatae (vi). 2 Calif. 
Acantbonema Hook. f. Gesneriaceae (i). i W. Afr. 
Acantbonycbia Rohrb. (Pentacaena Bartl.). Caryophyll. (i. 4). 5 Pac. Am. 
Acantbopale C. B. Clarke. Acanth. (iv. A). 7 trop. Afr. (Malaya?). 
Acantbopanax Miq. Araliaceae. 25 Ind. , Chi., Japan. 
Acantbopbippium Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 9). 7 Indomal. The 

axial outgrowth from the base of the column, common in O., is here 

very great and bends first downwards, then up, removing the insertion 

of the lateral sepals and labellum to a distance from the column. 
Acantbopboenix H. Wendl. Palmae (iv. t). 3 Mascarenes. 
Acantbopbyllum C. A. Mey. Caryophyllaceae (n. 2). 25 W. As., 

Siberia. Mostly desert xerophytes with prickly leaves. 
Acantbopsis Harv. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 78. Afr. 
Acantborbiza H. Wendl. Palmae (i. 2). 4 trop. Am. The adv. roots 

from the lowest nodes grow normally downwards, but those from the 

nodes above develope into thorny branches. 

Acantboscypbus Small (Oxytheca Nutt. p.p.). Polygon, (i. i). i N. Am. 
Acantbosicyos Welw. Cucurbitaceae (3). i S.W. Afr., A. horrida 

Welw., the Narras, a remarkable plant growing on sand dunes (cf. 

Welwitschia). The thick root is very long (up to 40 ft.). Above 
> ground is a thorny shrub, with long tendrils; the thorns are modified 

twigs. (See Welwitsch, Trans. Linn. Soc. 27, 1869.) 
Acantbospermum Schrank. Compositae (5). 5 trop. Am., Galapagos. 
Acantbospbaera Warb. Moraceae (il). i Amazon valley. 
Acantbostacbys Link, Klotzsch, et Otto (Ananas Tourn. p.p.). 

Bromeliaceae (4). i (A. strobilacea L. K. et O.) Brazil. 
Acantbosyris Griseb. Santalaceae. 3 temp. S. Am. Furniture wood. 
Acanthotbamnus T. S. Brandegee. Celastraceae. i Mex. 
Acantbotreculia Engl. Moraceae (n). i Cameroons. 
Acantbura Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i Mattogrosso. 
Acantbus Tourn. ex L. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 25 trop. and sub-trop., 

As., Afr., Eur., mostly xero. with thorny 1. (those of A. spinosus L. 

furnished, it is supposed, the pattern for the decoration of the capitals 

of Corinthian columns). A. ilicifolhis L. is part of the palaeotrop. 

ACER ii 

mangrove (g.v.) veg. Fl. a large bee-fl.; there is no upper lip to the 
C, and the protection of the pollen, &c. is undertaken by the K. The 
anthers form a box by fitting closely together at the sides, and shed 
their pollen sideways into it, where it is held by hairs till an insect 
probing for honey forces the filaments of the sta. apart and receives 
a shower of pollen on its head (loose-pollen mechanism, cf. many 
Scrophulariaceae, Ericaceae, &c.). In the young flr. the style is 
behind the anthers, later on it bends down so as to touch a visiting 
insect. The fr. explodes ; large 'jaculators' on the seeds. 

Acarna All. = Atractylis L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Acarodomatia, cavities mite inhabited, Anamirta, Fraxinus, Parameria. 

Acaulescent, almost stemless; acaulis (Lat. ), without visible stem. 

Accessory branch, bud, supernumerary in same axil, see Buds ; organs 
of flower, the perianth. 

Acclimatisation, adaptation to new climate. 

Accrescent, enlarged and persistent. 

Accumbent, see Cruciferae. 

Aceituna. Symplocos. 

Acentra Phil. (Hybanthits Jacq. p.p. EP.) Violaceae. r Chili. 

Acer (Tourn.) L. Aceraceae (Sapind. BH. ). 1 1 5 N. temp., esp. in hill 
districts (A. psendoflafanits L., sycamore, and A. campestris L. , 
maple, in Brit., the latter native) and trop. nits.; many in China and 
Japan. Trees and shrubs, with opp. exstip. 1., deciduous or ever- 
green. L. often simple entire, more commonly 3- or 5-lobed, occa- 
sionally cpd. One may go through a collection of A. in an herbarium 
or elsewhere, comparing the 1. as to degree of development of the 
drip-tips (acum. apices to easily wetted 1., from which the water drips 
off rapidly after a shower, cf. Ficus) noting the kind of climate from 
which each has come. There is a correlation between length of tip 
and wetness of climate. 

Large winter buds, covered by scale 1. In many sp. transitional 
forms may be seen as the bud elongates in spring, between the scales 
and the green 1., showing that the scale = not the whole 1, but 
the leaf base. In the Negundo there are no scales, but the bud is 
protected by the base of the petiole of the 1. in whose axil it arises. 

The 1. commonly exhibit varnish-like smears, of sticky consistence, 
known as honey-dew, the excretion of aphides which live on the 1.; 
the insect bores into the tissues, sucks their juices, and ejects a drop 
of honey-dew on an average once in half-an-hour. In passing under 
a tree infested with aphides one may sometimes feel the drops falling 
like a fine rain (see Pithecolobium). The fluid is rich in sugar. When 
the dew falls the hygroscopic honey-dew takes it up and spreads over 
the 1. ; then later in the day evap. reduces it to a varnish on the 
surface. Many other trees exhibit this phenomenon, e.g. lime, beech, 
oak (Btisgen, Der Honigthau, Jena). 

Fls. in racemes, sometimes contracted to corymbs or umbels, 
reg., polyg., not conspic. ; formula usu. KS, C5, A4 + 4, G (2). 
Apetaly in some. 3 cpls. are frequent, esp. in the end fl. of a raceme. 
5 fls. protandrous ; honey freely exposed on the disc (fl. -class A), 
available to insects of all kinds. Fr. a samara. In germination, the 
long green cotyledons come above the soil almost at once. 

12 ACER 

A. saccharum Marshall (A. saccharimim Wangenh.) and others 
of the E. U.S. yield maple sugar (i 4 Ih. a tree) obtained by boring 
holes in February and March and collecting and evaporating the juice. 
Many yield good timber and charcoal. A number of Japanese sp., 
with prettily shaped or varieg. 1., cult, as orn. shrubs. 

Aceraceae (Sapind. p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Sapindales). i gen. 
(Acer, Dipteronia) with 120 sp. N. temp, and trop. mts. Trees 
and shrubs; 1. opp., petiolate, exstip., simple entire or more often 
palmately or pinnately lobed or cpd. Infl. racemose, corymbose, 
or fasciculate. Fls. reg., andromonoec., androdioec., dioec., &c., 
5-4-merous, usu. dichlam. Disc annular or lobed or reduced to teeth, 
rarely absent. A 4 ro, usu. 8, hypog., perig., or on disc; $ fir. 
with rudimentary G. G (2), 2-loc., lat. compressed ; styles 2, free or 
joined below; ov. 2 in each loc., orthotr. to anatr., with dorsal raphe. 
Fr. of 2 samaras, separating when ripe. Seeds usu. solitary, exalb., 
the cotyledons irreg. folded. Many yi^ld good timber, sugar, &c. 
(cf. Acer). Largely represented in the Tertiary. 

Aceranthus Morr. et Decne. (Epimedium Tourn. EP.}. Berberidaceae. 
3 Chi., Jap. 

Aceras R.Br. Orchidaceae (n. i). i Eur. (incl. Brit.), Medit, A. 
anthropophora R.Br., the man-orchis. Like Orchis. 

Acerates Ell. = Gomphocarpus R. Br. p.p. (Asclepiad.). 

Aceriphyllum Engl. Saxifragaceae (i). i N. China. 

Acerose, needle-shaped. 

Acetabuliform, like a shallow saucer. 

Acetosa Tourn. ex Mill. = Rumex Linn. (Polygon.). 

Acetosella Moehr. =Oxalis Linn. (Oxalid.). 

-aceus (Lat. suffix), like. 

Achaenipodium T. S. Brandegee. Compositae (=j). i Mex. 

Achaetogeron A. Gray. Compositae (3). 10 Mex., Calif. 

Achantia A. Chevalier. Sterculiaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Acharia Thunb. Achariaceae. i S. Afr. 

Achariaceae (Passifloraceae, p.p. BH.}. Dicot. (Archichl. Parietales). 
3 gen., 3 sp. S. Afr. Herbs or undershrubs with reg. monoec. fl. 
k;s 5, C (35), A 35 epipet., G (35) with oo ov. on parietal plac. 
Caps. Endosp. 

Acharitea Benth. Verbenaceae (3). 2 Madag. 

Achatocarpus Triana. Phytolaccaceae (Amarant. BH.}. 10 trop. Am. 

Achene, a one-seeded small dry indehiscent fruit (q.v.) of i carpel. 

Achetaria Cham, et Schlecht. = Beyrichia Cham. (Scrophular.). 

AchiUea L. Compositae (7). 115 N. temp. A. Millefoliiun L. 
(yarrow or milfoil) and A. Ptarmica L. (sneezewort) in Brit. 

AcMlus Hemsl. Zingiberaceae (i). i Siam. No stds. Unisex, fl. 

Achimenes P.Br. Gesneraceae (n). 25 trop. Am., often cult. 

Achlaena Griseb. Gramineae (6). i Cuba. 

Achlamydeous, without a perianth (q.v.}. 

Achlamydosporeae (BH.}. The sixth series of Monochlamydeae. 

Achlys DC. Berberidaceae. 2 Japan and Pacif. N. Am. The 
perianth aborts early in development. 

Achneria Munro. Gramineae (9). 8 S. and trop. Afr. 

Ach.nopn.ora F. Muell. Compositae (3). i Austr. 


Achradotypus Baill. Sapotaceae (i). 4 New Cal. 

Achras L. Sapotaceae (i). i W. Ind., trop. Am., A. Sapota L., cult. 

for ed. fr. (Sapodilla plum). The coagulated resinous latex (chicle 

gum) is used in U.S. for chewing-gum, statuettes, &c. 
AcliratiJiis O. Ktze. = Arachnites Phil. (Burmann.). 
Achroantries Raf. (Microstylis'N.vM. p.p. BH.). Orchid, (n. 4). i N. Am. 
Achudemia Blume. Urticaceae (2). 2 Java, Japan (?). 
Achyrachaena Schau. Compositae (5). i N.W. U.S. ^ Pappus of 

broad, silvery scales; fruit-heads used as 'everlastings.' 
Achyrantries L. Amarantaceae (2). 15 trop. and sub-trop. 
AcLyrocline Less. Compositae (4). 25 Madag., trop. Afr. and Am. 
Achyronia Royen ex L. = Aspalathus L. (Legumin.). 
Achyronychia Torr. et A. Gray. Caryophyll. (i. 4) (Illecebr. BH.}. 

3 S.W. U.S., Mex. 

Achyropappus H. B. et K. Schkuhria Roth. p.p. (Compos.). 
Achyrophorus Adans. = Hypochaeris Linn. p.p. (Compos.). 
Achyropsis Benth. et Hook. f. (AchyrantkesL. p.p. EP.). Amarant. (2). 

3 Afr - 
Aciiyrospermum Blume. Labiatae (vi). 12 trop. Afr. to Malay Is. 

Achyrosteprms Kze. Compositae (inc. sed. ). Nomen. 

Achyrothalamus O. Hoffm. Compositae (12). 2 E. trop. Afr. 

Aciachne Benth. Gramineae (8). i trop. S. Am. 

Acianthus R.Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 12 Austr., N.Z., New Caled. 

Acicalyptus A. Gray. Myrtaceae (i). 3 Fiji (New Cal.?). 

Acicarpha Juss. Calyceraceae. 5 S. Am. 

Acicular, needle-shaped. 

Acidanthera Hochst. Iridaceae (ill). 16 trop. and S. Afr. Cult. 

Acidocroton Griseb. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 3). i Cuba. 

Acidoton Sw. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 3 W. I. 

Acies, the edge. 

Acinaciform, scimitar-shaped. 

Acineta Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 13). 10 Cent. Am., Mexico. An axial 

outgrowth carries out 2 sep. and the labellum (attached to the column). 
Acinodendron O. Ktze. (-drum L. ,#//.) = Miconia Ruiz et Pav. 


Acinos Rupp., Moench. = Calamintha Lam. (Labiat.). 
Acioa Aubl. (Conepia BH.}. Ros. (vi. b). i N.E. S. Am. with ed. 

oily seed, 20 trop. Afr. 

Aciotis D. Don. Melastomaceae (i). 30 trop. Am., W. Ind. 
Aciphylla Forst. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 25 Austr., N.Z. 
Acis Salisb. = Leucojum L. (Amaryllid.). 

Acisanthera P.Br. Melastomaceae (i). 20 trop. Am., W.Ind. 
Ackama A. Cunn. Cunoniaceae (Saxifrag. BH.}. 2 N. Z., E. Austr., 

New Guinea. 

Acleisantlies A. Gray. Nyctaginaceae. 8 Mex., Texas. 
Aclisia E. Mey. =Pollia Thunb. p.p. (Commelin.). 
Acmadenia Bartl. et Wendl. f. Rutaceae (i). 15 S. Afr. 
Acmantriera Griseb. Malpighiaceae (n). 2 S. Am. 
Acmella Rich. = Spilanthes Jacq. (Compos.). 
Aemena DC. = Eugenia L. p.p. (ff.) = Syzygium Gaertn. p.p. 
Acmopyle Pilger {Dacrydium Soland. p.p.). Taxaceae. i New Cal. 


Acnida L. Amarantaceae (2). 3 U.S. Dioecious. 
Acnlstus Schott. Solanaceae (2)'. 20 trop. Am. 
Acoelorrhaphe H. Wendl. Palmaceae (i. 2). Nomen. 
Acokanthera G. Don. Apocynaceae (i. i). 3 Abyss., S. Afr., A. 

venenata G. Don, root and wood supplies Zulu arrow-poison ' 
Acom (W.I.), Dioscorea bulbifera L. 
Acomastylis Greene (Potentilla et Geum p.p.). Rosac. (in. 2). s N. 


Acomis F. Muell. Compositae (4). 3 Austr. 

Acomosperma K. Schum. Asclepiadaceae(nomen). i Amazon valley. 
Aconceveibum Miq. Euphorbiaceae (B. n). i Java. 
Aconite, Aconitin, Aconitum ; winter-, Eranthis hyemalis Salisb. 
Aconitum Tourn. ex L. Ranunculaceae (2). 80 N. temp. A. 
Napcllns L. (aconite, monkshood, wolf's bane) in Brit. Fls. in 
racemes (see order). The post, sepal forms a large hood, enclosing 
the two 'petals' which are repres. by nectaries on long stalks. Fl. 
protandrous, adapted, by its structure and its blue colour, to bees. 
The distribution of A. largely coincides with that of the humble-bee 
(Bombus). Humble-bees often rob the flr. of its honey by biting 
through the hood. Fr. of follicles which open so far as to expose the 
seeds, which only escape when shaken by wind or otherwise (censer- 
mechanism}. All are poisonous; the tuberous roots contain alkaloids 
of the aconitin group (used in medicine). A. ferox Wall (root) 
furnishes the Bikh poison of Nepal. 
Acontias Schott = Xanthosoma Schott, p.p. (Arac.). 
Acophorum Gaudich. Gramineae. Nomen nudum. 
Acorellus Palla ex Kneuck (Cyperus L. p.p.). Cyper. (i). 3 S. Eur., 

Acoridium Nees et Meyen (Ceratoslylis Blume, Dendrochilum Blume). 

Orchidaceae (n. 3). 45 Indomal. 
Acorn, Qtiercus. 

Acorus L. Araceae (i). 2 N. temp., S.E. As. A. Calamus L. (sweet 
flag) Brit. Rhiz. sympodial; 1. isobil. Fl. $ , protog., with P. Used 
in flavouring. 

Acotyledones (Jussieu) = Cryptogamae. 
Acourtia D. Don=Perezia Lag. (Compositae). 
Acquired characters, non-hereditary, arising during life. 
Acradenia Kipp. Rutaceae (i). i Tasm. 
Acrandra Berg. (Campomanesia Ruiz et Pav. BH.}. Myrtaceae (i. i). 

2 S. trop. Braz. 

Acranthera Arn. Rubiaceae (i. 7). 9 Indomal. 
Acranthous, cf. Orchidaceae. 
Acridocarpus Guill. et Perr. Malpighiaceae (i). 20 Afr., Madag., 


Acriopsis Reinw. Orchidaceae (n. 1 6). 10 E. Indomal. 
Acrista O. F. Cook. Palmae (iv. i). i Porto Rico. 
Acritochaete Pilger. Gramineae (5). i Kilimanjaro. 
Acriulus Ridl. Cyperaceae (n). 2 Madag., Angola. 
Aero- (Gr. pref.), apical; -carpous, with terminal fruit; -gamae = 
Porogamae; see Chalazogamae ; -gens, ferns and mosses; -nychius 
(Lat.), curved like a claw; -petal, produced successively towards 


the apex; -phytium (Cl.), an alpine-plant-formation ; -scopic, facing 

the apex ; -spire, plumule; -tonic, cf. Orchidaceae. 
Acrobotrys K. Schum. et Krause. Rubiaceae(i. 3). i Colombia. 
Acrocarpidium Miq. = Peperomia Ruiz et Pav. (Piper.). 
Acrocarpus Wight ex Am. Leguminosae (n. 7). 3 Indomal. 
Acrocephalus Benth. Labiatae (vn). 40 Malay Arch, to trop. Afr. 
Acrochaene Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 16). I Sikkim. 
Acroclinium A. Gray=Helipterum DC. p.p. (Comp.). 
Acrocoelium Baill. Icacinaceae (Olacineae, Bff.). i Congo. 
Acrocomia Mart. Palmae (iv. 2). 10 trop. Am., W. Ind. 
Acrodiclidium Nees. Lauraceae (n). 20 trop. Am. , W. I. A. Puchury 

Mez furnishes the ed. puchurim nuts. 
Acroglochin Schrad. Chenopodiaceae (A). i N. India, China. 

The fruit mass is prickly, many of the twigs not ending in fls. 
Acrolasia Presl. (Menfzelia L.). Loasaceae. 25 N. Am. 
Acrolopnia Pfitz. (Eulophia R. Br. p.p.). Orchidaceae (n. 5). 9 S. Afr. 
Acronychia Forst. Rutaceae (iv). 20 trop. As., Austr. 
Acropera Lindl. = Gongora Ruiz et Pav. p.p. (Orchid.). 
Acrophorus Presl. Polypodiaceae. i Indomal. 

Acrophyllum Benth. Cunoniaceae (Saxifrag. BH.). i New S. Wales. 
Acropogon Schlechter. Sterculiaceae. 3 New Cal. 
Acrosanthes Eckl. et Zeyh. Aizoaceae (n). 5 S. Afr. 
Acrosepalum Pierre (Ancistrocarpus Oliv. EP.). Tiliaceae. i trop. Afr. 
Acrospira Welw. (Dcbesia O. Ktze. EP.). Liliaceae (in). 3 Angola. 
Acrostemon Klotzsch (Eretitia D. Don, p.p.). Ericaceae (i v. 2). 9 S. Afr. 
Acrostichum L. Polypodiaceae. 4 trop. A. aureum L. is common on 

trop. coasts. 

Acrostylia Frappier. Orchidaceae (n. i). i Reunion. 
Acrotome Benth. Labiatae (vi. i). 58. and trop. Afr. 
Acrotrema jack. Dilleniaceae. 10 Indomal. 
Acrotriche R. Br. Epacridaceae (3). 8 temp. Austr. 
Acrymia Prain. Labiatae (i). i Malay Penin. 
Actad (Cl.), plant of a rocky sea-shore. 
Actaea (Tourn.) L. (Z>//.excl. Cirnicifuga L.). Ranunculaceae (2). 10 N. 

temp. A. spicata L. (bane-berry or herb-christopher), in Brit. Fls. 

in racemes (cf. Aconitum). Cpl. i. Berry. 

Actephila Blume. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 10 Indomal., Austr. 
ActinantHus Ehrenb. (Oenanthe Tourn. p.p. EP.). Umbellif. (ill. 5). 

i W. As. 

Actinea Juss. = Cephalophora Cav. BH. Actinella Pers. 
Actinella Nutt. Compositae (6). 20 Am. (dwarf sunflower). 
Actinella Pers. = Actinella Nutt. EP. 

Actinidia Lindl. Dilleniaceae (Ternstroem. BH.). 10 E. As. 
Actiniopteris Link. Polypodiaceae. i trop. Afr., As. It has the 

habit of a small palm with fan leaves. 
Actinocarya Benth. Boraginaceae (iv. i). i Tibet. 
Actinochloa Willd. = Bouteloua Lag. (Gramin. ). 
Actinodaphne Nees. Lauraceae (i). 50 E. Ind., Japan, N. Am. 
Actinodium Schau. Myitaceae (n. 3). i W. Austr. 
Actinokentia Dammer. Palmae (iv. i). i New Cal. 

. Bff.). Umbellif. (n. i). zE.Medit. 


Actinolepis DC. (Eriophyllum Lag. p.p.). Compos. (6). 9 West U.S. 

Actinomeris Nutt. Compositae (5). 3 Atl. U.S. 

Actinomorphic (fl.), radially symmetrical, or symmetrical about any 
plane passing through the centre (includes cases like most Sympetalae, 
where there are only two carpels and more of other whorls). 

Actinophloeus Becc. (Drymophloeus Zipp. p.p.). Palmae (iv. i). 
i New Guinea. 

Actinopnora Wall. (Schoutenia Korth. BH.). Tiliaceae. 3 trop. As. 

Actinopnyllum Ruiz et Pav. =Sciadophyllum P. Br. BH. = Schefflera 
Forst. (Aral.). 

Actinorhytis Wendl. et Drude. Palmae (iv. i)- i Malaya. 

Actinoschoenus Benth. Cyperaceae (n). 3 China, Ceylon, Madag. 

Actinostemma Griff. Cucurbitaceae (i). 6 Ind. to Japan. 

Actinostemon Mart, ex Klotzsch. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 30 
trop. Am. 

Actinostrobus Miq. Coniferae (Pinaceae 4; see C. for generic 
characters). 2 S.W. Austr. 

Actinotus Labill. Umbelliferae (i. i). 15 Austr. (flannel flower^. 

Actium (Cl.), rocky sea-shore formation. 

Actoplanes K. Schum. Marantaceae. 2 Malaya. 

Aculeate, Aculeatus (Latin), prickly. 

Acuminate, tapering to a point in hollow curves. 

Acura Hill. Compositae. Nomen. 

Acute, tapering to a sharp point in straight lines. 

Acutifolius (Lat.), with acute leaf. 

Acyclic, not in whorls. 

Ad- (Lat. pref.), to; -axial (side), the side towards the axis; -hesion, 
concrescence (q-v. ) of dissimilar organs, e.g. C and A; -justment 
(Cl.), functional response to stimuli ; -nascens (Lat.), growing upon 
something ; -pressed, appressed ; -verse, facing the main axis. 

-ad (Cl.), suffix denoting an ecad. 

Ada Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 19). 2 Colombia. Cult. 

Adactylus Rolfe (Apostasia Blume p.p.). Orchidaceae (i. i ). 3 trop. As. 

Adamia Wall. = Dichroa Lour. (Saxifrag. ). 

Adam's needle, Yucca. 

Adansonia L. Bombacaceae (i). 10 palaeotrop. A. digitata L. is the 
baobab. Its height is not great, but the trunk may reach 30 feet in 
thickness. Fr. woody. (See Card. Chr. 1900, 57.) 

Adaphus Neck. Inc. sed. ( = Laurus Tourn. ?). 

Adaptable (CL), able to originate ecads. 

Adaptation, adjustment to conditions of life. 

Adder's tongue, Ophioglossmn. 

Addisonia Rusby. Compositae (2). i Bolivia. 

Adelia L. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 15 W.I., Colombia. 

Adelia P. Br. = Forestiera Poir (Olea.). 

Adeliopsis Benth. Menispermaceae. i N.E. Austr. 

Adelmeria Ridl. (Elmeria Ridl.). Zingiberaceae. 2 Phil. Is. 

Adelobotrys DC. Melastomaceae (i). 15 trop. Am., W.I. 

Adelodypsis Becc. (Dypsis Nor. p.p.). Palmae (iv. i). 2 Madag. 

Adelonema Schott \Homalonema p.p. BH.). Araceae (v). i Amazon, 

Adelonenga Becc. (Nenga p.p.). Palmae (iv. i). 2 New Guinea. 


Adelopetaluui Fitzger. Orchidaceae (u. 3). i New S. Wales. 

Adelosa Blume. Verbenaceae (4). i Madag. 

Adelostemma Hook. f. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Burma. 

Adelostigma Steetz. Compositae (3). 2 trop. Afr. 

Aden- (Gr. pref.), a gland; -old, gland-like; -ophore, stalk supporting 

a gland. 

Adenandra Willd. Rutaceae (i). 25 S. Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 
Adenanthera Royen ex L. Leguminosae (i. 4). 5 trop. As., Austr. 

Seeds hard and bright red, or red and black (cf. Abrus). 
Adenanthos Labill. Proteaceae (i). 20 W. and S. Austr. 
Adenaria H. B. et K. Lythraceae. i Mex. to Arg. 
Adeneleutnera O. Ktze. = Ad_eneleutherophora Barb. Rodr. 
Adeneleutherophora Barb. Rodr. Orchidaceae (n. 6). i Brazil. 
Adenia Forsk. (MoJecca L. BH.}. Passiflor. 50 palaeotrop. 
Adenimesa Nieuwland = Conophora Nieuwland (Compositae). 
Adenium Roem. et Schult. Apocynaceae (n. i). 10 Arabia, Afr. 

Xerophytes with thick stems, and rather fleshy 1. 
Adenocalymna Mart. Bignoniaceae (i). 55 trop. Am. 
Adenocarpus DC. Leguminosae (in. 3). 10 Medit., trop. Afr. 
Adenocaulou Hook. Compositae (4). 3 Ind., Japan, U.S., Chili. 
Adenochilus Hook. f. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 2 Austr., N.Z. 
Adenochlaena Boiss. ex Baill. Euphorb. (A. n. 4). 2 Madag., Indomal. 
Adenocllne Turcz. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 5 S. Afr. 
Adenoderris J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 2 W.I. 
Adenodolichos Harms. Leguminosae (in. 10). 12 trop. Afr. 
Adenogonum Welw. ex Hiern. (Engleria O. Hoffm. EP.}. Compositae 

(3). 2S. Afr. 

Adenogramma Reichb. Phytolaccaceae (Ficoideae BH.). 7 S. Afr. 
Adenogynum Reichb. f. et Zoll. (Chloradenia Baill. BH.). Euphorb. 

(A. II. 2). i Java, Timor. 
Adenolinum Reichb. =Linum L. (Lin.). 
Adenolisianthus Gilg. Gentianaceae (i). 2 Brazil. 
Adenoncos Blume = Sarcochilus R. Br. (Orchid.). 
Adenoon Ualz. Compositae (i). i Indomal. 
Adenopappus Benth. Compositae (6). i Mex. 
Adenopeltis Bert. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). i Chili. 
Adenopetalum Klotzsch et Garcke= Euphorbia L. p.p. (Euphorb.). 
Adenophaedra Muell.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). i E. Brazil. 
Adenophora Fisch. Campanulaceae (i). 25 temp. Eur., As. 
Adenophyllum Pers. (Dysodia Cav. p.p. EP.). Compositae (6). 3 Mex. 
Adenoplea Radlk. (Buddleia Houst. p.p. EP.). Loganiaceae. 2 Madag. 
Adenoplusia Radlk. Loganiaceae. i Madag. 
Adenoporces Small (Tetrapteris Cav. p.p.). Malpighiaceae (i). i San 


Adenopus Benth. Cucurbitaceae (3). 8 trop. Afr. 
Adenoropium Pohl.=Jatropha L. p.p. (Euphorb.). 
Adenosacme Wall. (Mycetia Reinw. EP.). Rubi. (i. 7). 7 Indomal. 
Adenosma Nees = Cardanthera Buch.-Ham. (BH.) Synnema Benth. 


Adenosma R. Br. Scrophular. (n. 6). 10 Indomal. , Austr. , China. 
Adenostegia Benth. = Cordylanthus Nutt. (Scrophular.). 12 N. Am. 

W. 2 


Adenostemma Forst. Compositae (2). 6 trop. Am., i cosmotrop. 
Pappus glandular and sticky; fr. carried by animals. 

Adenostoma Blume. Scrophulariaceae. Nomen. 

Adenostoma Hook, et Am. Rosaceae (in. 3). i Calif. A. fascicu- 
latum H. et A. is one of the shrubs forming the chaparral or chamisal. 

Adenostyles Cass. Compositae (2). 6 alpine, Eur., As. Minor. 

Adenostylis Blume = Zeuxine Lindl. (Orchid.). 

Adesmia DC. (Patagoniitm Schrank). Leguminosae (in. 7). 90 
S. Am. Leafstalks thorny, plants often with glandular hairs. 

Adhatoda Tourn. ex Medic. (Justicia L. p.p. EP.) Acanth. (iv. B). 
100 trop. 

Adhunia Veil. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Adiantopsis Fee. Polypodiaceae. 15 trop. Am. As. 

Adiantum L. Polypodiaceae. 190 cosmop., esp. trop. Am. (maiden 
hair); A. Capilhis-veneris L. in Brit. (rare). Hothouse favourites. 
Some are climbing epiphytes. 

Adicea Raf. - Pilea Lindl. (Urtic.). 

Adina Salisb. Rubiaceae (i. 6). 15 trop. As., Afr. 

Adinandra Jack. Theaceae. 15 warm As., Afr. 

Adinobotrys Dunn. Leguminosae (in. 6). 5 Indomal., China. 

Adlumia Rafin. Papaveraceae (in), i E. N. Am. A leaf-climber. 

Adnaria Raf. = Gaylussacia H. B. et K. (Eric.). 

Adnate (adnation), concrescence of organs of different nature, e.g. 
axillary shoot to main shoot or leaf, stamens to petals, &c., Anthu- 
rinm, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asclepias, Boraginaceae, 
Chailletia, Compositae, Citphea, Cyperaceae, Erythrochiton,Juglans, 
Passiflora, Pontederiaceae, Samolns, Solanaceae (figure), Sfathicarpa, 
Spat hiphy Hum, Tilia, Zostera ; anther, one joined to the filament 
by its whole length. 

Adolia Lam. (Scutia Comm. BH. P.) Rhamnaceae. 3 trop., and 
S. Afr. 

Adolpnia Meissn. Rhamnaceae. 2 Mex., Calif. 

Adonis Dill, ex L. Ranunculaceae (3). 10 N. palaeotemp. A. aiitum- 
nalis L. , pheasant's eye, Brit. 

Adoxa L. Adoxaceae. i N. temp., incl. Brit., A. Moschatellina L., 
(moschatel). Rhiz. creeping, monopodial, bearing a flg. shoot with a 
few rad. 1., a pair of opp. cauline 1., and a small head of greenish fls., 
usu. 5 (a condensed dich. cyme). The term. fl. is usu. 4-merous, the 
lat. 5-merous (cf. Ruta, &c.). Fl. ? , reg., greenish, inconspic. P of 
2 whorls; the outer usu. 3-merous, sometimes regarded as an invol. 
formed of bract and bracteoles, but quite probably a K. Sta. alt. 
with petals, divided almost to the base. G (3 5), rarely (2), semi- 
inf. with one pend. ov. in each loc. Drupe with several stones. 
Endosp. Chief visitors small flies, attracted by the musky smell. 

Adoxaceae (EP. ; Caprifol. p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Sympet. Rubiales). 
Only genus Adoxa (q.v.). Sometimes united to Saxifragaceae ; no 
very close relationships (see Schumann, Alorph. Stitdien). 

Adrastaea DC. (Hibbertia Andr. p.p. EP.). Dilleniaceae. i E. Austr. 

Adriana Gaudich. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 4). 5 Austr. 

Adromlschus Lem. (Cotyledon Tourn. p.p. BH.). Crassul. 10 S. Afr. 

Adrorhizon Hook. f. Orchidaceae (11. 16). i Ceylon. 


Adruc (W. Ind.), Cyperus articulatns L. 
Aduncate, bent like a hook. 

Adventina Raf. Compositae (inc. seel.). 2 N. Am. 
Adventitious (Cl.), invading from distant formations ; buds, arising 
elsewhere than normally in an axil, Begonia, Bryophylluin, Carda- 
mine, Cyslopteris, Linaria, Ophioglossum, Pteris, Pyrola; embryo, 
one formed without fertilisation, AUhornea, Citrus, Euonymns, 
Funkia, Nothoscorditin ; root, one developed from stem or leaf, Acan- 
thorhha, Araceae, Bromeliaceae, Gramineae, Orchidaceae, Palmae 
and most Monocotyledons, Peperomia, Podosteniaceae, Ranunculaceae, 
&c., and cf. Aerial roots ; shoot, one arising from root or leaf, 
Ailanthus, Anthuriitin, Podosteniaceae, Rafflesiaceae, Testudinaria. 
Adventive (Cl.), established temporarily. 
Adverse, facing main axis. 
Adynamandry, self-sterility. 
Adyseton Adans. =Alyssum L. (Crucifer.). 
Aechmandra Arn. = Melothria L. p.p. (Cucurbit.). 
Aechmantnera Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. A.). 2 Himalaya. 
Aechmea Ruiz et Pav. Bromeliaceae (4). 50 epiph., W.I., S. Am. 
Aechmolepis Decne. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Angola. 
Aedesia O. Hoffm. Compositae (i). 2 W. trop. Afr. 
Aegialitis R. Br. Plumbaginaceae. i trop. Austr. and As. 
Aegiceras Gaertn. Myrsinaceae (n. i). 2 palaeotrop. A. tnajus 
Gaertn. grows in mangrove swamps together with Rhizophora, 
&c., and exhibits a similar habit, vivipary, &c. 
Aegilops L. = Triticum L. p.p. (Gramin.). 

Aeginetia L. Orobanchaceae. 2 Ceylon to Japan and Phil. Is. 
Aegipnila Jacq. Verbenaceae (4). 40 trop. Am., W.I. 
Aegle Correa. Rutaceae (v). 3 Indo-mal. A. Marmelos Correa is 

the bael fruit, a valuable remedy for dysentery, &c. 
Aeglopsis Swingle. Rutaceae (v). i Ivory Coast. 
Aegopodium Knaut. ex L. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). 2 Eur., As. A.Poda- 

graria L. the goat, gout, or bishop's weed, in Brit. 
Aegopogon Beauv. Gramineae (3). 2 Braz. to Calif. 
Aeluropus Trin. Gramineae (10). 5 Medit. to Ind. Halophytes. 
Aeneus (Lat.), brass-coloured. 
Aeolanthus Mart. Labiatae (vn). 25 Afr. 
Aeonia (Oeonia) Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 5 Masc. 
Aeonium Webb et Berth. = Sempervivtim L. (Crassul.). 
Aequalis (Lat.), similar in size; Aequi- (Lat. pref.), equal. 
Aerangis Reichb. f. (Angraecutn Thou. p.p. BH.). Orchid, (n. 20). 

i Angola. 

Aeranthes Lindl. Orchidaceae (11. 20). 4 Madag., Masc. 
Aeranthus Rchb. f. = Mystacidium Lindl. (.#//.) = Macroplectrum Pfitz. 
Aerating roots, roots with aerenchyma. 

Aerenchyma, respiratory tissue formed by the phellogen; Avicennia, 
Bmgitiera, Herniiniera, Jitssieua, Neptitnia, Knmex, Sesbania, 
Sonneratia, Taxodiuin, Terminalia. 
Aeria O. F. Cook. Palmae (iv. i). i Porto Rico. 
Aerial roots, adventitious roots arising above ground, often forming 
bitttresses (Palmae, Pandanaceae), pillars (Araceae, Ficus), clasping 


and climbing organs (Araceae, Hedera, Orchidaceae, Tecoma), water- 
absorbing organs (Orchidaceae, Velloziaceae), assimilating organs 
(Orchidaceae, Podostemaceae), thorns (Acanthorhiza), parasitic 
suckers (Cuscuta, Viscum), &c. 

Aerides Lour. Orchidaceae (11. 20). 20 E. As. Leaves fleshy. 

Aerophytes, epiphytes. 

Aerotropism, influence of gases on growth and curvature. 

Aeruginous, verdigris-coloured. 

Aerva Forsk. Amarantaceae (2). 12 trop. As., Afr. 

Aesandra Pierre (Payena A. DC. p.p. EP.). Sapotaceae (i). i trop. As. 

Aeschynanthus Jack. (Trichosporum D. Don.) Gesneraceae (i). 
75 Indomal., China. Many epiphytes with fleshy leaves. Extreme 
protandry with movement of sta. Seeds with long hairs. 

Aeschynomene L. (incl. Herminiera Guill. et Perr. EP.). Legum. 
(in. 7). 70 warm. From the pith-like wood of A. aspera L. 
(shola, pith-plant) the solar helmets of trop. As. are made. 

Aesculus L. (incl. Pavia Boerh.). Hippocastanaceae (Sapind. BH.). 
20 N. temp., S. Am. A. Hippocastanum L. (horse-chestnut) and 
several of Pavia orn. trees. A. ohioensis Michx. (glabra Willd.) 
buckeye (U.S.). Trees with large winter buds, covered with 
resinous scale 1., containing next year's shoot and infl. very ad- 
vanced. The bud expands rapidly in spring. In A . pawiflora Walt, 
transitions from scale to perfect 1. may be seen, showing the former 
to = leaf bases. L. opp., exstip., palmate; the blades when young 
are hairy and hang downwards. Owing to different lengths of stalk, 
&c. , the 1., looked at from above, form a very good mosaic, and are 
all equally exposed to light. Infl. mixed, the primary structure 
racemose, the lat. branches cymose (cmcinni). Upper fls. <? with 
rudimentary ovary, and open first. ? fls. protog. The chief visitors 
are bees. On the C are yellow spots, which later on turn red 
(cf. Fumaria, Diervilla, &c.). K (5) ; C 5 or 4 zygomorphic; 
A 8 5 introrse; disc extrastaminal, often one-sided; G (3), 3-loc., 
with 2 ov. in each loc. Fr. a leathery caps., usu. i -seeded, 3-valved; 
seed large, exalb. (cf. this fr. with Castanea). 

Aestivalis (Lat.), of summer. 

Aestivation, arrangement of perianth 1. in the bud. L. or segments 
not even meeting at edges, the a. is open (C of Cruciferae, see floral 
diagrams), touching but not overlapping, valvate (C of Compositae), 
overlapping, imbricate (K of Leguminosae). Special cases of imbr. 
are convolute or contorted (each 1. overlapping with the same right or 
left edge, so that the C looks twisted, as in Ericaceae) and qtiin- 
cttncial (two 1. overlapping with both edges, two underlapping with 
both, one over- and under-lapping, as in K of Caryophyllaceae). 
Each 1. overlapping the one post, to it, ascending (K of Vicia in 
Leguminosae), ant. to it, descending (C of Vicia). L. margins turned 
inwards, indnplicate (C of many Compositae), outwards, reduplicate. 
L. rolled up inwards like watch springs, circinate (petals of Hama- 

Aetaerio, Etaerio. 

Aetanthus Engl. Loranthaceae (i). 10 N. Andes. 

Aetheilema K. Br.= Phaylopsis Willd. (Acanth.) 


Aethionema R.Br. (incl. Eitnomia DC.)- Cruciferae (2). 55 Medit. 
Fr. lomentose in some; in others, e.g, A. heterocarpum J. Gay, there 
are two kinds of fr., one many-seeded and dehiscent, the other one- 
seeded indehiscent. (Solms in Bot. Zeit. 1901, p. 61.) 

Aethusa L. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i Eur. (incl. Brit.), A. Cynapium 
L. (fool's parsley), a poisonous weed resembling parsley. 

Aextoxicon Ruiz et Pav. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i Chili. 

Affinity, degree of resemblance and relationship. 

Affixed, fixed upon. 

Affonsea A. St. Mil. Leguminosae (i. i). 3 Brazil. 

Afrafzelia Pierre (Afzelia Sm. p.p. EP.). Leguminosae (n. 3). 5 trop. Afr. 

Aframomum K. Schum. (Aniomum L. p.p. Auct.). Zingiber. (i). 
40 trop. Afr. 

Afrardisia Mez. (Ardisia Sw. p.p.). Myrsinaceae (li. 2). 10 trop. Afr. 

African corn-lily, Ixia ; lily, Agafanthus umbellatus L'Herit. ; mari- 
gold, Tagetcs; oak, Lophira, OMfiehiia; rubber, Landolph ia; violet, 
Sainlpanlia ionantha H. Wendl. 

Afridia Duthie (Nepeta Riv. p.p.). Labiatae (vi). i Afghanistan. 

Afrocalathea K. Schum. (Calathea G. F. W. Mey p.p.). Marant. i 
W. Afr. 

Afrodaphne Stapf. (Beihchmiedea Nees p.p.). Lauraceae (n). 20 trop. 

Afroflttonia Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i W. trop. Afr. 

Afrohamelia Wernham. Rubiaceae (i. 7). i Nigeria. 

Afromendoncia Gilg. Acanthaceae (n). 4 trop. Afr. 

Afrorhaphidophora Engl. Araceae (n). 2 trop. W. Afr. 

Afrormosia Harms (Orniosia Jacks, p.p.). Leguminosae (ill. i). 2 trop. 

Afrosison H. Wolff. Umbelliferae (in. 4). i trop. Afr. 

Afrostyrax Perkins et Gilg. Styraceae. i trop. Afr. 

Afrothismia Schlechter ( Thismia Griff, p.p.). Burmann. i trop. Afr. 

Afzelia Sm. (fnfsia Thou.). Legumin. (n. 3). 8 trop. As., Afr. 

Afzeliella Gilg. (Guyonia Naud. p.p.). Melastomaceae (i). i Sierra 

Agad (Cl.), a beach plant; agium a beach formation. 

Agallis Phil. Cruciferae (inc. sed.). i Chili. 

Agalma Miq. = Heptapleurum Gaertn. (RH.}~ Schefflera Forst. (Aral.). 

Agalmyla Blume. Gesneriaceae (i). 3 Java, Sumatra. 

Agamogenesis, asexual reproduction by buds. 

Aganippea Mo. et Sesse. Compositae (5). 2 Mex. 

Aganisia Lindl. Orchidaceae (11. 13). 4 trop. Am. W.I. Cult. 

Aganonerion Pierre. Apocynaceae (11. 2). i Indochina. 

Aganosma G. Don (Ichnocarptis R. Br. BH.}. Apocyn. (11. i). 4 Ind. 
to Phil. Is. 

Agapanthus L'Herit. Liliaceae (iv). 5 S. Afr. A. umbellatus 
L'Herit. (African lily) in gardens. Umbel cymose. Seeds winged. 

Agapetes G. Don (incl. Pap hi a Seem. BH.}. Ericaceae (in. 2) (Vaccin. 
BH.}. 35 E. As., Austr., Fiji. 

Agarista D. Don (Lencothoe Don p.p. EP.). Eric. (11.4). 25 S. Am. 

Agastache Clayt. ex Gronov., O. Ktze (Lophatithus Benth. p.p. BH.}. 
Labiatae (vi). 5 N. Am. 


Agastachys R. Br. Proteaceae (i). i Tasmania. 

Agasyllis Sprang. (Siler Scop. p.p. BH.}. Umbellif. (in. 6). 2 
E. Medit. 

Agatea A. Gray (Agation Brongn. BH.}. Violaceae. 3 Fiji, New Cal. 

Agathaea Cass. = Felicia Cass. p.p. (Compos.). 

Agathelpis Choisy. Scrophulariaceae (n. 7). [Selagin. BH.~\ 6 S. Afr. 

Agathis Salish. (Damniara Lam.). Coniferae (Pinaceae i ; see C. for 
gen. char.). 4 Malaya to N.Z. Evergr. dioec. trees; the fr. takes 
two years to ripen. Several give copals or animes, used for varnish, 
&c. A. Damniara Rich. (D. orimtalis Lamb., Malay and Phil. Is.), 
Manila copal. A. anst rails Steud. (Austr. , N.Z., Kauri or Cowrie 
pine), kauri-copal; the best pieces are dug out of the soil, often far 
from trees now living. (Wiesner, Die Rohstoffe, 2nd ed. pp. 253, 264.) 

Agathophora Bunge (Halogeton p.p. BH.}. Chenopod. (B). i N. Afr., 

Agathophyllum Juss. = Ravensara Sonner. (Laurac.). 

Agathosma Willd. Rutaceae (i). 100 S. Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 

Agati Adans. = Sesbania Scop. p.p. (Legum.). 

Agation Brongn. (Agatea A. Gray, EP.). Violaceae. 3 Fiji, New Cal. 

Agauria Hook. f. Ericaceae (n). 5 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Agave L. Amaryllidaceae (n). 100 trop. Am. and S.U.S., incl. A. 
americana Linn. (Century plant, Maguey, American aloe). The short 
stem grows in thickness like Yucca, bearing a rosette of large fleshy 1. 
coated with wax; only 2 or 3 1. form in a year. During 5 to 60 or 
perhaps 100 years (hence the name), depending on climate, richness 
of soil, &c. , the plant is veg. , and stores up in the 1. an enormous 
mass of reserves. At length it flowers, a gigantic term. infl. coming 
rapidly out, sometimes reaching 20 feet, and bearing many fls. When 
the fr. is ripe the pi. dies. Veg. repr. in two ways by suckers from 
base of stem, and by formation of bulbils in place of many fls. 

The rush of sap to so large and so rapidly developed an infl. is 
very great ; the Mexicans cut off the young fl. head and collect the 
sap. As much as rooo litres are said to be given by one plant. 
The fermented juice (pulque) is a national drink; from it they distil 
a spirit called mescal (cf. Cocos). Many yield useful fibres. The best 
are sisal hemp and henequen, given by A. sisalana Perrine, and A. 
fourcroydes Lem., cultivated in Yucatan, the Bahamas, India, &c. 
Others yield fibres variously known as pita, istle, ixtle, lechuguilla, 
keratto, &c. See Rep. Miss. Bol. Gdn. 1896, p. 47 ; Kew Bull. 1892, 
p. 21, Tropeiipfl. 1899, p. 337; Dodge, Useful Fiber Plants (Bull. 
U.S. Dpt. Agr.), &c. 

Agdestis Mo9- et Sesse. Phytolaccaceae. i Mexico, Guatemala. 

Agelaea Soland. Connaraceae. 20 palaeotrop. 

Agents, effecting seed-dispersal, see Seed -dispersal ; effecting pollination, 
see Pollination, &c. 

Ageratella A. Gray. Compositae (2). 2 Mex. 

Ageratina O. Hofifm. Compositae (i). 2 trop. Afr. 

Ageratum L. Compositae (2). 40 trop. all but one Amer. A. cony- 
zoides L. (goatweed), the commonest weed in Ceylon. 

Agglomerate, collected into a head. 

Agglutinate, glued together. 


Aggregatae (Warming). The loth cohort of Sympetalae. 

Aggregate (fruit), many similar fruits from one fl., Anona, Fragaria, 

Illicium, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Phytolacca, Rosaceae, Rubus, 


Aggregation (Cl.), coming together of plants into groups. 
Agiabampoa Rose. Compositae (5). i Mex. 
Agialida O. Kuntze = Balanites Delile (Zygophyll.). 
Agianthus Greene. Cruciferae (i). 2 N. Am. 
Agiella Van Tiegh. Zygophyllaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 
Aglaia Lour. Meliaceae (ill). 100 Indomal., China. 
Aglaodorum Schott (Aglaoncnia p.p. BH.}. Araceae (v). i Sumatra, 

Aglaonema Scliott. Araceae (v). 15 E. Ind. There are several infl. 

forming a sympodium. Fl. monoecious, naked. 
Aglossorhyncha Schlecht. Orchidaceae (n. 5). 2 New Guinea. 
Agonandra Miers. Opiliaceae [Olacin. BH.\ i E. trop. Brazil. 
Agonis Lindl. Myrtaceae (n. i). 13 Austr. (willow-myrtle). 
Agoseris Raf. = Troximon Nutt. (Compos.). 40 Am. 
Agrad (Cl.), a cultivated plant ; agrium, a culture formation. 
Agrestis (Lat.), Agrestal, growing in fields. 
Agrianthus Mart. Compositae (2). 3 Brazil. 
Agrimonia Tourn. ex L. Rosaceae (ill. 5). 10 N. temp. A. Eupa- 

toria Linn, and A. odorala Mill, (agrimony) in Brit. The receptacle 

encloses the two achenes in fr., and is covered with hooks. 
Agrimony, Agriinonia; hemp-, Eupatoriiiin cannabinum L. 
Agriophyllum Bieb. Chenopodiaceae (A). 5 Centi. Asia. 
Agronomy, agriculture of field crops and cultivation. 
Agropyron J. Gaertn. Gramineae (12). 45 temp. A. caninum 

Beauv. (wheat-grass) and A. repens Beauv. (twitch or couch-grass) 

in Brit., the latter a troublesome weed. Its long rhizome roots at 

the nodes, and if broken up each node gives a new plant. 
Agrostemma L. (Lychnis L. p.p. BH.). Caryophyll. (11. i). 2 Medit. 
Agrostis L. Gramineae (8). 125 cosmop., chiefly N. temp., 4 in Brit. 

incl. A. alba L., white Bent or fiorin grass (valuable pasture). 
Agrostistachys Dalz. (incl. Sarcocliinuni Wight). Euphorb. (A. II. 2). 

ii Indomal., trop. Afr. 

Agrostocrinum F. Muell. Liliaceae (inj. i SW. Austr. 
Agrostology, study of grasses. 

Agrostophyllum Blume. Orchidaceae (n and in). 20 Indomal. 
Aguacate, avocado, Persea gratissima Gaertn. f. 
Agyneia L. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 2 Indomal., Masc. 
Anemia Merrill. Flacourtiaceae (2). i Phil. Is. 
Ai- camphor, Bhunea bahamifera DC. 

Aichryson Webb, et Berth. =Sempervivum L. p.p. (Crasstil.). 
Aidia Lour. Inc. sed. i Cochinchina. 
Ailanthus Desf. Simarubaceae. 8 As., Austr. A. glanditlosa Desf. 

(tree of heaven) in parks. Absciss layers form at base of the leaflets 

as well as of the petiole; the leaflets usually drop first. 
Aimorra Raf. Compositae (inc. sed.). i N. Am. 
Ainsliaea DC. Compositae (12). 30 India to Japan. 
Ainsworthia Boiss. = Tordylium L. p.p. (Umbell.). 


Aiolotheca DC. Compositae (5). i Mex. 

Aiouea Aubl. Lauraceae (11). 20 trop. Am., W.I. 

Aiphanes Willd. = Martinezia Ruiz et Fav. (Palmae). 

Aiphytium, an ultimate formation. 

Alra L. p.p. Gramin. (9). 12 N. palaeotemp., 2 Brit, (hair-grass). 
A. caespilosa L. and A.JJexuosii L. = Deschampsia ; A. canesceiis L. 
= Corynephorus. A. elegans Gaudich., cult. orn. 

Airopsis Desv. Gramineae (9). i S. Eur., NW. Afr. 

Airosperma Lauterl). et K. Sebum. Ruhiaceae (n. i). 2 New Guinea. 

Air-plants, epiphytes. 

Airspaces, intercellular spaces, or spaces enclosed in folded leaves. 

Aitchisonia Hemsl. Rubiaceae (n. 6). i Afghanistan. 

Aitonia Thunb. (Nymania, EP.}. Meliac. (ill) formerly Sapind. i S. Afr. 

Aizoaceae (EP. ; Ficoidcae BH}. Dicots. (Archichl. Centrospermae). 
20 gen., 650 sp. chiefly S. Afr., but also in Calif., S. Am., trop. Afr. 
and As., Austr. Nearly allied to the other Centrospermae, but placed 
in various other relationships by different authors, e.g. near Cactaceae 
by B. and H., a relationship which is certainly very close and to which 
Engler agrees. Xero. herbs or undershrubs with opp. or alt. exstip. 
1., often fleshy, and with cymes of fls. Anatomy of interest (see Nat. 
PJl.). _Formula P 4 5 or (4 5) (odd leaf, if 5, post.) ; A 5 or 3 or oo ; 
G or G (3) or (oo), 3-loc. with oo ov. in each loc. Dedoublement is 
very common in the androeceum, and in these cases, e.g. Mesembry- 
anthemum, the outer sta. are frequently represented by petaloid stds. 
Ovary usu. sup. with axile plac., but in Mesembryanthemum inf., 
multiloc. with parietal plac., a very unusual feature brought about 
during development (see M.j. Fr. usu. a caps. ; seed with embryo 
curved round perisperm. 

Classification and chief genera (after Pax): 

I. MOLLUGINOIDEAE (perianth deeply j-lobed : "petals" 

or not: ov. sup. ): Mollugo. 

II. FICOIDEAE (perianth tubular): (G) Sesuvium, Trian- 

thema, Aizoon ; (Q) Tetragonia, Mesembryanthemum. 

Aizoon L. Aizoac. (11). 2 Afr., Medit., Austr. A oo in bundles. 

Ajax Salisb. = Narcissus L. p.p. (Amaryllid.). 

Ajowan, Cannn coplicum Benth. et Hook. f. 

Ajuga L. Labiatae (i. i). 30 palaeotemp.; 3 in Brit., incl. A. rep- 
tans L. (bugle) and A. Chamaepitys Schreb. (yellow bugle, ground- 
pine). The corolla has no upper lip. Veg. repr. by runners. 

Akania Hook. f. Akaniaceae. i E. Austr. 

Akaniaceae (EP., Sapind. p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Sapindales). 
i gen. Akania (q.v.). Tree with alt. imparipinnate 1. and paniculate 
infl.; fl. 5 -0-; K 5, C 5 contorted, no disc ; A usu. 8, the 5 external 
opp. sepals, G 3-loc. with 2 anatr. pend. ov. in each. Loculic. 
caps. ; fleshy endosp. ; straight embryo. 

Akebia Decne. Lardizabalaceae. 3 China, Japan. A. qitinata Decne. 
often cult. ; fls. monoecious, the lower usually ? ; the ? much larger 
than the S (very unusual). The berries dehisce like follicles. Fr. ed. 

Akee, Blighia sapida Kon. 

Akene, achene. 

Alabastrum (Lat.), flower-bud. 


Alae, wings, Legtnninasae, Polygalaceae. 

Alafia Thou. Apocynaceae (n. i). 12 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Alamania La Llave et Lex. (Epidendrum L. p.p. EP. ). Orchid, (n. 6). 
i Mex. 

Alangiaceae (EP. Cornaceae^.'p.BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Myrtiflorae). 
Only genus Alangium (q.v.). 

Alangium Lam. Alangiaceae. 22 palaeotrop. Trees or shrubs with 
cymose infl. of heterochlam., usu. fls. K and C 4 10, A 4 10 or 
8 20, or more, G i-2-3-loc. with i pend. ov. in each, i -seeded 
drupe. Endosp. 

Alania Endl. Liliaceae (ill), r Austr. , in Blue Mts. 

Alaternus (Tourn.) Mill. = Rhamnus L. p.p. (Rhamn.). 

Albersia Kunth. = Amaranthus L. p.p. (Amarant.). 

Alberta E. Mey (Ernestimeyera O. Kuntze). Rubiac. (II. i). 
3 Madag., S. Afr. 

Albertia Regel et Schmalh. Umbelliferae (in. 4). 3 Turkestan. 

Albertinia Spreng. Compositae (i). i Brazil. 

Albertisia Becc. Menispermaceae. i New Guinea. 

Albidus (Lat.), whitish. 

Albinism, disease from absence of normal colour ; albino, plant with a. 

Albizzia Durazz. Leguminosae (i. i). 50 warm % A. Lebbek Benth. 
(siris, E. Indian walnut) &c. good timber. A. stipulata Boiv. (sau), 
A. molnccana Miq. &c. as shade for tea cult. &c. (very rapid growth, 
about 10 ft. in height, and i ft. in girth, a year). 

Albuca L. Liliaceae (v). 30 Afr. Outer sta. often stds. Cult. orn. 

Albumen (-inous), the endosperm of a seed; albuminoids, proteids. 

Alburnum, sap-wood, recently formed wood. 

Albus (Lat.), white. 

Alcamaspinosa Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Alcantara Glaziou. Compositae. Nomen. 2 Brazil. 

Alcea (Tourn.) L. Althaea Tourn. (Malv.) 

Alchemilla L. Rosaceae (in. 5). 40 temp., and trop. Mts. A. arvensis 
Scop, (parsley piert), A. vulgaris L. (lady's mantle), and A. alpina 
L. Brit. Fl. Inconspic., apet., with epicalyx ; A 2 or 4, G i 4 each 
with i ov. Achenes enclosed in dry receptacle. Some are partheno- 
genetic ; some show a kind of chalazogamy; some have an exudation 
of water from the 1. 

Alchornea Sw. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). 30 trop. Only the ? of A. 
(Coelebogyne) ilicifolia Muell.-Arg. is cult., but produces good seed. 
Adv. embryos form by budding of the nucellus round the embryo-sac 
(cf. Funkia). 

Alchorneopsis Muell.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). 2 S. Am. 

Alciope DC. Compositae (8). 2 S. Afr. 

Alcoceratothrix Niedenzu. Malpighiaceae (n). 2 Brazil, Guiana. 

Alcoceria Fernald. Euphorbiaceae (A. u. 7). i Mex. 

Alcohol (ethyl, the stimulant in drinks) is obtained usu. from sugar, 
either stored as such in the pi., or obtained by fermentation, whether 
natural as in the expansion of an infl., or artificial. The chief sources 
are the fr. of Vitis (grape), tubers of potato and beet, grain of barley, 
rye, maize, rice, &c. , stem of sugarcane, and young infl. of Agave, 
Arenga, Borasstis, Caryota, Cocos, &c. Cf. also Bassia, Ceratonia, 


Eleusine, Ipomoea, Manihot, Musa, Nipa, Phoenix, Sorghum. Methyl 
or wood alcohol, for burning, is obtained from hard wood, esp. 
beech, oak, thorn, and wattle, by distillation. See Kevv Bull. 1912, 
p. 113. 

Aldenella Greene (Polanisia Raf. p.p. EP.}. Capparid. (v). i N. Am. 

Alder, Alnus ghttinosa Medic. ; -buckthorn, Rhammis Frangula L. ; 
West Indian-, Conocarpns erectus L. 

Aldina Endl. Leguminosae (ir. 9). 5 Guiana, N. Brazil. 

Aldrovanda Monti. Drosera. i Eur. to Austr., A. vesiculosa L. , a 
rootless swimming pi. with whorls of 1. Each has a stalk portion, 
and a blade like Dionaea, working in the same way, capturing and 
digesting small animals. Winter buds form in cold climates. 

Alectoroctonum Schlecht. Euphorbia L. p.p. (Euphorb.). 

Alectorolophus Hall. = Rhinanthus L. p.p. (Scrophular.). 

Alectorurus Makino (Anthericum L. p.p.). Liliaceae (ill), i Japan. 

Alectra Thunb. (Melasma Berg. p.p.). Scrophular. (in. 2). 20 trop. 
exc. Austr. 

Alectryon Gaertn. Sapindaceae (i). 15 Malaya, Polynesia. 

Alehoof, Nepeta Glechoma Benth. 

Alepidea La Roche. Umbelliferae (n. i). 5 S. and trop. Afr. 

Alepyrum Hieron. (Gaimardia Gaudich. BH.). 2 N.Z., Tasm. &c. 

Alepyrum R. Br. =Centrolepis Labill. (Centrolepid.). 

Aletes Coulter et Rose. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 5 N. Am. 

Aletris L. Liliaceae (ix.) [Haemodor. BH.}. 8 E. As., N. Am. 

Aleurites Forst. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 3). 5 warm As. Extrafl. 
nectaries on petiole and at ends of large 1. -veins. A. triloba Forst. 
and others cult, for oil from seeds (wood-oil). 

Aleurone, proteid in seed, usually in form of crystalloids. 

Alexa Aloq. Leguminosae (in. r). i Brit. Guiana. 

Alexanders, Smyrnium Olitsatrmn L. 

Alexandra Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (B). i Centr. As. 

Alfa, esparto, Stipa tenacissima L. 

Alfalfa, lucerne, Medicago saliva L. 

Alfilaria, Erodimn ciciitarimn L'Herit. 

Alfredia Cass. =Carduus L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Algaroba. Ceratonia Siliqua L., Prosopis alba Griseb. 

Algernonia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 2 Brazil. 

Alguelaguen Feuill. =Sphacele Benth. (Labiat.). 

Alhagl Tourn. ex Adans. Leguminosae (in. 7). 3 Medit., W. As. 
Thorny xero. ; the rootstock blows about in the dry season. Honey- 
like sap exudes in hot weather, drying into brownish lumps (manna). 

Alibertia A. Rich. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 25 trop. Am. 

Aliciella Brand. (Cilia Ruiz et Pav. p.p.). Polemon. i N. Am. 

Alien, an introduced plant which has become naturalised. 

Aligera Suksdorf. Valerianaceae. 10 Pac. Am. 

Alina Adans. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

-alis (Lat. suff. ), belonging to. 

Alisma L. (excl. Caldesia Parl. EP.}. Alismaceae. 2 N. temp., Austr. 
A. Plantago L., water-plantain, Brit. Sta. 6 (doubling of outer whorl), 
coherent at base, forming nectary. A. natans L. = Elisma n. 

Alismaceae (Alismatacea EP., BH. inch Bittoinaceae}. Monocots. 


(Helobiae). n gen., 75 sp. cosmop. Water or marsh herbs with 
perenn. rhiz. L. rad., erect, floating or submerged, exhibiting cor- 
responding structure (cf. Sagittaria). Small scales in axils. Latex. 
Infl. usu. much branched, primary branching racemose, secondary 
often cymose. Fl. 5 or unisex., reg. K 3, C 3, A 6 oo , with ex- 
trorse anthers, G6 oo, with i (rarely 2 or more) anatr. ov. in each. 
Group of achenes. Exalb. Embryo horse-shoe shaped. Chief 
genera : Alisma, Elisma, Echinodorus, Sagittaria. [BH. chars, add : 
1. various, anthers also introrse, ovules also oo scattered over surface 
of cpls., embryo also straight.] 

Alismorchis Thou. = Calanthe R. Br. p.p. (Orchid.). 

Alizarin, the dye-stuff of madder, J\nbia tinctoruin L. 

Alkali grass, Distichlis. 

Alkaloids, compounds of C, H, N, with or without O, of alkaline re- 
action. Many here given are now classed under the more definite 
title of purine bases. The name often indicates the genus from which 
they are obtained, e.g. aconitin (Aconitu/n), atropin,brucin (Strycfinos), 
caffein or them (Coffea, Thea), cinchonidin, cinchonin (Cinchona), 
cocaine (Rrythroxylon), codeine (in opium), digitalin, hyoscyamin, 
morphin (in opium, Papaver), nicotine, quinine (Cinchona), solanine, 
strophantliin, strychnine, thein ( = caffein), theobromin. 

Alkanet, alkannin, cf. next. 

Alkanna Tausch. Boraginaceae (iv. 3). 35 Medit. , S. Eur. The r. 
of A. tinctoria Tausch. gives the red dye alkanet or alkannin. 

AUaeanthus Thw. Moraceae (i). 3 Indomal. 

Allaeophania Thw. Rubiaceae (n. 5). 3 Indomal. 

Allagopappus Cass. Compositae (4). i Canaries. 

Allamanda L. Apocynaceae (i. i). 12 trop. Am., W.I. Seeds hairy. 

Allanblackia Oliv. Guttiferae (v). 5 trop. Afr. The seeds of A. 
Stuhlniannii Eng. yield a tallow-like fat. 

Allantodia R. Br. = Athyrium Roth. (Filicin.) 

Allantodioid, applied to ferns resembling Allantodia. 

AUantoid, sausage-shaped. 

Allantoma Miers. Lecythidaceae (Myrtaceae Bff.). 12 Guiana, 

Allardia Decne. ( IValdheimia EP.). Compositae (7). 8 C. As. 

Allasia Lour. Inc. sed. ( = Vitex Tourn.?). i E. Afr. 

Allendea La Llave. Compositae (8). i Mex. 

Allenia Ewart. Euphorbiaceae (B. i). i Austr. 

Allexis Pierre. Violaceae. i Cameroons. 

Allgood, Chenopodiurn. 

Allheal, Valeriana officinalis L. ; W. Indian-, Microineria obovata 

Alliaceous, onion-like. 

Alliaria Marsh, DC. (Sisynibrium BH.). Crucif. (2). 5 Eur. temp., As. 

Alligator apple, Anonapalustris L. ; -pear, Perseagi-atissima Gaertn. f. ; 
-wood (W. I.), Guarea trichilioides L. 

Allionia L. Nyctaginaceae. i N. Am.; do. Loefl. (Mirabilis L. p.p. 
EP.). Nyctaginaceae. 20 Am. Anthocarp glandular (cf. Pisonia). 

Allioniella Rydberg (Mirabilis L. p.p. EP.). Nyctagin. i N. Am. 

Allium (Tourn.) L. Liliaceae (iv). 300 %. A. ursiniim L. (garlic), A. 


Schoenoprasum L. (chives), and 6 others, in Brit. A. Cepa L. (Persia, 
&c.) is the onion, A. Formm L. (Eur.) the leek, A. ascalonicmn L. 
(Orient) the shallot, A. sativuin L. (S. Eur.) the garlic. Bulbous 
herbs with linear (or hollow centric) 1. and cymose umbels of fls. Many 
have collateral buds in the axils. In many the fls. are replaced 
by bulbils serving for veg. repr. (cf. Lilium). In A. ursinum, &c. 
honey is secreted by the septal glands of the ovary; fl. protandr. 

Allmania R. Br. Amarantaceae (2). 3 trop. Am. 

Allocalyx Cordemoy. Scrophulariaceae (ll. 6). i Reunion. 

Allocarpus II. B. et K. =Calea L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Allocarpy, fruiting from cross-fertilised fl. ; -gamy, cross-fert. 

Allocarya Greene (Eritrichium BH.). Boragin. (iv. 2). 35 Pac. Am. 

Allocnrusa Bunge (Acanlhophyllum C. A. Mey, BH.}. ' Caryophyll. 
(n. 2). i=j W. and S. As. 

AUomorphia Blume. Melastomaceae (i). 15 Malaya, China, Polynesia. 

Alloneuron Pilger. Melastomaceae (i). i Peru. 

Allophylus L. Sapindaceae (i). 100 trop. and subtrop. 

Allophyton T. S. Brandegee. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). i Mex. 

Alloplectus Mart. (Cranlzia Scop.). Gesner (i). 40 trop. Am. 

AUoschemone Schott (Monstera Adans. BH.). Araceae (n). i Braz. 

Allosorus Bernh. =Cryptograinme, Cheilanthes, Pellaea, &c. (Filices.) 

Allospondias Stapf. (Spondias L. p.p. EP.). Anacard. (2). i Indochina. 

Alloteropsis C. Presl. (Panic n HI L. p.p. EP.}. Gramin. (5). i Calif. 

Allotropa A. Gray. Pyrolaceae. i W. As. 

Allotropous (insects), short-tongued. 

Allseed, Polycarpon, Kadiola. 

Allspice, Pimenta qfficinalis ; Carolina-, Calycanthus floridiis. 

Alluandia Drake (Didierea Baill. p.p. EP.). Didieraceae. 4 Madag. 

Almeidea St Hil. Rutaceae (i). 5 Brazil. 

Almeloveenia Dennst. Inc. sed. i Indomal. 

Almond, Prunits Ainygdalus Stokes; country-, Tenninalia Catappa L.; 
Java-, Canaiitim commune, L.; -tree (W.I.), Tenninalia Catappa L. 

Alniphyllum Matsumura. Styraceae. 2 Formosa, SW. China. 

Alnus (Tourn.) L. Betulaceae (2). 17 N. temp, and Andes. A. gluti- 
nosa Medic, (alder), Brit. Cf. Betula. In the Stem, 

axil of each bract of the S catkin are 3 fl. (see fl. fl. fl. 
diagram of Betula, and cf. other genera) each /3' j8' 

with 4 sta. and 4 perianth 1. The bracteoles a /3 

a, ft, /3', j8' are present. All these 1. are united bract, 

with one another. In the ? catkin only two, the lat., fl. occur, and the 
same bracts. After fert., the ov. gives a one-seeded nut, under which 
is found a 5-lobed scale, the product of subsequent growth of the 
5 leaves. The fl. is chalazogamic. 

Alocasia Neck. Araceae (vi). 45 E. Ind. Herbaceous; monoec. .-/. 
macrorrhiza Schott and others are cult, for ed. rim. (cf. Colocasia). 

Alocasiophyllum Engl. (Cercestis p.p. EP.). Arac. (iv). i W. Afr. 

Aloe Tourn. ex L. Liliaceae (in). 180 S. Afr., esp. the Karroo 
desert. Usu. shrubby or arborescent xero., growing in thickness and 
branching. L. in dense rosettes at ends of branches, very fleshy, with 
thick epidermis, often waxy, and stomata in pits. They are cut across 
and the juice evap. to obtain the drug aloes. 


Aloes, Aloe] aloe-wood, Cordia Sebestena L.; aloes-wood, Aquilaria 

Agallocha Roxb. 

Aloides Boerh. ex L. =Stratiotes L. (Hydrocharit.). 
Aloitis Raf. (Gentiana Tourn. p.p.). Gentian, (i). 4 W. and C. N. Am. 
Alomia H. B. et K. Conipositae (2). 10 trop. Am., Chili. 
Alona Lindl. Nolanaceae (Convolv. BH.). 15 Chili. 
Alonsoa Ruiz et Pav. Scrophulariaceae (n. i). 6 trop. Am. 
Alopecurus L. Gramineae (8). 25 temp. Eurasia. 4 Brit. incl. 

A. pratensis L., foxtail, cult, for pasture. Fl. protog. 
Alophia Herb. (Herbertia BH.}. Irid. (ll). 7 warm Am. Cult. orn. fl. 
Aloysia Ort. et Palau ex L'Herit. = Lippia L. p.p. (Verben.). 
Alpestris (-Lat.), growing at high levels, below the tree line. 
Alphandia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). 2 New Cal. 
Alphitonia Reissek. Rhamnaceae. 5 Austr., Malaya, Polynesia. 
Alphonsea Hook. f. et Thorns. Anonaceae (i). 12 trop. As. 
Alphonseopsis E. G. Baker. Anonaceae (i). i Nigeria. 
Alpine, at high levels, above the tree line; =rosa, Rhododendron. 
Alpinia L. Zingiberaceae (i). 140 warm As., Polynesia. K small 

tubular, C with short tube and 3 large teeth, big labellum ; lat. stds. 

much reduced or absent; anther lobes divided by broad connective. 

A. officinarum Hance (China) gives rhizoma galangae. 
Alsad (Cl.), a grove plant; alsium, a grove formation. 
Alseis Schott. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 4 trop. Am. 

Alseodaphne Nees (Persea p.p. EP.}. Lauraceae (i). 10 Indomal. 
Alseuosmia A. Cunn. Caprifoliaceae. 5 N.Z. 
Alsike, Trifolhun hybridum L. 
Alsinastrum Schur. = Elatine L. (Elatin.). 

Alsine Scop. (Arenaria L. BH.}. Caryophyll. (i. i). 60 j&, Chili. 
Alsinodendron H. Mann. Caryophyllaceae (i. i). i Sandwich Is. 
Alsinopsis Small (Arenaria L. p.p.). Caryophyllaceae (i. i). 10 N. Am. 
Alsocydia Mart. = Bignonia L., Lundia DC., &c. (Bignon.). 
Alsodeia Thou. (Rinorea Aubl.). Violaceae. 80 trop., sub-trop. 
Alsodeiidium Engl. = Alsodeiopsis Oliv. 
Alsodeiopsis Oliv. Icacinaceae (Olacin. BH.}. 7 trop. Afr. 
Alsomitra M. Roem. Cucurbitaceae (i). 10 palaeotrop. 
Alsophila R. Br. Cyatheaceae. j So trop. Large tree ferns with naked 

sori (the only gen. of C. without indusium). The stems yield a sago. 
Alstonia R. Br. Apocyn. (i. 3). 30 Indomal. L. whorled. Bark tonic. 
Alstroemeria L. Amaryllidaceae (in). 50 S. Am. L. twisted at base 

so that true upper surface faces down (internal anatomy also reversed). 

Caps, splits explosively. Cult. orn. fl. 

Altamiranoa Rose (Cotyledon Tourn. p.p. EP.}. Crassul. 12 Mex. 
Altensteinia H. B. et K. Orchidaceae (n. 3). 12 Andes. 
Alternanthera Forsk. (excl. Mogiphanes Mart. BH.}. Amarantaceae (3). 

70 trop., sub-trop. Cult. orn. 1. 
Alternate (1.), one at a node. 
Alternation of Generations, cf. Pteridophyta. 
Althaea (Tourn.) L. Malvaceae (2). 15 temp. ]*, 2 Brit. incl. A. offi- 

dnalis L., marsh-mallow; A. rosea Cav., hollyhock, cult. orn. fl. 
Althenia Petit. Potamogeton. (Naiad. BH.}. 2 W. Medit., 5 Austr. 

(Lepilaena]. Drumm.). 


Althoffla K. Schum. Tiliaceae. 3 New Guinea and Timor. 
Altingia Nor. Hamamelidaceae. 2 China to Java. A. excelsa Nor., 

rasamala, one of the largest trop. trees. $ fl. reduced to naked sta. 

with basifixed anthers dehisc. lat., so that only by comparison with 

related forms can it be shown that the spike of sta. is really an infl. 

and not a fl. Timber good. 
Alum-root, Heuchera. 

Alvaradoa Liebm. Simarubaceae. 3 Mex., W.I. 
Alveolate, honey-combed. 
Alvesia Welw. Labiatae (vn). i trop. Afr. 

Alvisia Lindl. (Eria p.p. BH. non Hook. f.). Orchid. (11. 15). i Ceylon. 
Alvordia T. S. Brandegee. Compositae (5). 2 Calif., Mex. 
Alysicarpus Neck. (Fabricia Scop.). Leguminosae (in. 7). 16 trop. 
Alyssopsis Boiss. Cruciferae (4). 2 Persia. 
Alyssum Tourn. ex L. (incl. Berteroa DC., Schivereckia Andrz. BH.). 

Cruciferae (4). 100 Medit., Eur. Cult. perf. fl. 

Alyxia Banks. (Gynopogon Forst.). Apocyn. (1.3). 40 Madag., Indomal. 
Alzatea Ruiz et Pav. Celastraceae. i Peru. 
Amaioua Aubl. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 5 Guiana, Brazil. 
Amalocalyx Pierre. Apocynaceae (II. i). i Cochinchina. 
Amalophyllon T. S. Brandegee. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). i Mex. 
Amanoa Aubl. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 6 trop. Am., Afr., Madag. 
Amaraboya Linden ex Mast. (Blakea p.p. EP.}. Melastom. (i). 3 Colo. 
Amaracarpus Blume. Rubiaceae (n. 5). 3 Malay Archip. 
Amaracus Gled. (Origanum Tourn. p.p. BH.) Labiatae (vi). 13 E. 

Amaralia Welw. (Sherbournia G. Don, BH.). Rubiaceae (i. 8). 

5 trop. Afr. 
Amarantaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Centrospermae.) 

40 gen., 500 sp. trop. and temp., usu. herbs or shrubs with opp. 

or alt. entire exstip. 1. Fl. in axillary cymes, the whole infl. being 

racemose, $ , rarely unisex., reg. P 4 5 or (4 5), usu. membranous, 

A i 5 opp. P, united below, G (2 3), i-loc., with oo i ov. 

Seed usu. with shiny testa. Embryo curved ; endosp. 
Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : 

1. Celosieae (ov. > i, anther 4-loc.) : Celosia. 

2. Amaranteae (ov. t; anther 4-loc.): Amaranthus, Aerva, 


3. Gomphreneae (anther 2-loc.) : Gomphrena, Alternanthera, 


Amarantellus Spegazz. Amarantaceae (2). i Arg. 

Amaranthus L. (incl. Blitum L.). Amarantaceae (2). 45 trop. and 
temp. Cult. orn. fl. (love-lies-bleeding, prince's feather). Infl. of 
c fl. A. gangeticus L., &c., are pot herbs in India, &c.; A. cattdatus 
L., A. paniculatus L., &c., give ed. grain, used as a cereal in trop. As. 

Amarella Gilib., Raf.. Griseb. (Gentiana L. p.p.). Gent. (i). 15 N. Am. 

Amarenus C. Presl-Trifolium L. p.p. (Legum.). 

Amaroria A. Gray. Simarubaceae. i Fiji. 

Amarus (Lat.), bitter. 

Amaryllidaceae (EP., BH. incl. Velloziac.). Monocots. (Liliiflorae). 
75 g en -> 7 S P- most ly tr P- or sub-trop. Living in dry climates, they 


are usu. xero., many bulbous, leafing only in the rains, some covered 
with wax (Agave), ill have ordinary stems, many have rhiz. Infl. 
usu. on a scape, with spathe, always cymose, but often umbel- or 
head-like by condensation. Fl. $ , reg. or [ (transv. so in Anigo- 
zanthos). P 3 + 3 petaloid, A 3 + 3, G (3), rarely -inf., 3-loc. with 
axile plac. and oo anatr. ov. In some (Narcissus and allies) there 
is a conspic. corona, looking like an extra whorl of P, between the 
normal P and the sta., sometimes looked on as combined ligular out- 
growths of the 1. of P, sometimes as stipules of sta. (as seen in various 
stages in the series Caliphruria, Sprekelia, Eucharis, Narcissus). Caps, 
or berry. Veg. repr. by bulbils common. [BH. chars. (Atnaryllideae}, 
incl. fl. sol., A oo in bundles, placentae lamellate thickened at outer 

Classification and chief genera (after Pax) : 
Anthers introrse. 

I. AA1ARYLLID01DEAE (bulbous, scapigerous) : Haeman- 

thus, Galanthus, Amaryllis, Crinum, Eucharis, Narcissus. 

II. AGAVOIDEAE (rhiz.; 1. fleshy, in rosettes): Polianthes, 

Agave, Furcrea. 

III. HYPOXIDOIDEAE (rhiz.; stem with small ordinary 1.): 

Alstroemeria, Bomarea, Anigozanthos. 
Anthers extrorse. 


Amaryllis L. (Belladonna Sweet). Amaryllidaceae (i). i Cape Col. 

A. bdladonna L., cult. orn. fl. (the A. of greenhouses = H ippeas- 


Amasonia L. f. Verbenaceae (i). 6 Brazil to Trinidad. 
Amatnad (Cl. ), a sandhill pi.; amatMum, a sandhill formation. 
Amauria Benth. Compositae (6). 2 SW.U.S. 
Amauriella Rendle. Araceae (iv). i Nigeria. 
Amauriopsis Rydberg. Compositae (6). i U.S. 
Ambaitaa Barrere ex O. Ktze. = Cecropia L. (Moraceae). 
Ambelania Aubl. Apocynaceae (i. i). 6 Brazil to Venezuela. 
Amberboa Less., Pers.^Volutarella Cass., Centaurea L., &c. 
Ambiguous, of uncertain origin or doubtful position. 
Amtalogyna Raf. = Amaranthus L. p.p. (Amarant.). 
Amblostoma Scheidw. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 3 trop. S. Am. 
Amblyanthera Muell.-Arg. =Mandevilla Lindl. (Apocyn.). 
Amblyanthopsis Mez. (Ardisia Sw. p.p.). Myrsin. (n. i). 2 Indomal. 
Amblyanthus A. DC. Myrsinaceae (11. i). 3 Assam. 
Amblygonocarpus Maims. Leguminosae (i. 4). i Centr. Afr. 
Amblyocalyx Benth. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 2 Borneo. 
Amblyocarpum Fisch. et Mey. Compositae (4). i near Caspian Sea. 
Amblyopappus Hook, et Am. Compositae (6). 2 Chili. 
Amblystigma Benth. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 2 Arg., Bolivia. 
Ambora Juss. = Tambourissa Sonner. (Monim.). 
Amborella Baill. Monimiaceae. i New Cal. 
Amboyna wood, Pterocarpus mdicits Willd. (?). 
Ambrosia L. Compositae (5). 15 Am., Afr. trop. Heads unisex. 

the ? one-flowered. Fr. enclosed in the invol. 
Ambrosinia L. Araceae (vn). i Medit. 


Ambulia Lam. (Limnophila R. Br., Terebinthina Rumph. ex O. Ktze.). 
Scrophulariaceae (ll. 6). 30 palaeotrop. 

Amburana Schwacke et Taub. (Torresea Allem. EP.). Legum. (11. 3). 
i Minas Geraes, Brazil. Good timber. 

Ameghinoa Spegazz. Compositae (12). i Patagonia. 

Amelanchier Medic. Rosaceae (11). 10 N. temp. 

Ameletia DC. =Ammannia Houst. (Z?//.) = Rotala L. (Lythr.). 

Amellus L. Compositae (3). 10 S. Afr. 

Amentaceae, the catkinate families, Salicaceae, Juglandaceae, Betula- 
ceae, Fagaceae; amentaceous, catkin-bearing; amentum, a catkin. 

American aloe, Agave; -cowslip, Dodecatheon\ -ebony, Brya Ebemis 
DC.; -elemi, Bursera gummifera L. ; -fly-trap, Apocynum andro- 
saemifolium L. ; -laurel, Kalniia ; -mastic, Sckimis molle L. ; -water- 
weed, Elodea canadensis Michx. ; -witch-elder, Fothergilla. 

Amerimnon P. Br. = Dalbergia L. f. (Legum.). 

Amethystea L. Labiatae (I. i). i Siberia, E. Russia. 

Amherstia Wall. Leguminosae (n. 3). i Burma, A. nobilis, Wall., 
a tree often cult, for its splendid fl. Stalk and br. as well as pets, are 
bright pink. Sta. united in a tube. The young L, covered with 
brownish spots, hang down " as if poured out " ; later they stiffen, 
turn green and come to the horiz. position (Keeble, Ann. Bot. IX. 59). 

Ainianthlum A. Gray (Zygadenus Michx.). Liliaceae (i). i All. Am. 

Amicia H. B. et K. Leguminosae (in. 7), 5 Andes. In A. Zygomeris 
DC. the large stips. protect the bud. 

Ammannia (Houst.) L. Lythraceae. 20 cosmop. 

Ammi (Tourn. ) L. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 7 Medit., trop. Afr. 

Ammiopsis Boiss. Umbelliferae (in. 2). 2 NW. Afr. 

Ammobium R. Br. Compositae (4). i New S. Wales. A. alatum 
R. Br. cult, for the fl. heads, dried to form ' everlastings." 

Ammobroma Torr. Lennoaceae. i New Mex., Calif. 

Ammocallis Small = Vinca L. (BH.) = Lochnera Reichb. (Apocyn.). 

Ammocharis Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 S. and trop. Afr. 

Ammochloa Boiss. Gramineae (10). 2 Medit. 

Arnmochtliad (Cl.), a sandbank pi. ; -thium, a sandbank formation. 

Ammodaucus Coss. et Dur. (Daucus p.p.). Umbellif. (in. 8). i Algeria. 

Ammodendron Fisch. ex DC. Leguminosae (in. i). 5 W. As. 

Ammodenia Patrin = Arenaria L. p.p. (BH.) = Alsine Scop. p.p. 

Ammoniacum, gum-, Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. 

Ammophila Host. Gramineae (8). 4 N. temp. A. (Psamma) arundi- 
nacea Host, (marram) common on sandy coasts in Brit., and much 
used for sand-binding. After some years a light soil forms, in which 
other pi. take root. The 1. curl inwards in dry air. 

Ammoselinum Torr. et Gray. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 3 N. Am. 

Ainmospenna Hook. f. Cruciferae (2). 2 Medit. 

Ammothamnus Bunge. Leguminosae (in. i). 2 W. As. 

Amoenus (Lat. ), sweet, pleasant. 

Amomum L. Zingiberaceae (2). 150 paleotrop. Fl. usu. on scapes 
from the rhiz. ; wings and keel absent, standard folding round sta.- 
tube at base. Prolog, with persistent stigma. 

Amoora Roxb. Meliaceae (in). 20 Indomal. 

Amoreuxia Mo. et Sesse. Cochlosperm. (Bixin. BH.). 3 Centr. Am. 


Amoria C. Presl = Trifolium Tourn. p.p. (Legum.). 

Amorpba L. Leguminosae (in. 6). 15 N. Am. Wings and keel o; 

stan Jard folds round base of sta.-tube. Prolog, with persistent stigma. 
Amorphocalyx Ivlotzsch = Sclerolobium Vog. p.p. (Legum.). i Guiana. 
Amorphopballus Blume (incl. Hydros/tie, Synantherias, BH.). Araceae 

(iv). 30 trop. As. Usu corm like rhiz., giving yearly a big 1. (up 

to 10 ft.) and infl. (in A. Titanum Becc. 3 ft. high), with $ fl. above 

and ? below. Its dirty red colour and foetid smell attract carrion 

flies, which sometimes lay eggs on the spadix. 
Amorphospermum F. Muell. {Lucumn p.p. BH.). Sapot. (i). i trop. E. 


Amorphous, shapeless. 

Ampacus Rumpn. ex O. Ktze. =Evodia Forst. (Rutac.). 
Ampalis Boj. Moraceae (i). 2 Madag. 
Ampelanus Raf. = Enslenia Nutt (Asclep.) 3 W. N. Am. 
Ampelidaceae, Ampelideae {BH.) = Vitaceae. 
Ampelocera Klotzsch. Ulmaceae. 2 trop. Am., W. I. 
Ampelocissus Planch. (Iritis L. p.p. BH.). Vitaceae. 65 trop. 
Ampelodaphne Meissn. Lauraceae (11). 5 Brazil, Guiana 
Ampelodesma Beauv. Grammeae (10). i Medit. When young used 

as fodder. The 1. used like esparto (Stipa). 

Ampelodonax Lojac. (Arundo Tourn. p.p.). Gramin. (10). i Sicily. 
Ampelopsis (L. C. Rich, in) Michx. p.p. ( Vitis L. p.p. BH.). Vitaceae. 

24 temp, and subtrop. As. Am. For garden A. cf. Parthenocissits. 
Ampelosicyos Thou. =Telfairia Hook. (?) Cucurbitac. i Madag. 
Ampelothamnus Small (Andromeda p.p.). Ericaceae (n. i). i Florida. 
Amperea A. Juss. Euphorbiaceae (B. n). 6 Austr., Tasm. 
Arupherepbis H. B. et K. =Centratherum Cass. ^Compos.). 
Amphi- ((ir. pref.), both; -bious pi., pi. which can live in water or 

on land, Peflis, Pfffygonum ; -carpic, with two kinds of fr. , Aethionenia, 

Cardamine, Dickondra, Dimorphotheca ; -mixis, sexual repr. ; -tropous 

(ovule), turning both ways on stalk. 

Ampbiacbyris Nutt. (Gutierrezia Benth. p.p.). Comp. (3). 2 Calif. 
Ampbiantbus Torr. Scrophulariaceae (ll. 6). i Georgia. 
Ampbibecis Schrank-=Cemratherum Cass. (Comp.). 
Amphiblemma Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 5 trop. W. Afr. Cult. orn. 
Ampbiblestra Presl. Polypodiaceae. i Venezuela. 
Ampbibolis C. Agardh. (C_ymodoceaK.on.p.p. EP.). Potamoget. i Austr. 
Amphibromus Nees. Gramineae (9). i Austr. 
Amphicarpaea Ell. Leguminosae (in. 10). 18 trop. and N. Am., 

E. As. Some have cleist. fl. below, which give subterranean fr. like 


Amphlcarpum Kunth (-on Raf.). Gramineae (5). 2 S.E. U.S. 
Amphicome Royle. Bignoniaceae (2). 2 Himal. 
AmpMcosmia Gardn. = Hemitelia R. Br. (Cyatheac.). 
Ampbidetes Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 2 Rio de Janeiro. 
Ampbidonax Nees = Arundo L. and Zenkeria Trin. (Gram.) 
AmpWdoxa DC. Compositae (4). 6 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 
Ampbiestes Sp. Moore. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Madag. 
Amphigena Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. i). 2 Cape Colony. 
Ampbiglossa DC. Compositae (4). 4 S. Afr. 
AmpMlocbia Mart. =Qualea Aubl. p.p. (Vochys.). 

W. -2 


Ampbilopbis Nash (Andropogon L. p.p.). Gramineae (2). 4 U.S. 

Ainpbilopbium Kunth. Bignoniaceae (i). 10 warm Am. 

Ampbimas Pierre. Leguminosae (n. 8). 2 Gaboon. 

Arnpliiodon Huber. Leguminosae (in. 6). i Amazon valley. 

Ampbipogon R. Br. Gramineae (8). 6 Austr. 

Ampbirbapis DC. = Inula L., Microglossa DC., Solidago L. 

Ampbirrbox Spreng. Violaceae. 3 trop. Am. 

Ampbistelma Griseb. =Vincetoxicum (..//.);= Metastelma (Ascl.). 

Ampbitecna Miers. Bignoniaceae (4). 2 Mex. 

Ampbitbalea Eckl. et Zeyh. Leguminosae (in. 3). 10 S. Afr. 

Ampborantbus Sp. Moore =Phaeoptilum Radlk. p.p. (Nyctag.). 

Ampborcbis Thou. = Cynorchis Thou. p.p. (Orchid.). 

Ampborella T. S. Brandegee. Asclepiad. (n. i). i Mex. 

Ampboricarpus Vis. Compositae (i i). 2 S.E. Eur. 

Ampborocalyx Baker. Melastomaceae (i). i Madag. 

Amphymenium H. B. et K. = Pterocarpus L. p. p. ( Legum.). 1 5 trop.S.Am. 

Amplectecs (Lat.), embracing ; amplexicaul, clasping the stem. 

Amsinckia Lehm. Boraginaceae (iv. 2). 15 Pac. Am. 

Amsonia Walt. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 10 N. Am., Japan. 

Amydrium Schott (Epipremnum P.). Arac. (ii). i Malay Arch. 

Amygdalopsis Carr. Prunus Tourn. p.p. (Rosac ). 

Amygdalus (Tourn.) L. = Prunus Tourn. p.p. (Rosac.). 

Amylaceous, starchy; amyloid, starch-like. 

Amylocarpus Barb. Rodr. (Buctris'L. p.p.). Palmaceae(iv. 2). 2oBrazil. 

Amyris P. Br. Rutaceae (iv) (Burseraceae BH.). 12 trop. Am., W.I. 

Anabasis L. Chenopodinceae (B). 20 Medit., C. As. 

Anabata WiHd.=Faramea Aubl. (Logan.). 

Anacampseros L. Portulacaceae. 15 S. Afr. Xero. with fleshy 1., 
and buds protected by bundles of hair, representing slips. 

Anacamptis Rich. (Orchis p.p. BH.}. Orchid, (n. i). i Eur. N. Afr. 

Anacampt-orcbis x G. Camus, hybrid with Orchis. 2 S.W. Eur. 

Anacardiaceae (EP.; >H.\nc\. C0rynocarpaceae,Julia.niaceae), Dicots. 
(Archichl. Sapindales). 60 gen., 500 sp., chiefly trop., but also 
Medit., E. As., Am. Trees and shrubs with alt. exstip. 1., and 
panicles of oo fl. Resin-passages occur, but the 1. are not gland- 
dotted (hence they cannot be confounded with Rutaceae). Recept. 
convex, flat, or concave ; gynophores, etc., occur. Fl. typically 
5-merous, reg., hypog. to epig. ; A 105 or other number; G (3-1) 
rarely 5, each with i anatr. ov., often only one fertile. Usually drupe 
with resinous mesocarp ; embryo curved ; no endosperm. The fr. 
of Mangifera, Anacardium, Spondias, Pistacia, &c., are important. 
Rhus furnishes various useful products. [BH. cbars. include chars, 
of Corynocarpus and Julianiaceae, both rare; fam. in Sapindales.] 
Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : 

A. 5 free cpls., or i. L. simple, entire: 

1. Mangifereae: Mangifera, Anacardium. 

B. Cpls. united. L. rarely simple : 

2. Spotidieae (ovules in each cpl.) : Spondias. 

3. Rhoideae (i ovule only, ovary free) : Pistacia, Rhus. 

4. Semecarpeae (do., ovary sunk in axis) : Semecarpus. 

C. Cpl. i. ? fl. naked. L. simple, toothed: 

5. Dobineae: Dobinea (only genus). 


Anacardium L. Anacardiaceae (i). 8 trop. Am.; A. occidental L. 

(cashew-nut) largely cult. Fl. polygamous. Each has i cpl. yielding 

a kidney-shaped nut with hard acrid coat. The nut (promotion nut, 

coffin-nail) is ed. Under it the axis swells up into a pear-like body, 

fleshy and ed. The stem yields a gum like arabic. 
Anacnaris Rich. = Elodea Michx. (Hydrochar.). 
Anacolosa Blume. Olacaceae (Olacin. BH.\. :o Indomal. 
Anacyclus L. Compositae (7). 15 Medit. Some offic. (radix pyrethri). 
Anadendrum Schott. Araceae (i). 6 Indomal. 
Anadenia R. Br. = Grevillea R. Br. p.p. (Proteac.). 
Anaectocalyx Triana. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Venezuela. 
Anagallis (Tourn.) L. Primulaceae. 18 Eur., As., Afr., S. Am., 

2 Brit, (pimpernel). The fl. of A. ai-vensis L. (poor man's weather 

glass) closes in dull or cold weather. 
Anaglypha DC. Compositae (4). 2 S. Afr. 
Anagosperma Wettst. Scrophulariaceae (ill. 3). i N.Zealand. 
Anagyris L. Legum. (m. 2). 2 Medit. A. Lour. = Ormosia Jacks. 
Analogous (organs), agreeing in function, but not in descent, mode of 

origin, nor position; e.g. the r.-like 1. of Salvinia are analogous to r. 
Anamirta Colebr. Menispermaceae. 7 Indomal. The achenes of A. 

Coccnlus Wight et Am. (Cocculus indicus) are used to adulterate 

porter. In the angles between the big veins of the 1. are little 

cavities covered by hairs and inhabited by mites (acaro-domatia). 
Anamomis Griseb. = Eugenia L. p.p. (Myrt.). 5 W.I. 
Ananas Tourn. ex L. (Ananassa Lindl.). Bromeliaceae (4). 5 trop. 

Am., incl. A. sativus Schult., the pine-apple, largely cult, in Sandw. 

Is., Singapore, &c. Stem short and leafy, terrestrial, bearing a term. 

infl., which after fert. forms a common mass, fr. bracts, and axis, 

while the main axis grows beyond and forms a tuft of 1. the crown 

of the pineapple. Some vars. cult. orn. 1. 
Anandrous, without sta. 

Ananthaeorus Underw. et Moxon ( Taenitis p.p.) Polypod. i trop. Am. 
Anantherix Nutt. = Asclepiodora A. Gray (BH. ) - Asclepias L. p.p. 
Anapeltis J. Sm. =Polypodium L. (Filic.). 
Anaphalis DC. Compositae (4). 40 As., Eur., Am. Hairy. 
Anaphrenium E. Mey. (Heeria Meissn. EP.}. Anacard. (3). 7 Afr. 
Anaphyllum Schott. Araceae (iv). 2 S. India. 
Anarrhinum Desf. (Simbulda EP.). Scroph. (n. 3). 12 Medit. 
Anarthria R. Br. Restionaceae. 6 S.W. Austr. 
Anarthrophyllum Benth. Leguminosae (in. 3). 12 Andes. 
Anartia Miers (Tabernaemontana L. p.p.). Apocyn. (i. 3). 7 trop. 

Anastatica L. Cruciferae(4). i E. Medit., A. hierochuntina L. (rose 

of Jericho). While the seeds are ripening in the dry season the 1. 

fall off and the branches fold inwards, reducing the pi. to a ball 

of wickerwork, which rolls about with the pods closed until it reaches 

a wet spot, or the rainy season begins. 
Anastomosis, reunion of branches. 

Anastrabe E. Mey. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). i S. Afr. 
Anastraphia D. Don. Compositae (12). 10 W. Ind. 
Anastropnus Schlecht.-Paspalum L. p.p. (Gram.), i U.S. 

3 2 


Anatherum Beauv. = Andropogon L. p.p. (Gram.). 

Anatropanthus Schlecht. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i Borneo. 

Anatropous (ovule), reversed on stalk. 

Anaxagorea St. Hil. Anonaceae (i). 15 trop. As., Am. 

Anaxeton Gaertn. Compositae (4). 7 S. W. S.Afr. 

Ancad, a canon plant. 

Anceps (Lat.), ancipitous, two-edged. 

Anehietea A. St. Hil. Violaceae. 4 trop. S. Am. 

Anchomanes Schott. Araceae (iv). 5 trop. Afr. 

Anchonium DC. Cruciferae (4). 3 W. As. 

Anchovy pear, Grias caulijlora L. 

Ancnusa L. Boragin. (iv. 3). 45 Eur., N. Afr., W. As. A. officinalis 

L. was formerly offic., and is widely scattered (escape in Brit.). 
Ancistranthus Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Cuba. 
Ancistrocarpus Oliv. Tiliaceae. 2 trop. W. Afr. 
Ancistrocarya Maxim. Boraginaceae (iv. 4). i Japan. 
Ancistrochilus Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. 9). 2 trop. Afr. 
Ancistrocladaceae (EP. Dipterocarpaceae, p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archi- 

chl. Parietales.) Only gen. Ancistrocladus (q-v.}. 
Ancistrocladus Wall. Ancistrocladaceae. 12 palaeotrop. Sympodial 

lianes, each member ending in a watch-spring tendril. L. alt., 

lanceolate, entire, with minute stips. Racemose infl. of reg. fl. 

K 5, teeth unequal; C (5) slightly united, convolute; A 5 or 10; 

G i-loc. with i basal erect semi-anatr. ov. Nut. Endosperm. 
Ancistrophyllum G. Mann et H. Wendl. Palmae (in). 4 W. Afr. 
Ancistrorhynchus Finet. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 2 trop. Afr. 
Ancistrum Forst. = Acaena L. (Rosac. ). 
Ancrumia Harv. Liliaceae (iv). i Chili. 

Ancylacanthus Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i New Guinea. 
Ancylanthos Desf. Rubiaceae (n. i). 4 trop. Afr. 
Ancylobothrys Pierre (Landolphia p.p.). Apocyn. (i. i). 6 trop. Afr. 
Ancylocladus Wall. = Willughbeia Roxb. (Apocyn.). 
Ancylogyne Nees = Sanchezia Ruiz et Pav. (Acanth.). 
Andersonia R. Br. (Sprengelia p.p. EP.}. Epacrid. (2). 20 W. Austr. 
Andes rose, Be/aria racemosa Vent, and other spp. 
Andira Lam. ( Vonacapoua Aubl.). Legum. (in. 8). 25 trop. Am., Afr. 

A. inermis H.B. et K. (angelin) is a rain-tree (cf. Pithecolobium) ; 

its wood (partridge-wood) is useful. 
Andiroba, Carapa spp. 

Andrachne L. Euphor'oiaceae (A. i. i). 15 trop. and subtrop. 
Andradaea Allem. Nyctaginaceae (? Phytolac.). i Rio de Janeiro. 
Andradia T. R. Sim. Leguminosae (n. 9). i trop. Afr. 
Andrea Mez. Bromeliaceae (4). i C. Brazil. 
Andreoskia (Andrzeiowskyd) Reichb. Crucif. (2). i E. Medit. 
Andriapetalum Pohl = Panopsis Salisb. (Proteac.). 
Andro- (Gr. pref.), male; -dioecious, 5 and <? on separate pi., Acer, 

Dryas; -eceum, the stamens (q.v.) ; -gynous, monoecious in one infl.; 

-monoecious, g and t? on same pi., Acer, Veralniin ; -phore, an 

elongation of the axis between C and A, Capparidaceae, Caryophyl- 

laceae, Elaeocarfnceae, Passiftora. 
Androcentrum Lem. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i Mex. 


Androcephalium Warb. (Lunasia Blanco). Euph. (A. n. 2). i N. 

Androcera Nutt. (Solatium L. p.p.)- Solanaceae (2). 3 N. Am. 

Androchilus Liebm. (Liparis Rich, p.p.) Orchid, (n. 4). i Mex. 

Androcymbium Willd. Liliaceae (i). 20 Medit., S. Afr. 

Androgxaphis Wall. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 20 trop. As. (char.). 

Androlepis Brongn. (Aechmea p.p. BH.). Bromel. (4). 2 Guatemala. 

Andromachia Humb. et Bonpl. =Liabum Adans. p.p. (Compos.). 

Andromeda L. Eric. (u. i). 6 N.temp. and cold, i Brit. Cult. orn. fl. 

Andromycia A. Rich. (Xanthosoma Schott p.p.). Arac. (vi). i Cuba. 

Andropogon L. (excl. Cymbopogon Spreng., Vetiveria Thou., etc.). 
Gramineae (2). 180 cosmop. The sp. yielding aromatic oils are 
now chiefly placed in the excluded genera (t/.v-). A. odoratus Lieb. 
is the ginger grass, from which an oil is prepared. Cf. Stapf in Kew 
Bull. 1906, p. 297. 

Andropus Brand. Hydrophyllaceae. i New Mexico. 

Androsace (Tourn.) L. Priinulaceae. 80 N. temp. Tufted xerophytes. 
Often heterostyled like Primula. Cult. orn. fl. 

Androsaemum Tourn. ex Adans. = Hypericum L. (Guttif.). 

Androsiphonia Stapf. Flacouit. (6). (Passifl. BH.} i trop. Afr. 

Androstachys Prain. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i trop. Afr. 

Androstephium Torr. (Bessera EP.). Liliac. (iv). 3 Mex. Calif. 

Androtium Stapf. Anacardiaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Androtrichum Brongn. Cyperaceae (i). i E. temp. S. Am. 

Andruris Schlechter. Triuridaceae. 6 Indomal. 

Andryala L. Compositae (13). 15 Medit. 

Andrzeiowskya Reichb. Cruciferae (2). i As. Minor. 

Anechites Griseb. Apocynaceae (i. 3). i Cuba. 

Aneilema R. Br. Commelinaceae. 85 trop. esp. ]*-. 

Aneirnia Sw. Schizaeaceae. 80 trop. and subtrop. The 1. divides at 
the base (cf. fronds of Ophioglossaceae) into sterile and fertile portions. 
The two lowest pinnae form a pair of panicles bearing sori (cf. Os- 
munda), resembling the infl. of many fl. plants. 

Anelasma Miers = Abuta Aubl. p.p. (Menisp.). 5 W. I., S. Am. 

Anelytrum Hackel. Gramineae (9). i Italy. 

Anemarrhena Bunge. Liliaceae (ill). T N. China. 

Anemo- (Gr. pref.), wind-; -philous (fl.), pollinated by wind, usu. 
showing dry incoherent pollen, freely accessible to wind, large 
stigmas, and lack of conspicuousness, Artemisia, Betidaceae, Caliuna, 
Carex, Casuarina, Coniferae, Coiylus, Cycadaceae, Cyperaceae, Elae- 
agnaceae, Empetrum, Fraximis, Gramineae, Hiimiihis,Juglandaceae, 
Jimcaceae, Littorella, Mercurialis, Myrothamnaceae, Platanus, Pota- 
mogeton, Quercus, Rumex, Sparganium, Spinacia, Thalictrum, Tri- 
glochin, Typhaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Zea, &c. 

Anemoisandra Pohl. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Anemone L. Ranunculaceae (3). 120 cosmop. A. nemorosa (wood 
anemone) and A. Pulsatilla L. (pasque fl.) Brit. Herbs with rhiz. 
and radical 1. Fl. sol. or in cymes, apet. ; the invol. of green 1. in 
the hepatica (A. Hepatica L.) is so close to the fl. as to resemble a K. 
The fl of the first named contains no honey, is white, and visited for 
pollen (class Po.) ; that of the third is blue and bee-visited, while in 


the second there is honey secreted by stds., and the long-tubed blue 
fl. is visited mainly by bees. The achenes of many spp. have hairs 
aiding wind-dispersal. Cult. orn. fl. 

Anemonopsis Sieb. et Zucc. Ranunculaceae (2). i Japan. 

Anemonospermos Bohm. Menispermaceae (inc. sed.). Nomen. 

Anemopaegma Mart. Bignoniaceae (i). 40 trop. S. Am. 

Anemopsis Hook, et Arn. (Hoiittnynia BH.). Saurur. r California. 

Anepsias Schott. (Rhodospathafozw BH.). Arac. (n). i Venezuela. 

Anerincleistus Korth. Melastomaceae (i). 20 Malaya. 

Anetanthus Hiern. Gesneriaceae (i). 5 trop Am. 

Anethum Tourn. ex L. (Peucedanum BH.). Umbel, (in. 5). 2 W. As. 

Anetium (Kunze) Splitg. Polypod. i trop. Am. 

Aneulophus Benth. Erythroxyl. (Linac. BH.). i Guinea. 

Anfractuosus (Lat.), sinuous.. 

Angadenia Miers. Apocynaceae (inc. sed.). 30 Mex., S. Am. 

Angela Tidestrom. Myricaceae. I N. temp. 

Angeja Vand. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Angelesia Korth. (Trichocarya Miq. BH.}. Rosaceae (vi. b). 2 Sundas. 

Angelica (Riv.) L. (incl. Archangdica Hoffm.). Umbel, (in. 6). 
70 >(. and N. Z. The petioles of A. (Arch.) officinalis are offic., and 
are used in confectionery. 

Angelin tree (W. I.), Andira inermis H.B. et K. 

Angelocarpa Rupr. (Coelopfeurum Ledeb.). Umbel, (in. 5). r C. As. 

Angelonia Humb. et Bonpl. Scrophul. (11. i). 30 trop. Am., W. Ind. 

Angianthus Wendl. Compositae (4). 25 temp. Austr. Heads cpd. 

Angico gum, Piptadenia rigida Benth. 

Angiopetalum Reinw. Myrsinaceae (inc. sed.). i Java. 

Angiopteris Hoffm. Marattiaceae (i). 65 Madag., Indomal., A.evecta 
Hoffm. Large ferns with the sori not united into synangia as in most 
M. Annulus like that of Osmundaceae at apex of sporangium. The 
r. arise close to apex, and burrow down and outwards through the 
stem and leaf-bases, emerging some distance down. 

Angiospermae. One of the two great divisions of Spermaphyta, dis- 
tinguished from Gymnosperms by the fact that the cpls. are so infolded 
or arranged as to form an ovary in which the ovules are borne. 
Endosperm formed after, instead of before fert. 

All A. possess true fl., the essential parts of which are sta. and 
cpls. The former bear pollen-sacs ( = microsporangia of Pteridophyta), 
the latter ovules (megasporangia). The ovule is always enclosed in 
the cpl. ; it has two (or one) integuments, and usually one embryo- 
sac (more in some chalazogamic forms, Loranthaceae, &c.). The 
pollen-tube may enter by the micropyle or by the chalaza (cf. Chala- 
zogamae). Parthenogenesis, or development of the ovum into an 
embryo without fert., occurs in Antennaria, Akhemilla, Hieraciiim, 
Houttttynia, Thalictrum, IVikstroeiuia, &c., embryo formation by 
adv. budding in Alc/tornea, Citrus, Euonymus, Funkia,Nothoscordum, 
&c., apogamy (cf. Filicineae) in Balanophora. 

A. are divided into Mono- and Di-cotyledons (cf. classification at 
end of the book). 

Angkalanthus Balf. f. Acanthaceae (iv B). i Socotra. 

Angolaea Wedd. Podostemaceae. i Angola. 


Angophora Cav. Myrtaceae (n. i). 5 E. Austr. 

AngorcMs Thou. = Angraecum Bory (Orchid.). 

Angostura bark, Cusparia febrifuga Humb. 

Angostyles Benth. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). i N. Brazil. 

Angraecopsis Krzl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). i trop. E. Afr. 

Angraecum Bory. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 120 trop. Afr., Madag., Masc. 
Monopodial epiphytes, often cult. A. sesqinpfdale Thou, (wax-fl.) 
has an enormous spur a foot long, secreting honey at the bottom and 
is probably fert. by a moth with equal proboscis (cf. Yucca, Ficus). 
See Darwin's Orchids, p. 162. Some are leafless. 

Anguillaria R. Br. Lili. (i). 2 Austr., Tasm. A. Gaertn. = Ardisia. 

Anguillicarpus Burkil!. Cruciferae (2). i Beluchistan. 

Anguloa Ruiz et Pav. Orchid, (n. 12). 5 Peru, Colombia. 

Anguria (Tourn.) L. Cucurbit. (2). 25 tiop. Am. 

AnguriopsisJ. R. Johnston. Cucurbit. (2). i Venezuela. 

Angusti- (Lat. pref.), narrow-; -folius (Lat.), -leaved. 

Angylocalyx Taub. Leguminosae (in. i). 6 trop. Afr. 

Anhalonimn Lem. = Mammillaria Haw. (Bff.) = Ariocarpus Scheidw. 

Aniba Aubl. (Aydendron Nees, Ocotea BH). Lauraceae (n). 55 trop. 

Anigozanthos Labill. Amaryll. (in) (Haemod. BH.}. 8 S.W. Austr. 
Fl. transversely -|- . 

Anil Ludw. ex O. Ktze. = Indigofera L. (Legum.). 

Animals, seed-dispersal by, cf. Seed-dispersal. 

Anime (resin), copal. 

Anisacantha R. Br. (Bassia All. p.p. EP.}. Chenopodiaceae (A). 
6 Austr. 

Anisacanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 10 Am. 

Anisadenia Wall. Linaceae. 2 Himalaya. 

Anise, aniseed, Pimpinella Anisum L.; star-, -tree, Illiciiim verum 
Hook. f. 

Aniseia Choisy (Ipomoea L. p.p. BH.}. Convolv. (i). 15 trop. 

Aniselytroa Merrill. Gramineae (8). i Phil. Is. 

Aniserica N. E. Br. Ericaceae (iv. 2). i S. Afr. 

Aniso- (Gr. pref.), unequal- ; -merous, with numbers in the whorls; 
-phylly, with 1. at same node, Anisophyllea, Centradenia, Colum- 
nea, Gardenia, Gesneriaceae, Khigia, Melastoniaceae, Nyctaginaceae, 
Philadelphus, Randia, Sambitcus, Scrophularia, Strobilanthes, Taber- 

Anisocarpus Nutt. (Madia Molina). Compositae (5). 5 W. U.S. 

Anisochaeta DC. Compositae (4). i S. Afr. 

Anisochilus Wall. Labiatae (vn). 20 trop. As., Afr. 

Anisocoma Torr. et Gray. Compositae (13). i W. U.S. 

Anisocycla Baill. Menispermaceae. 6 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 

Anisodus Link et Otto = Scopola Jacq. p.p. (Solan.). 

Anisolobus A. DC. = Odontadenia Benth. (Apocyn.). 

Anisolotus Bernh. = Iiosaclda Dougl. (Legum.). 5 U.S. 

Anisomallon Baill. Icacin. (Olacin. BH.}. i New Caled. 

Anisomeles R. Br. Labiatae (vi). 6 Indomal. 

Anisomeria D. Don. Phytolaccaceae. 3 Chili. 

Anisomeris Presl (Chomelia Jacq.). Rubi. (n. 2). 17 trop. S. Am. 


Anlsonema A. Juss. = Phvllanthus L. p.p. (Euphorb.). 
Anisopappus Hook, et Am. Compos. (4). 8 S. China to S. Afr. 
Anisophyllea R. Br. Rhizophoraceae. 15 palaeotrop. It differs from 
other R. in its drupe fr., exalb. seed, and alt. exstip. sometimes 
anisophyllous 1. 

AnisophyUum Haw. = Euphorbia L. p.p. do Jacq. Inc. sed. i Baru. 
Anisopoda Baker Umbell. (in. 5). i Madag. 
Anisopogon R. Br. Gramineae (9). I Austr. 
Anisoptera Korth. Dipterocarpaceae. 20 E. Indomal. 
Anisopus N. E. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 2 trop. W. Afr. 
Anisosciadium DC. (Kchinophora L. BH.). Umbell. (in. i). i W. As. 
Anisosperma Manso. Cucurb (i). i Brazil. Seeds medicinal. 
Anisostachya Nees (Jnsticia BH.}. Acanth. (iv. B). 5 trop. Afr., 


Anisostigma Schinz. Aizoaceae (n). i Namaland. 
Anisotes Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 8 trop. Afr., Arabia. 
Anisothrix O. Hoffm. Compositae (4). i S. Afr. 
Anisotoma Eenzl. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i S. Afr. 
Anisotome Hook. f. = Aciphylla Forst. (Umbell.). 
Annatto, Bixa Orellatia L. 

Anneslea Wall. (Mountnorrisia Szysz.). Theac. 2 Indomal. 
Annesorrniza Cham, et Schlechtd. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). 10 S.Afr. 

A. capensis C. et S. has ed. roots. 
Annexed, adnate. 
Annona L. = Anona L. 

Annotinus (Lat.), applied to branches of last year's growth. 
Annual, annuus (Lat.), living one year only. 
Annulate, marked with rings. 

Annulus, Filicineae Lcptosp. 

Anochilus Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. i). ? S. Afr. 

Anoda Cav. Malvaceae (2). 10 trop. Am. Cult. orn. 

Anodal, in the upward direction on the genetic spiral. 

Anodendron A. DC. Apocynaceae (n. i). 10 Ceylon to China. 

Anodiscus Benth. Gesneriaceae (n). i Peru. 

Anodopetalum A. Cunn. Cunoniaceae. i Tasmania. 

Anoectochilus Blume. Orchidaceae (11. 2). 25 Indomal. Cult. orn. 1. 

Anoectomaria x Rolfe. Hybrid of last with Haemaria. 

Anogeissus Wall. Combretaceae. 5 trop. Afr., As. 

Anogra Spach (Oenothera L. p.p.). Onagrac. (2). 20 N. Am. 

Anogramma Link. Polypodiaceae. 10 trop. Am., Japan. 

Anoiganthus Baker. Amaryllidaceae (I). 2 Natal and trop. Afr. 

Anomalanthus Klotzsch = Simochilus Klotzsch (Eric.). 

Anomanthodia Hook. f. (Randia p.p. EP.}. Rubiac. (i. 8). i trop. As. 

Anomatheca Ker-Gawl. = Lapeirousia Pourr. (Irid.). 

Anomianthus Zoll. Anonaceae (i). i trop. As. 

Anomochloa Brongn. Gramineae (6). i Brazil. 

Anomopanax Harms. Araliaceae (3). 5 Malay Arch. 

Anomospermum Miers. Menispermaceae. 8 Brazil, Guiana. 

Anomostephium DC. =Aspilia Thou (Compos.). 

Anomotassa K. Schum. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i Ecuador. 

Anona L. .Anonaceae (4). 70 trop. esp. Am. Fr. aggregate, often 


very large, made up of the individual berries derived from the separate 
cpls., sunk in, and united with, the fleshy recept. That of some cult, 
sp. is ed., e.g. of A. Cherimolia Mill, (cherimoyer; trop. Am.), A. 
sqtianiosa L. (sweet sop, custard or sugar apple; E. Ind.), A. muricata 
L. (sour sop; trop. Am.) and A. reticnlata L. (custard-apple or 
bullock's heart; trop. Am.). 

A. (Geantheinuni) rhizantha Eichl. (Braz.) has rhizomes below 
the soil, bearing scale leaves only. The fls. are borne on branches 
of these above the ground. 

Anonaceae (EP. ; BH. incl. Eupomatiaceae). Dicots. (Archichl. Ra- 
nales). 46 gen. 820 sp. chiefly trop. (esp. Old World). Trees and 
shrubs (exc. one) with usu. two-ranked undivided exstip. 1. Stem 
sometimes sympodial, at least in infl. Oil passages present. 

Fls. reg. ? (rarely unisex.), solitary or in infl. of various types. 
Usu. formula P 3 + 3 + 3 (one or two outer whorls sepaloid); A oo 
(rarely few), spiral, hypog. ; G oo (Monodora is syncp.). Ovules usu. 
ao , ventral or basal, anatr. Fr. commonly an aggregate of berries, 
when many-seeded frequently constricted between the seeds. In 
Anona, &c. the berries coalesce with the receptacle. Ruminate en- 
dosperm (the chief character that separates A. from Magnoliaceae). 
Many yield ed. fr., e.g. Anona, Artabotrys. [BH. chars, incl. Po 
and fl. perig.] 

Classification and chief genera (after Prantl) : 

a. Apocarpous. 

1. Uvarieae (P unjointed or clawed with claws against sta. ): 

Uvaria, Asirnina, Guatteria, Unona, Cananga. 

2. Milhtseae (P valvate, usu. unequal, if clawed the claws away 

from sta.): Miliusa. 

3. Hexalobeae (P equal, with crossfolds in bud) : Hexalobus. 

4. Xylopieae (P hollow at base, constricted above it and 

again spread out or laterally compressed) : Xylopia, Arta- 
botrys, Anona. 

b. Syncarpous ; ov. uniloc. with parietal plac. 

5. Monodoreae: Monodora (only genus). 
[Placed in Ranales by BH.} 

Anonidium Engl. et Diels. Anonaceae (i). 2 W. trop. Afr. 

Anonymus Walt. Inc. sed. (pro omnibus dubiis). 

Anoplophytum Beer = Tillandsia L. (Bromel.). 

Anopteris (Prantl) Diels. Polypodiaceae. i trop. Am. 

Anopterus Labill. Saxifragaceae (v). 2 E. Austr., Tasm. 

Anopyxis Pierre. Rhizophoraceae. i trop. Afr. 

Anotis DC. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 25 Indo-mal., i S. Am. 

Auotites Greene. Caryophyllaceae (n.' i). 20 N. Am. 

Anoumabia A. Chevalier. Sapindaceae. i Ivory Coast. 

Anplectrum A. Gray (Diplectria Rchb.). Melastom. (i). 20 Malaya. 

Anredera fuss. Basellaceae. i trop. Am. 

Ansellia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 5). 4 trop. Afr., Natal. 

Ante- (Lat. pref.), before; -petalous (sta.), opp. petals; -posed, opp. 

and not alt. with. 

Antelaea Gaertn. Inc. sed. 2 Java. 
Antennaria Gaertn. Compositae (4). 75 extra-trop., exc. Afr. A. 


dioica Gaertn. (mountain everlasting, cat's foot) in Brit, is a small 

creeping dioec. perenn., hairy and semi-xero., occurring chiefly on 

hills and at the sea-shore, but not common in intermediate places. 

In A. alpina (L.) R. Br. only ? plants usu. occur, and show true 

parthenogenesis, the ovum developing into an embryo without fert. 

(not to be confused with the veg. budding of Alchornea). 
Anterior (side of fl.), facing the bract ; antero-posterior, median. 
Anthacanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 6 W. Ind. 
Anthaenantia Beauv. Gramineae (5). 8 warm Am. 
Anthagathis Harms. = Jollydora Pierre (Legum.). i trop. Afr. 
Anthelia Schott. Araceae (inc. sed.). i Celebes. 
Anthemis Mich, ex L. Compositae (7). 120 Eur., Medit. (4 Brit., 

chamomile). The fr. of A. arvensis L. has papillae on its upper 

surface which become sticky when wet (cf. Linum). Shows suborder 

chars, well. A. nobilis L. (chamomile) fl. offic. 

Anthephora Schreb. Gramineae (3). 10 trop. Am., trop. and S. Afr. 
Anther, cf. Stamen ; -idium, Filicineae Lepto, Pteridophyta ; -ozoid, 

spermatozoid, Pteridophyta. 

Anthericopsis Engl. Commelinac. (Liliac. BH. ). i E. trop. Afr. 
Anthericum L. Liliaceae (in). 130 Afr., Eur., Am. 
Antheropeas Rydberg. Compos. (6). 5 N. Am. 
Antherothamnus N. E. Br. Scrophular. (n. 4). i S. Afr. 
Antherotoma Hook. f. Melastom. (i). 2 trop. Afr., Madag. 
Antherura Lour. Rubiaceae (inc. sed. ). i S.E. As., Malay Arch. 
Antherylium Rohr. et Vahl (Ginoria Jacq. p.p. EP.). Lythr. 2 Mex., 

W. Ind. 

Anthesis, flower-opening. 
Anthistiria L. f. ( Themeda). Gramineae (2). 15 palaeotrop. A.vul- 

garis Hack, (kangaroo grass) covers large areas in Austr. and S. Afr. 
Antho- (Gr. pref.), flower- ; -carp, Nyctaginaceae ; -lysis, retrograde 

metamorphosis of fl. ; -philous, fl. -visiting ; -phore, stalk between 

K and C; -taxy, arrangement of fl. 
Anthobembix Perkins. Monimiaceae. 3 New Guinea. 
Anthobolus R. Br. Santalaceae. 5 Austr. Hypogynous. 
Anthobryum Phil. Frankeniac. (? Primul.). 2 Bolivia. 
Anthocarapa Pierre (Amoora p.p.). Meliac. (in). 2 Cochin China. 
Anthocephalus A. Rich. Rubiaceae (i. 6). 3 Malaya. 
Anthocercis Labill. Solanaceae (5). 20 Austr. 
Anthochlamys Fen/,1. Chenopodiaceae (A), i W. Centr. As. 
Anthochloa Nees et Meyen. Gramineae (10). 3 Am. 
Anthocleista Afzel. Loganiaceae. 25 trop. Afr. 
Anthodiscus G. F. W. Mey. . Caryocarac. (Ternstr. BH.}. 4 trop. 

S. Am. 

Anthodon Ruiz et Pav. = Salacia L. (Hippocrat.). 
Anthogonium Wall, ex Lindl. Orchid, (n. 9). i Himalaya, Burma. 
Antholoma Labill. Elaeocarp. 3 New Caled., New Guinea. 
Antnolyza L. Iridaceae (m). 25 Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 
Antnopogon Neck. (Gentiana L. p.p.) Gentian. 5 N. Am. 
Anthopterus Hook. Ericac. (in. 2) (Vaccin. BH.}. 10 Andes. 
Anthospermum L. Rubiaceae (n. 7). 35 Afr., Madag. 
Anthostema A. Juss. Euphorb. (A. n. 8). 3 trop. Afr., Madag. Fls. 


in a cyathium like Euphorbia, but the <f , reduced as in E. to i sta., 
has a P where in E. there is a joint. The ? also has a P. 

Anthostyrax Pierre (Styrax p.p.). Styracaceae. i Tonquin. 

Anthotium R. Br. Goodeniaceae. 2 S.W. Austr. 

Anthotroche Endl. Solanaceae (5). 4 Austr. 

Anthoxanthum L. Gramineae (7). 14 N. temp, and Ind.; A. odo- 
ratum L. (sweet vernal grass) Brit. The stems contain large quan- 
tities of coumarin, to which the smell char, of newly mown hay is 
due ; it may be recognized by chewing a stalk. Fl. with 2 sta. only, 
protog. Awns of fr. hygroscopic. 

Anthriscus Bernh. Umbelliferae (in. 2). 10 Eur., As., Afr., 2 Brit., 
incl. A. sylvesfris Hoffm. (chervil). A. Cerefolhim Hoffm. is the 
cult, chervil of France &c. 

Antlmrium Schott. Araceae (i). 500 sp. trop. Am. Most are sym- 
podial herbs, with an accessory bud beside the ' continuation ' bud of 
the sympodium. Axillary shoot often ' adnate ' to the main one \cf. 
Solanaceae &c.). Aerial roots frequent at the base of the 1. Some 
epiphytes. Fls. $ , with P, protog., arranged in a dense mass upon 
a spadix, at whose base is a flat usu. brightly coloured spathe. Fr. 
a berry ; when ripe it is forced out of the spadix and hangs by two 
threads formed from the P. In A. longifoliutn G. Don the root apex 
has been observed to develop into a shoot. 

-anthus (Gr. suff.), -flowered. 

Anthyllis Riv. Leguminosae (in. 4). 20 Eur., N. Afr., W. As. (A. 
vulneraria L., lady's fingers, kidney-vetch, Brit.). Fl. mech. re- 
sembles Lotus ; stigma only receptive when rubbed. 

Anti- (Lat. pref. ), against, opp. ; -dromous, r. and 1. handed; -petalous, 
-sepalous, opp. pet. or sep. ; -thetic, not homologous. 

Antiaris Lesch. Moraceae (n). 6 Indomal. incl. A. toxicaria Lesch. 
(Upas-tree). The latex is poisonous. Extraordinary stories of its 
effects were spread abroad about a century ago. The surroundings 
were said to be a desert, the poisonous influence emanating from the 
tree being fatal to life (see Treas. of Bol.). 

Antiaropsis K. Schum. Moraceae (TI). i New Guinea. 

Anticharis Endl. Scrophulariaceae (i. 2). 10 Afr., Arabia. 

Anticlea Kunth = Zygadenus Michx. p.p. (Lili.). 

Anticoryne Turcz. = Baeckea L. (Myrtac.). 

Anticous, on anterior side. 

Antidaphne Poepp. et Endl. Loranthac. (n). 2 Peru to Venezuela. 

Antidesma Burm. ex L. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i ). 90 palaeotrop. 

Antidote-cocoon (W. L), Fevillea cordifolia L. 

Antigonon Endl. Polygonaceae (in. i). 4 trop. Am. A. Leptopus 
Hook, et Arn. is a (stem) tendril climber, cult. orn. fl. 

Antinoria Parl. (Aira L. p.p.. BH.} Gramin. (9). 2 S. Eur. 

Antiphylla Haw. ^Saxifraga L. p.p. (Saxifr.). 15 Eur. 

Antiphytum DC. Boraginaceae (iv. 4). 6 S. trop. Am. 

Antirrhinum Tourn. Scrophulariaceae (n. 3). 36 * A. majus L. 
(snapdragon) in Brit., but probably an escape. The mouth of the fl. 
is closed and the honey thus preserved for bees, which alone are 
strong enough to force an entrance. 

Antirrhoea Comm. Rubiaceae (11. 2). 25 E. As. to Madag., W. Ind. 


Antistrophe A. DC. Myrsinaceae (n). 4 Indomal. 

Antitaxis Miers (Pycnarrhena Miers EP.}. Menisp. 4 Malaya. 

Antithrixia DC. Compositae (4). 3 S. Air. to Abyss. 

Antizoma Miers (Cissampelos L. p.p. BH.}. Menisp. 5 S. warm Afr. 

Antochortus Nees ( Willdenowia Thunb.). Restion. 10 S. Afr. 

Antouia Pohl. Loganiaceae. i Brazil, Guiana. 

Antrocaryon Pierre. Anacardiaceae (2). 2 Gaboon. 

Antrophyum Kaulf. Polypodiaceae. 30 trop. and subtrop. 

Ants and plants, cf. Myrmecophily. 

Anubias Schott. Araceae (v). 13 W. Afr. 

Anulocaulis Standley (Boerhaavia L. p.p.). Nyctag. 3 N. Am. 

Anvillea DC. Compositae (4). 3 Medit. 

Anychia Michx. Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). (Illecebr. BH.) 2 N. Am. 

Anychiastrum Small (Paronychia L. p.p.). Caryophyll. (i. 4). 3 N. Am. 

Aonikena Spegazz. Euphorbiaceae (A. u. 2). i Patagonia. 

Aostea Buscalioni et Muschler. Compos. (4). 2 Centr. Afr. 

Aotus Sm. Leguminosae (ill. 2). n Austr., Tasm. 

Apabuta Griseb. Menispermaceae. Nomen. 

Apalatoa Aubl. (Crudia Schreb.). Leguminosae (n. 3). ti trop. 

Apaloxylon Drake del Castillo. Leguminosae (n. 2). i Madag. 

Apama Lam. (Bragantia Lour. BH.). Aristoloch. 5 Indomal. 

Apargia Scop. = Leontodon L. (Compos. ). 

Apargidium Torr. et Gray. Compositae (13). i Calif. Alaska. 

Aparine Tourn. ex Mill. =Galium Tourn. (Rubiac.). 

Apatemone Schott (Schismatoglottis Z. et M.). Arac. (v). i Borneo. 

Apeiba Aubl. Tiliaceae. 7 warm Am. Some have good wood. 

Apera Adans. Gramineae (8). 2 Eur., W. As. A. (Agrostis) Spica- 

Venti, Beauv. (silky bent-grass), Brit. 

ApetaMa Baill. Campanulaceae (in), i Tahiti and Raiatea. 
Apetalae = Monochlamydeae or Incompletae. 
Apatalous, petal-less, when one would expect a C ; Abatia, Acer, 

Achlys, ALchemilla, Anemone, Azara, Boccoiia, Datiscaceae, Heu- 

chera, Lespedeza, Liquidainbar, F> axinns, Oleaceae, Parrot ia, Prin- 

glea, Sagina, Thaltctrutn, and cf. Cleistogamy. 
Apetlorhamnus Nieuwland (Kkamnns p.p.). Rhamn. i N. Am. 
Aphaenandra Miq. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). i Sumatra. 
Aphaerema Miers. Elacourt. (8) (Samyd. BH.). i S. Paulo. 
Aplianactis Wedd. Compositae (5). 2 Andes. 
Aphanamixis Blume (Atnoora pp. BH.}. Meliac. (in). 8 Malaya. 
Aphanandrium Lindau (Neriacanthus). Acanth. (iv. B). i Columbia. 
Aphananthe Planch. Ulmaceae. 5 Austr., E. As. 
Aphanelytrum Hackel. Gramineae (8). i Ecuador. 
Aphanes L. = Alchemilla L. (Ros.). 
Aphania Blume (Sapindus L. p.p. BH.}. Sapind. (i). 12 trop. 

As., Afr. 

Apbanisma Nutt. Chenopodiaceae (A), i California. 
Aphanocalyx Oliv. Leguminosae (n. 2). i Guinea. 
Aphanococeus Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Celebes. 
Aphanomyrtus Miq. Lauraceae (i). 3 Malaya. 
Aphanopetaluin Endi. Cunoniaceae. 2 S.E. and S.W. Austr. 
Aphanopleura Boiss. Umbell. (ill. 5). i Armenia. 

APO- 45 

Aphanostephus DC. Compositae (3). 5 Mex., U.S. 
AphanostyHs Pierre (Clitandra p.p.). Apocyn. (i. i). 5 trop. Afr. 
Aphantochaeta A. Gray (Pentachaeta p. p. EP.). Compos. (3). 2 Calif. 
Aphelandra R. Br. Acanth. (iv. B). 60 warm Am. Cult. orn. fl. 
Aphelexis D. Don (Helickrysum p.p. EP.}. Compos. (4). 10 Madag. 
Aphelia R. Br. Centrolepidaceae. i S. Austr., Tasm. 
Apheliotropism, negative heliotropism. 
Aphloia Benn. (Neumannia A. Rich.). Flacourt. (4) (Bix. BH.). 

4 S. Afr., Madag., Masc. 

Aphora Nutt. = Argithamnia P. Br. (BH. ) = Ditaxis Vahl p.p. 
Aphotic, dark. 

Aphragmus Andrz. (Braya p.p. BH.). Cruciferae (2). i Alaska. 
Aphyllanthes Tourn. ex L. Liliaceae (m). i. W. Meclit., A. mon- 

speliensis L. The sol. fl. is surrounded liy an invol. of or., and is 

regarded as the only remaining fl. of a head; the other fl. are only 

repres. by their bracts. 

Aphyllarum Sp. Moore. Araceae (vi). i Matto Grosso. 
Apfcyllon Mitch. (Orobanchc p.p. EP.). Orobanchaceae. 10 N. Am. 
Apiiyllorcliis Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 12 Indomal. 
Aphylly, absence of 1. 

Apiastrum Nutt. Umbelliferae (in. 4). 2 N. Am. 
Apical (plac.), at upper end of ovary. 
Apicra Willd. Liliaceae (in). 10 S. Afr. Some, e.g. A.foliolosa\V]\\<\,, 

show extreme superposition of 1., forming almost solid masses of tissue. 

Many cult, orn fl. 
Apiculate, with small sharp point. 
Apinagia Tul. Podostemaceae. 16 Guiana, Brazil. 
Apio, Arracada xanthorhiza Bauer &c. 
Apiocarpus Montr. Staphyleaceae. i New Caled. 
Apiopetalum Baill. Araliaceae (3). 2 New Caled. 
Apios Moench. Leguminosae (in. 10). 8 N. Am.. E. As. A. tuberosa 

Moench is a climber with tuberous base. The keel of the fl. forms 

a tube which bends up and rests against a depression in the standard. 

When liberated by insects the tension of the keel makes it spring 

downwards, coiling up more closely, and causing the essential organs 

to emerge at the apex. Cult. orn. fl. 
Apium (Tourn.) L. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 4Ocosmop., 3 Brit. A.graveo- 

kns L. is the celery. Cult., and the etiolation of the leaf-stalks by 

heaping earth over them, render the garden form ed. A var. is the 

turnip-rooted celery or celeriac. 

Aplectrum Torr., Nutt. Orchidaceae (n. 9). 2 N. Am. 
Apleura Phil. Umbelliferae (i. 2). i Chili. 

AplolopMum Cham. (Haplolophium). Bignoniaceae (i). 3 Brazil. 
Aplopappus Cass. {Haplopappus Endl.). Compos. (3). 125 W. Am. 
Aplophyllum A. Juss. = Ruta L. (Rutaceae). 
Aplotaxis DC. = Saussurea DC. (Compos.). 
Apluda L. Gramineae (2). i Indomal., Madag. 
Apo- (Gr. pref.), from ; -carpous, with free cpls., Raminculaceae, 

Rosaceae, &c. ; -gamy, omission of sexual process, Angiospermae, 

Aspleninm, Balanophora, Elatostema, Filicineae Leptosp., Pteris, 
Todea ; -geotropic, -heliotropic, negatively g. or h., Bowenia ; 

46 APO- 

-petalous, polypetalous ; -spory, Filicineae Leptosp., Dryopteris ; 
-tropous, anatr. with ventral raphe. 

Apocarpae (HH.}. The 6th series of Monocotyledons. 

Apochoris Duby. Primulaceae. i N. China. 

Apocopis Nees. Gramineae (2). 8 China to Madag. 

Apocynaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Contortae). 130 gen., 
1000 sp., mostly trop. ; a few temp.; Vinca minor gives the N. limit 
in Eur. Erect plants rare, mainly twining shrubs ; in the tropics 
many are large lianes. The stem has bi-collateral bundles ; latex always 
present. L. simple, usu. opp., entire, rarely with small interpet. 
stip. The primary type of infl. is a panicle, but in its later branchings 
it sometimes goes over into a dich. cyme or a cincinnus. Br. and 
bracteoles both present. 

Fir. 5 , reg., 5- or 4-merous. K (5), deeply lobed, quincuncial 
with odd sep. post.; C (5), usu. salver- or funnel-shaped, often hairy 
within, convolute (valvate in a few rare gen.) ; A 5, alt. with pets., 
epipet., with short incl. filaments; anther lobes full of pollen to the 
base, or empty at base and prolonged into rigid spines. Disc usu. 
present. G (2) or 2 (united by' style) or more, i- 01 2-loc. when 
syncp. Ov. GO , anatr., pend. ' Style usu. simple with thickened 
head. Berry, or more often 2 follicles. Seeds usu. flat and often 
with a crown of hairs serving for wind distr. Endosperm or none ; 
embryo straight. 

In the common A. with a large stylar head the stigma is at the 
edge or under surface of the head and self-fert. is almost impossible. 
An interesting mech. is found in Apocynum androsaemifohum. Many 
are showy ornamentals. Funtumia, Hancornia, Landolphia, Willugh- 
beia, &c. yield rubber. Several yield useful drugs, alkaloids, &c. 
Classification and chief genera (after K. Schumann) : 

I. PLUMIEROIDEAE (sta. free or only loosely joined to 

stylar head ; thecae full of pollen, rarely with spines ; 
seeds usu. without hairs) : 
i. Arduineae (syncarpous ; style not split at base) : Arduina, 

Allamanda, Landolphia. 
i. Pleiocarpeae (apocarpous ; style split at base ; more than 

2 cpls.) : Pleiocarpa. 

3. Plumiereae (ditto ; 2 cpls. ) : Plumiera, Amsonia, Vinca, 
Tabernaemontana, Cerbera. 

II. ECHITOIDEAE (sta. firmly joined to stylar head ; thecae 

empty at base, and with spines; seeds hairy) : 

1. Echitideae (anthers included) : Apocynum, Nerium, Stro- 

phanthus, Dipladenia. 

2. Parsonieae (anthers excluded): Parsonsia, Lyonsia, 


Apocynum (Tourn.) L. Apocyn. (n. i). 20 N. temp. Some cult., 
incl. A. androsaemifolium L. (American fly-trap), which has fl. mech. 
like Asclepiadaceae. Ov. crowned by disc, stigmatic below and 
surrounded by rigid lignified sta., at whose base is honey. An insect 
withdrawing its proboscis usu. brings it up the narrow slit between 
sta., at whose base is a drop of cement. Higher up the anthers open 
laterally, and thus the pollen is attached to the proboscis, but strength 


is needed, and small insects are usu. caught, as may be seen in 
gardens. Seeds hairy (wind carriage). 
Apodanthera Arn. Cucurbitaceae (2). 20 warm Am. 
Apodanthes Poit. RafflesTac. (Cytinac. BH.). 5 trop. S. Am. 
Apodiscus Hutch. Euphorb. (A. I. i). i French Guiana. 
Apodocephala Baker. Compositae (i). 2 Madag. 
Apodolirion Baker. Amaryllidaceae (i). 6 S. Afr. 
Apodytes E. Mey. Icacinaceae. 14 S. Afr. to Malaya. A. dimidiata 

E. Mey. (S. Afr., white pear), good timber. 
Apogon Ell. (Serinia Raf.). Compositae (13). 3 N. Am. 
Apollonias Nees. Lauraceae (n). 2 Canaries, Madeira. 
Aponogeton L. f. Aponogetonaceae (Naiad. BH.). 15 palaeotrop., 
and S. Afr. Water pi. with sympodial tuberous rhiz. and basal L, 
usu. floating. Submerged 1. occur in some, e.g. A. (Otivirandra) 
fenestrale Hook. f. The whole tissue between the veins breaks up as 
the 1. grows, leaving a network of veins with holes between. The 
interior does not contain the usual intercellular spaces. 

The $ reg. fl. project above the water in spikes, sometimes divided 
longitudinally into 2 or 3 ; spathe early thrown off. P usu. 2, some- 
times 3 or even i, as in the much cult. A. distachyum Thunb. (Cape 
pondweed), where it is attached by a broad base, and looks like a br. 
In this sp. A oo , G 3 6, but usu. A 3 + 3, G 3, with 2 or oo ov. in 
each, anatr., erect. Fr. leathery. Embryo straight. 
Aponogetonaceae (f.; Naiadcae p.p. BH.}. Monocots. (Helobieae). 
Only genus Aponogeton (q.v.}. Distinguished from Potamogetonaceae 
by coloured P and straight embryo, from Scheuchzeriaceae by P and 
sympodial structure. 

Apopetalum Pax. Rosaceae (i. i). i Bolivia. 
Apophyllum F. Muell. Capparidaceae (n). i N.E. Austr. 
Apoplanesia C. Presl. Leguminosae (in. 6). i Mex. 
Aporocactus Lem. (Cerats Mill. p.p.). Cactaceae (in. i). 2 N. Am. 
Aporosa Blume. Euphorb. (A. i. i). 35 Indomal. 
Aporosella Chodat. Euphorb. (A. I. i). i Paraguay. 
Aporrhiza Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). 3 Centr. Afr. 
Aporuellia C. B. Clarke. Acanth. (iv. A). 2 Malay Pen., Sumatra. 
Aporum Blume (Dendrobiuin Sw. p.p. BH.). Orchid, (n. 15). 12 

trop. As. 

Aposeris Neck. (Hyoseris L. p.p. H.). Compos. (13). i C. Eur. Mts. 
Apostasia Blume. Orchidaceae (i. i). 8 Indomal. Fl. almost reg. 

with 2 sta. ; ovary 3-loc. 

Appendicula Blume. Orchidaceae (n a. in.). 40 Malaya, Polynesia. 
Appendiculana O. Ktze. =next. 
Appendiculate, with appendages. 
Appendicularia DC. Melastomaceae (i). i Guiana. 
Apple, Pyrns Mains L. ; alligator-, Anona pahistris L. ; balsam-, 
Momordica bahamina L. ; custard-, Anona squamosa L., reticulata L. ; 
elephant-, Feronia Elephantum Correa ; kangaroo-, Solamim avicu- 
lare Forst. ; Kei-, Aberia caffra Harv. et Sond. ; love-, Lycopersictim 
escidentum Mill. ; Malay-, Eugenia malaccensis L. ; mammee-, 
Mammea americana L ; May-, Podophyllum pehatnin L. ; pine-, 
Ananas salivus Schult. f. ; rose-, Malay ; star-, Chrysophylluin 


Cainito L. ; sugar-, Anona squamosa L.; thorn-. Daiur Stra- 
monium L. ; wood-, elephant-. 

Appressed, flattened down. 

Approximate, close together. 

Appunia Hook. f. Ruhiaceae (11. 9). 3 trop. S. Am. 

Aprevalia Bail!. Leguminosae (n. 7). i Madag. 

Apricot, Primus Armeniaea L. ; San Domingo-, RIammea americana L. 

Aptandra Miers. Olacaceae. 5 trop. S. Am., Afr. 

Apteria Nutt. Bunnanniaceae. 5 warm Am. 

Apteron Kurz. Khamnaceae. i Tenasserim. 

Apterous, wingless. 

Aptosimum Burchell Scrophular. (i. 2). 40 S. and trop. Afr. 

Aptotheca Mieis (Forsleronia) Apocyn. (inc. sed.). i Cuba. 

Apuleia Mart. Legum. (n. 5). 2 Brazil. A. praecox Mart excellent 

Aquaticus (Lat.), living in water. 

Aquifoliaceae (EP. ; Ilicineae BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Sapindales ; 
Olacales BH.). 5 gen., 300 sp. temp, and trop. Shrubs and trees 
with leathery alt., 1. with minute or no stips and cymose infl. 
Fl. reg. unisexual, 3 6-merous ; no disc. Usu. K 4, 4, A 4, 
G usu. (4), 4-loc., each with i or 2 pend. anatr. ovules. Drupe. 
Endosp. Chief genus: Ilex. 

Aquifolium Tourn. ex Hall. = Ilex L. (Aquifol.). 

Aquilaria Lam. Thymelaeaceae. 8 Indomal., China. The wood of 
A. Agallocha Roxb. (Calambac, aloe-wood, eagle-wood), in about 8 / 
of the trees, is saturated with resin (agar), used in India as a drug 
and perfume. 

Aquilegia (Tourn.) L. Ranunculaceae (2). 75 N. temp. A. vul 
garis L. (columbine), Brit., cult. orn. fl., with many others and many 
hybrids. Pets, with long spurs secreting honey (if. Delphinium). 
Fl. of class H, protandrous, visited by humble-bees. Sta. often 50 
or more, in whorls of 5. 

Arabian coffee, Coffea arable a L. 

Arabidopsis Schur. (Sisymbr'nim L. Bff., Stenophragma EP.}. Cruc (2). 
4 Eur , W. As. 

Arabis Linn. Cruciferae (4). 220 N. temp., S. Am., 5 Brit, (rock- 
cress). Cult. orn. fl. 

Araceae (EP.; Aroideae BH.). Monocots. (Spathiflorae). 105 gen., 
1000 sp , trop. and temp. (92% trop ). Many types of veg. habit 
herbs large and small, with aerial stems, tubers or rhiz., climbing 
shrubs, climbing epiph., marsh pi., one water pi. (Pistia) &c. In 
a few Pothoideae the stem is monopodial, but in most A. it is sym- 
podial. Each joint of the sympodium begins as a rule with one or 
more scale 1. before bearing fol. 1. Accessory (collateral) buds often 
found in the leaf axils. Sometimes, as in Anthurium, Philodendron 
&c., the axillary shoot is ' adnate ' to the main axis for some distance 
(cf. Solanaceae, Zostera &c. ). The buds usually appear in the 1. 
axils, but often get pushed to one side, and sometimes (e.g. Pothos) 
break through the leaf-bases as in Equisetum. 

L. of many types. Pinnately and palmately divided I. are frequent, 
but development not like that of such- leaves in Dicots. Holes are 



present in the 1. of Monstera. See Monstera, Rhaphidophora, Philo- 
dendron, Helicodiceros, Dracontium, Zamioculcas, &c. 

Roots adv. and mostly formed above ground in the larger forms. 
Two types of aerial r. climbing and absorbent. The former, like 
ivy, insensitive to gravity, show great negative heliotropism ; they 
cling closely to the support and force their way into the crevices. 
The latter, insensitive to light, respond markedly to gravity ; they 
grow down to the soil and enter it, branching out and taking up 

The larger trop. A. show interesting stages in the development 
of epiphytism. The climbing forms grow to considerable size and 
form longer and longer aerial r. as they grow upwards. The original 
r. at the t.ase thus become of less and less importance and they often 
die away together with the lower end of the stem, so that the plant 
thus becomes an epiph. Of course, as it still obtains its water &c. 
from the soil, it is not an epiph. in the sense that e.g. many Orchids 
or Bromeliaceae are such, and it is evident that if this method of 
becoming epiph. were the only one found in the order, these plants 
could with no more justice be classed as true epiph. than the ivy 
which may often be seen in the ' bowls ' of pollard willows in Europe, 
and which has come there by climbing up the trunk and dying away 
below. It is found however that some sp. of Fhilodendron, Pathos, 
&c. are able to commence life as epiphytes. The fleshy fr. is eaten 
by birds and the seed dropped on a lofty branch. The seedling 
forms clasping r. and dangling aerial r. which grow steadily down to 
the soil, even if it be 100 feet or more away. It is hardly possible to 
suppose that these true epiph. sp. have been evolved in any other way 
than from former climbing sp. Lastly, some sp. of Anthurium &c. are 
true epiph. without connection with the soil (e.g. A. Hiigelii Schott 
= A. Hookcri Kunth.) ; they have clasping r. and also absorbent r. 
which ramify amongst the humus collected by the pi. itself. The 
aerial r. of some A. possess a velamen like Orchids. The 1. of 
Philodenaron cannifolium Schott have swollen petioles full of large 
intercellular spaces lined with mucilage. When rain falls these fill 
with water and act as reservoirs. [Cf. Schimper's Epiph. Veg. 
A merikas. ] 

Fls. without br., usu. massed together on a cylindrical spadix 
enclosed in a large spathe ; the spadix usu. terminates a joint of the 
sympodium (the 'continuation' bud is generally in the axil of the 1. 
next but one before the spathe), so that there is only one formed each 
year. Fl. $ or monoec. (dioec. in Arisaema), with or without P. 
Sta. typically 6 but usually fewer (down to i), often united into 
a synandrium (e.g. Colocasia, Spathicarpa) ; in Ariopsis the synandria 
again united to one another. Stds. often present, and these also may 
be fused into a synandrodium as in Colocasia. G with much variety 
of structure ; frequently reduced to i cpl. Berry. Outer integument 
of seed often fleshy. Endosperm or none. 

Fls. usu. protog. (even when monoec.). In many gen. (incl. most 
Eur.) the smell is disagreeable an 1 attracts carrion flies as pollen 
carriers (see. Arum, Dracunculus, Helicodiceros, &c. ). 

Many A. contain .latex, which is usually poisonous but is dispelled 

W. A 


!>y heat. The rhizomes of many sp. contain much starch and are used 
as food (Caladium, Colocasia, Arum, &c.). 

Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : 

The grouping of the A. is very difficult and account has to be taken 
of histological as well as external characters. 

I. POTHOIDEAE (land pi. ; no latex or raphides ; 1. 2-ranked 

or spiral ; lat. veins of 2nd and 3rd order netted ; fls. usu. 5 ; 
ov. anatr. or amphitr.): Pothos, Anthurium, Acorus. 

II. MONSTEROIDEAE (land pi.; no latex; raphides; lat. 

veins of 3rd, 4th, and sometimes 2nd orders netted ; fl. 5, 
usu. naked ; ov. anatr. or amphitr.) : Rhaphidophora, 
Monstera, Spathiphyllum, Epipremnum. 

III. CALLO1DEAE (land or marsh pi.; latex; fl. usu. ?; ov. 

anatr. or orthotr. ; 1. never sagittate, usu. net-veined) : 
Symplocarpus, Calla. 

IV. LAS1OIDEAE (land or marsh pi.; latex; fl. $ or <? 2 ; 

ov. anatr. or amphitr.; seed usu. exalbum.; 1. sagittate, 
often much lobed, net-veined) : Dracontium, Amorpho- 

V. PHILODENDROIDEAE (land or marsh pi.; latex; fl. 
naked, unisex.; ov. anatr. or orthotr.; seed usu. album.; 
1. usu. ||-veined) : Philodendron, Zantedeschia. 
VI. COLOCASIOWEAE ( land or marsh pi.; latex; fl. naked 
unisex.; sta. in synandria ; ov. orthotr. or anatr.; seed 
album, or not ; 1. net-veined) : Remusatia, Colocasia, 
Alocasia, Xanthosoma. 

VII. AROIDEAE (land or marsh pi.: latex; 1. various, net- 

veined ; stems mostly tuberous ; fl. unisex., usually naked ; 
sta. free or in synandria; ov. anatr. or orthotr.; seed 
album.): Spathicarpa, Arum, Dracunculus, Helicodiceros, 

VIII. P1ST10IDEAE (swimming pi.; no latex; fl. unisex., 

naked ; $ fls. in a whorl, ? sol.) : Pistia (only genus). 
For further details of this most interesting order, see Engler in 
Nat. Pfl. and Pfl. R-, from which much of the above is abridged. 
[Placed in Nudiflorae by ff.} 

Arachis Linn. Leguminosae (in. 7). 10 Brazil, Paraguay. A. hypo- 
gaea L. (ground-, earth-, or pea-nut), largely cult, in warm regions for 
its seeds, which are ed. and when pressed yield one of the many oils 
used in place of olive oil. The fl. after fert. bends down (cf. Linaria) 
and the elongation of its stalk forces the young pod under ground, 
where it ripens. 

Arachnanthe Blume (Renanthera p.p. EP.). Orchid, (n. 20). 10 S.E. 
As., Malaya. 

Arachnites F. W. Schmidt = Ophrys L. (Orchid.). 

Arachnitis Phil. Burmanniaceae. i Chili. 

Arachnoid, cobweb-like. 

Arachnopogon Berg. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Aracium Neck. = Crepis L. (Compos.). 

Araeococcus Brongn. Bromeliaceae (4). i Guiana, N. Brazil. 

Aragallus Neck. = Astragalus Tourn. (Legum.). 


Aragoa H. B. et K. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). 3 Andes. 

Aralia fourn. Araliaceae (2). 30 %_. The r. of A. (Panax) Ginseng 
Baill. (A. quinquefolia auct.) yields the famous Chinese medicine 
ginseng. A. papyrifera Hook., see Fatsia. 

Araliaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Umbelliflorae). 51 gen., 
660 sp., chiefly trop. (esp. Indomal., trop. Am.). Usu. trees and 
shrubs, some with palm-like habit ; many twine, some (e.g. Hedera) 
root-climbers. L. usu. alt., often large and cpd., with small stips. 
Fl. small, in umbels frequently massed into cpd. infls. Fl. $, reg., 
epig., usu. 5 (3 oo )-merous. K 5, very small, C 5, AS, G (5), 
5-loc., with i anatr. pend. ov. in each, micropyle facing outwards; 
styles free or united. Usu. drupe with as many stones as cpls. Embryo 
small in rich endosp. (Placed in Umbellales by BH.} 
Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : 
i. Schefflereae ( P val vate) : Fatsia, Hedera. 
i. Aralieae (P imbr., sessile with broad base) : Aralia, 

3. Mackinlayeae (P val vate, shortly clawed) : Mackinlaya. 

Aralidium Miq. .Araliaceae (2). 2 Malaya. 

Araliopsis Engl. Rutaceae (iv). i Gaboon. 

Ararocarpus Scheff. Anonaceae (4). i Java. 

Arar wood, Tetradinis artictilnta Masters. 

Araucaria Juss. Coniferae (Pinaceae ; see C. for gen. char.). 10 S. Am., 
N.Z., Polynesia, Austr., in two sections, In i (Colymbea, 1. broad, 
fr. cpls. not winged) A. imbricata Pav. (monkey-puzzle, Chili) with 
ed. seed, A. brasiliana A. Rich. (Brazilian pine, abundant in S. Brazil), 
A. Bidwilli Hook, (bunya-bunya pine, Queensland), and others. In 
2 (Eutacta, needle 1., scales winged) A. excelsa R. Br. (Norfolk I. 
pine), A. L'unninghamii Ait. (Hoop pine, E. Austr.), and others. All 
have useful timber. Cult. orn. trees. 

Araucariaceae = Pinaceae. 

Araujia Brot. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 6 Brazil, Arg. 

Arborescens, arboreus (Lat.), tree-like. 

Arboretum, collection of trees. 

Arbor-judae, Cercis Siliquastrnm L. ; -vitae, Thuja spp. 

Arbour-vine, Spanish (W.I.), Ipomoea tuberosa L. 

Arbutus (Tourn.) L. Ericaceae (n. 3). 20 Medit., W. As., N. Am. 
Fr. a dry berry. A . Menziesii Pursh. (N. Am., madrona laurel) useful 

Arbutus, trailing (Am.), Epigaea repens L. 

Arcangelisia Becc. Menispermaceae. 2 Malay Arch. 

Arceuthobium Bieb. Loranthaceae (n). 10 j. Cf. Ann. of Bot. 
II. 137. 

Archaeocarex Borner. Cyperaceae (in), i S. Afr. 

Archangel, see next ; yellow-, Lamium Galeobdolon Crantz. 

Archangelica Hoff. (Angelica L. p.p. EP.). Umbellif. (ill. 6). 10 N. 
temp. The petiole of A. officinalis Hoff. is eaten, and offic. 

Archangiopteris Christ et Giesenh. Maratt. (i). 2 S.W. China, Formosa. 
L. once pinnate; sori linear, of 80 160 sporangia. 

Archemora DC. = Peucedanum L. (^A r .)=TiedemanniaDC. (Umbell.). 

Archegoniatae. Those pi. in which the ? cell (archegonium) is contained 



in an archegonium, a flask-shaped organ with neck of one layer of cells 
thick ; includes Bryo- and Pteridophyta. 
Archegonium, see last, and Filicineae, &c. 
Archeria Hook. f. Epacridaceae (2). 5 Tasmania, N.Z. 
Archesporium, Pteridophyta. 

Archibaccharis Heering. Compositae (3). 2 Mex. 
Archichlamydeae. A division of Dicots. (cf. classification at end). 
Archidendron F. Muell. Leguminosae (i. i). 10 trop. Austr., New 

Archiphyllum Van Tiegh. (Myzodendron p.p. EP.}. Santal. 3 temp. 

S. Am. 

Archontophoenix H. Wendl. et Drude. Palmae (iv. i). 3 E. Austr. 
Archytaea Mart. Theaceae. 3 Brazil, Guiana, Malay Arch. 
Arctagrostis Griseb. Gramineae (8) 2 arctic. 
ArcterantMs Greene (Oxygraphis p.p. EP. ; Ranunculus p.p. BH.}. 

Ranunculaceae (3). i N. Am. 
Arcterica Coville (Cassiope p.p. EP.; Andromeda p.p. BH.}. Ericac. 

(n. i). i Behring Str. 

Arctic plants, cf. Zones of Veg. ; zone, above cult, limit. 
Arctium L. Compositae (u). 4 palaeotemp. A. Lappa L. (burdock) 
Brit. The invol. br. become hooked and woody after the fl. wither, 
and by clinging to fur &c. aid in jerking out the fr. 
Arctocrania Nakai (Cornus p.p.)- Cornaceae. 2 N. temp. 
Arctomecon Torr. et Frem. Papaveraceae (11). 3 Calif. 
Arctophila Rupr. = Poa L. and Colpodium Trin. (Gramin.). 
Arctopus L. Umbelliferae (n. 2). 3 S. Afr. 

Arctostaphylos Adans. Ericaceae (n. 3). 30 N. temp, and arctic; 
2 Brit, (bearberry) ; the fl. appear as soon as the snow melts. A. pun- 
gens H.B. et K. (manzanita, Calif ), orn. wood. 

Arctotheca Wendl. (Arctotis p.p. EP.}. Compositae (10). i S. Afr. 
Arctotis L. Compositae (10). 65 trop. and S. Afr., Austr. Shows 

chars, of 10 well. 

Arctous Niedz. (Arctostaphylos p.p.). Eric. (n. 3). i N. circumpolar. 
Arcuate, bow-like. 

Arcynospermum Turcz. Malvaceae (inc. sed.). i Mex. 
Arcythophyllum Willd. (Mallostoma BU.). Rubi. (i. 2). 15 trop. 

Am. Mts. 

Ardisia Sw. Myrsinaceae (n). 260 warm countries. Fl. usu. ? . 
Ardisiandra Hook. f. Primulaceae. i W. trop. Afr. Mts. 
Arduina Mill. (Carissa L.). Apocynaceae (i. i). 20 palaeotrop. 
Areca L. Palmae (iv). 15 Indomal. A. Catechu L. largely cult, in 
trop. As. for its seeds (Areca or Betel nuts). The infl. is below the 
oldest living 1., monoec., with the ? fls. at the bases of the twigs, the 
cf above. The seed, about as big as a damson, is cut into slices and 
rolled up in a leaf of Betel pepper (Piper Betle} with a little lime. 
When chewed, it turns the saliva bright red ; it acts as a stimulus 
upon the digestive organs, and is supposed by the natives (who use 
it habitually) to be a preventive of dysentery. A. oleracea Jacq. = 
Oreodoxa o. 

Areca-nut, Areca Catechu L. 
Arechavaletaia Spegazz. Flacourt. (7) (Samyd. BH.}. \ Uruguay. 

ARIL 53 

Aregelia O. Ktze. (Nidularium Leai.p.p.). Bromel. (4). 20 trop. Am. 
Aremonla Neck. (Agrimonia L. p.p. BH.}. Ros. (HI. 5). i S.E. 


Arenaceous, arenarius (Lat.), growing in sandy places. 
Arenaria Rupp. ex L. Caryophyllaceae (i. i). 100 N. temp.; 8 Brit., 

incl. A. (Honckenya) peploides L. (sea-purslane), common on sandy 

coast, with long creeping underground stems with scale 1., the green 1. 

fleshy with water tissue. A. Cherleria Hook. (Cherleria sedoides L.) 

is a tufted alpine pi. of Scotland. 
Arenga Labill. Palmae (iv. i). 15 Malaya. Like Caryota, but spadix 

unisexual ; sta. oo , cpls. 3. A. saccharifera Labill. (gomuti palm) 

cult, for sugar (jaggery), obtained by wounding the young infl. and 

evaporating the sap. A var. of sago is obtained from the pith by 

washing and granulating. The tree flowers when mature, infls. 

appearing in descending order till it dies. An excellent fibre is 

obtained from the leaf-sheaths. 
Areole, Cactaceae. 

Arethusa Gronov. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 4 Japan, Atl. N. Am. 
Arethusantha Finet. Orchidaceae (n. 5). i trop. As. 
Aretia Hall., L. (Androsace L. p.p.). Primul. 12 N. palaeotemp. 
Aretiastrum DC. = Valeriana L. p.p. (Valer.). 
Arfeuillea Pierre. Sapindaceae (n). i Siam. 
Argun oil, cf. next. 
Argania Roem. et Schult. Sapotaceae (i). i Morocco, A. Sideroxylon 

R. et S. The pressed seeds yield argan oil, used like olive oil ; the 

timber is hard and durable ; the fr. eaten by cattle. 
Argemone Tourn. ex L. Papaveraceae (li). 12 trop. Am. 
Argentate, argenteus (Lat.), silvery. 

Argentina Lam. (Potentilla L. p.p.). Rosaceae (in. 2). 5 N. Am. 
Argillaceus (Lat.), growing on clay. 

Argithamnia Sw. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 8 S. Am., W. Ind. 
Argomuellera Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). i trop. Afr. 
Argophyllum Forst. Saxifragaceae (v). 10 trop. Austr., New Cal. 
Argostemma Wall. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 65 trop. As., Afr. 
Argylia D. Don. Bignoniaceae (2). 12 Chili. 
Argyranthemum Webb. = Chrysanthemum L. (Compos.). 
Argyreia Lour. Convolvulaceae (i). 40 trop. As., Afr. 
Argyrocalymma K. Schum. et Lauterb. Saxifragac. (v). i New 


Argyrocome Gaertn. = Helipterum DC. (Compos.). 
Argyrolobium Eckl. et Zeyh. Leguminosae (in. 3). 60 Afr., Medit. 

to India. Mostly xero. Some have cleist. fl. 

Argyrorchis Blume (Macodes Lindl. EP.}. Orchid, (n. 2). i Java. 
Argyrostachys Lopriore. Amarantaceae (3). i E. trop. Afr. 
Argyroxiphium DC. Compositae (5). 2 Sandwich Is. Small trees. 
Argytnamnia P. Br. = Argithamnia Sw. (Euphorb.). 
Aria Jacq. f. = Pyrus L. (Rosac.). 
Aridarum Ridl. Araceae (v). i N. Borneo. 
Arikuryroba Barb. Rodr. Palmae (iv. 2). i Brazil. 
Aril, an extra coat to the seed, Biop/iytiun, Dillenia, Durio, Euonymus, 

Marantaceae, Myristica, O.xalis, Phyllocladus, Podocarpns, Taxus, 

54 ARIL 

Turneraceae ', -late, with an aril ; -lode, a false aril, not arising from 
the placenta. 

Arillaria S. Kurz (Ormosia]&c\i, BH.). Legumin. (ill. i). i Burma. 

Ariocarpus Scheidvv. (Mammillaria p.p. BH.). Gact. (ill. i). 4 Mex. 

Ariopsis J. Grab. Araceae (vi). i Indomal., A. peltata J. G., a small 
tuberous herb. The few ? fls. are at the base of the spadix, the 
$ above. This part is full of round holes leading into pear-shaped 
cavities surrounded each by a synandrium of 6-8 sta. The synandria 
are fused to each other so that the surface of the spadix is continuous 
from the opening of one fl. to that of the next. 

Arisacontis Schott. Araceae (inc. sed.). i Radack I. 

Arisaema Mart. Araceae (vn). 75 As., Abyss., N. Am. Like Arum, 
but dicec., said to be fert. by snails. The corm is known as Indian 

Arisarum (Tourn.) Targ. Tozz. Araceae (vn). 3 Medit. 

Aristate (dimin. aristulate), awned. 

Aristega Miers. Menispermaceae. i Indomal. 

Aristea Soland. ex Ait. Iridaceae (n). 30 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 

Aristida Linn. Gramineae (8). 160 temp, and sub-trop. 

Aristobulia Mart. = Andira Lam. p.p. (Legum.). 

Aristogeitonia Prain. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). i W. trop. Afr. 

Aristolochia Tourn. Aristolochiaceae. 250 trop. and temp.; herbs 
with rhiz. or twining lianes. A. Gigas Lindl. (pelican flower) and 
others often cult. orn. fl. Many trop. sp. have a small 1. surrounding 
the stem at the base of each ordinary 1., and looking like a stip., but 
really the first 1. of the axillary shoot, which grows very rapidly at 
first. In other cases this 1. remains small and its shoot does not 
develope, so that it looks like an interpet. stip. In most several buds 
form in each axil ; the fls. usu. come from the upper ones. 

A. Clematitis L. (birthwort) an escape in Brit. P tubular, hooded 
at top, and enlarged below round the gynostemium ; this has 6 sessile 
extr. anthers below and as many stigmatic lobes above (really not the 
true stigmas, but the connectives of the anthers, \\hich have assumed 
stigmatic functions). The young fl. stands erect and its tube contains 
numerous hairs, jointed at the base so that they can easily be bent 
down but not up. No honey. Small flies enter the fl. at this stage 
and find the stigmas ripe, so that if they bear pollen from other fls. 
fert. takes place. They are unable to escape until in a day or two 
the pollen is shed, and the hairs wither, the fl. at the same time 
bending down (tf. Arum). In A. Sipho L'Herit. (Dutchman's pipe) 
the P is bent like a siphon and has a polished interior surface. 

AristolocMaceae (/>. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Aristolochiales). 5 gen., 
200 sp., trop. and warm temp., except Austr. Herbs or shrubs, the 
latter usu. twining lianes. L. alt., stalked, often cordate, usu simple, 
exstip. Fl. $, epig., reg. or -|-. P usu. (3), petaloid; A 6 36, Iree, 
or united with the style into a gynostemium (cf. Asclepiads, Orchids, 
&c.). G 4 6-loc. ; ov. oo in each loc., anatr., horiz. or pend. Caps. 
Embryo small in rich endosp. The A. are difficult to place in the 
system. They have been put near Dioscoreaceae, though not monocot. 
BH. place them in Multiovulatae Terrestres. Chief genera: Asarum, 


Aristolochiales. The isth order of Dicot. Archichl. 

Aristotelia L'Herit. Elaeocarpaceae. 10 S. temp. 

Arjona Coinm. ex Cav. Santalaceae. 9 temp. S. Am. 

Armed, thorny. 

Armeniaca Tourri. ex Mill. =Prunus Tourn. (Rosac.). 

Armeria Linn. Plumbaginaceae. 60 N. temp, and andine. A.vulgaris 
Willd. (tlirift, sea pink) common on the coast of Brit, and in high 
mountain regions of Scotland, a fairly frequent phenomenon, due 
perhaps to similarity of conditions. Primary root perennial ; each 
year's shoot dies down all but a short piece, on which the following 
year's shoot arises as an axillary branch. Infl. a capitulum of cincinni, 
surrounded by a whorl of bracts, the outer forming a sheath round the 
top of the peduncle. After fert the K becomes a membranous funnel- 
like organ aiding seed-distribution by wind. 

Armoracia Gaertn. = Cochlearia L. and Nasturtium R. Br. (Cruc.). 

Arnatto, arnotto, Bixa Orellana L. 

Arnebia Forsk. Boraginaceae (iv 4). 12 Medit., trop. Afr., Himal. 
Some have black spots on the C, which fade as it grows older (see 
fam., and cf. Diervilla, Fumaria, &c.). 

Arnica Rupp. ex L. Compositae (8). 50 N. temp, and arctic. 
Tincture of arnica is prepared from all parts of the pi. 

Arnicastrum Greenman. Compositae (6). i Mex. 

Arnocrinura Endl. et Lehm. Liliaceae (in). 3 S.W. Austr. 

Arnoseris Gaertn. Compositae (13). i, A. pusilla Gaertn., Eur. 
(incl. Brit.). The bases of the invol. brs. enclose the ripe fr. 
(cf. Rhagadiolus). 

Arnottia A Rich. Orchidaceae (n. i). 2 Mauritius. 

Aroideae (/>//.) = Araceae. 

Arodendron Werth. (Typhonodorum p.p.). Araceae (v). i Zanzibar. 

Aronia Pers. = Amelanchier Lindl. (Rosac.). 

Aronicum Neck. = Doronicum L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Arpophyllum Llave et Lex. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 6 C. Am., W.I. 

Arrabidaea DC. Bignoniaceae (i). 100 S. Am. 

Arracacia Bancroft. "Umbelliferae (ill. 4). 45 Peru to Mex. A.xantho- 
rhiza Bauer and others cult. ed. tuberous r. 

Arrack, cf. Borassus, Cocos, &c. 

Arrhenatherum Beauv. Gramineae (9). 3 Eur., Medit. A. avenacetim 
Beauv. (false oat-grass, French rye-grass), Brit. 

Arrhostoxylmn Mart. = Ruellia L. p.p. (Acanth.)- 

Arrow-grass, Triglochin ; -head, Sagittaria sagittifolia L. 

Arrowroot, a pure starch obtained from various pi.; Bermuda-, 
W. Indian-, Maranta arundinacea L.; Brazilian-, Afaiiihot utilissima 
Pohl. ; E. Indian-, Curcuma angiislifolia Roxb., Tacca pinnatijida 
Forst. &c.; Portland-, Arum niaculatum L. Cf. Canna, Zea, &c. 

Arrowsmithia DC. Compositae (4). i S. Afr. 

Arsenococcus Small (Vacdnium p.p.)- Eric. (in. i). i Atl. U.S. 

Artabotrys R. Br. Anonaceae (4). 23 palaeotrop. Some cult, for 
sweetly scented fl. and ed. fr. They usually climb by aid of recurved 
hooks, which are modified infl. axes, and thicken and lignify when 
they clasp. 

Artanema D. Don. Scrophulariaceae (li. 6). 4 Indomal. 


Artanthe Miq. = Piper L. (Piper.). 

Artedia L. Umbelliferae (in. 8). i W. As. 

Artemisia Linn. Compositae (7). 260 .*, common on the arid soil 
of the western U.S., the Steppes, &c. 4 Brit, (wormwood). A. tri- 
dentata Nutt. and others form the halophytic ' sage-brush ' of the 
S.W. U.S. Fl. -heads small, inconspic., and w/a?fert. (cf. Poterium, 
Rheum and Rumex, Plantago, Thalictrum, &c.). In A. vulgaris L. 
the marginal florets ?, the rest g. Head pend. ; the anther-tube 
projects beyond the C so that the dry powdery pollen is exposed to 
the wind. On the tips of the anthers are long bristles which together 
form a temporary pollen-holder. Afterwards the style emerges and 
the large hairy stigmas spread out. An interesting case of reacqui- 
sition of a character not found in most higher flowering pi. A. Abro- 
tanum L. (old man, southernwood), and others, cult. orn. 11. The 
flavouring matter of absinthe is derived from wormwood. 

Artemisiopsis Sp. Moore. Compositae (4). i Nyassaland. 

Arthraerua Schinz. Amarantaceae (2). i S.W. Afr. 

Arthratherum Beauv. = Aristida L. p.p. (Gramin.). 

Arthraxon Beauv. Gramineae (2). 15 palaeotrop., E. As. 

Arthrocarpum Balf. f. (Ormocarpum EP.). Legumin. (in. 7). i So- 

Arthroclianthus Baill. Leguminosae (ill. 7). 6 New Cal. 

Arthrocnemum Moq. Chenopodiaceae (A). 8 coasts |-x- . 

Arthrolobium Reichb. =Ornithopus L. and Scorpiurus L. 

Arthrophyllum Blume. Araliaceae (i). 10 Indomal. 

Arthrophytum Schrenk. Chenopodiaceae (B). i W. As. 

Arthropodium R. Br. Lili. (in). 8 Austr., N.Z., New Cal. Cult, 
orn. fl. 

Arthropogon Nees. Gramineae (4). 2 Brazil, Cuba. 

Arthropteris J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 4 trop. and subtrop. 

Arthrosolen C. A. Mey. (Gnidia L. p.p. EP.). Thymel. 12 trop. and 
S. Afr. 

Arthrostema Ruiz et Pav. Melastomac. (i). 12 Cuba, W. trop. Am. 

Arthrostylidium Rupr. Gramin. (13). 16 trop. Am., W.I. Climbing. 

Arthrostylis R. Br. Cyperaceae (n). i Austr. 

Artfcrotaxis Endl. = Athrotaxis D. Don (Conif.). 

Arthrotriamnus Klotzsch et Garke= Euphorbia L. p.p. (Euph.). 

Artichoke, Cynara Scolynms L. ; Jerusalem-, Helianthas tuberosus. 

Articulate (1.), cut oft' by an absciss layer. 

Articulated, jointed. 

Artillery plant, Pilea. 

Artocarpus Forst. Moraceae (11). 60 Indomal., China. Many show 
good bud-protection by slips. A. laciniata Hort. has large drip-tips 
(Acer, Ficus). Fls. monoec., the 3 in pseudo-catkins, the ? in pseudo- 
heads. A multiple fr. is formed, the achenes being surrounded by 
the fleshy P and the common receptacle also becoming fleshy. The 
fr. contains much starch &c. and is a valuable food-stuff. Several sp. 
are cult, all over the trop., e.g. A. incisa L. (bread-fruit) and A. inte- 
grifolia L. (jak). The flesh has somewhat the texture of bread and 
is often roasted. The best cult, forms (cf. pear, banana, &c.) produce 
no seeds. The jak and others are cauliflural. Timber useful. 


Artrolobium Desv. = CoronilIa L., Ornithopus L., &c. (Legum.). 

Arum (Tourn.) Linn. Araceae (vn). 15 Eur., Medit. A.maculatum'L. 
(cuckoo-pint, wake-robin, lords and ladies, Brit.) is a perenn. tuberous 
pi. with monoec. fls. ; V fls. at base of spadix (each of i cpl., naked) 
and S above (each of 2 4 sta.), and above these again rudimentary 
cf fls. repres. by hairs which project and close the mouth of the spathe. 
The foetid smell attracts flies, which enter the spathe, find the stigmas 
ripe, and are kept prisoners till the pollen is shed ; then the hairs 
wither and escape is possible (cf. Aristolochia). Fr. a berry. The 
starch of the tubers was formerly used as food under the name Port- 
land arrowroot, but it is difficult to get rid of the poisonous juices 
accompanying it. Other sp. are similarly used in Eur. 

Arum lily, Richardia africana Kunth. 

Aruncus Aclans. Rosaceae (I. i). 6 N. temp. 

Arundina Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 4). 8 S.E. As., Malay Arch. 

Arundinaceous, reed-like. 

Arundinaria Michx. Gramineae (13). 45 As., Am. Bamboos (g-v-)- 

Arundinella Raddi. Gramineae (4). 45 trop. 

Arundo Tourn. Gramineae (10). 12 trop. and temp. A. Phragmites 
L. (Brit.) = P. communis. The stems of A. Donax L. are used for 
sticks, fishing-rods, &c. 

Arvensis (Lat.), of arable land. 

Arytera Blume (Ratonia DC. p.p. BH.}. Sapind. (i). 20 E. As., 

Asaemia Harv. Compositae (7). i S. Afr. 

Asafoetida, Ferula Narthex Boiss., F. Assafoetida L., &c. 

Asagraea Baill. (Dalea L. p p. BH. ). Leguminosae (ill. 6). 2 N. Am. 

Asarabacca, Asarum europaeum L. 

Asarca Poepp. ex Lindl. = Chloraea Lindl. (Orchid.). 

Asarum (Tourn.) L. Aristolochiaceae. 30 N. temp. A. europaeum L. 
(asarabacca), an escape in Brit, (formerly medic.). Rhiz. below 
ground and creeping shoots above ; the latter are sympodial, each 
annual joint bearing several scale 1. below, then two green 1. and 
a terminal fl. Fl. reg. ; P (3), sometimes with 3 small teeth between 
the segments (perhaps remnants of a former inner whorl); A 12; 
G (6). The dark-brown, resinously scented fl. is visited by flies, 
and is very protog. ; when the stigmas are ripe the sta. are all bent 
away, but later on they move up to the centre and dehisce extr. The 
P lobes are bent in at first towards the centre of the fl. and form a 
sort of prison of it, but afterwards gradually straighten. 

Ascarina Forst. Chloranthaceae. 6 Polynesia. 

Ascending (aestivation), cf. Aest. ; (ovule), sloping upwards ; (stem), do. 

-ascens (Lat. suffix), tending towards. 

Aschamia Salisb. = Hippeastrum Herb. p.p. (Amaryllid.). 

Aschenbornia Schauer. Compositae (2). i Mex. 

Aschersoniodoxa Gilg-et Muschler (Draba p.p.). Cruc. (4). i Ecuador. 

Asciadium Griseb. Umbelliferae (inc. sed.). i Cuba. 

Ascidium, a pitcher. 

Asclepiadaceae (EP. BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Contortae). 220 gen., 
1700 sp., mostly trop. (esp. Afr.), but a few temp. In veg. habit 
like Apocynaceae ; some perenn. herbs, but most are climbing shrubs 


or Hanes, with simple, entire, opp., exstip. 1. Latex is present. Many, 
esp. S. Afr. sp., xero. ; some, e.g. Periploca, with much reduced 1., 
others, e.g. Hoya. and still more, Stapelia, with fleshy stems. Epiphytes 
also occur ; cf. esp. Dischidia. 

Infl. usu. of many fls. and cymose or racemose (raceme or umbel). 
In the former case it is dich., but as in Caryophyll. the one branch 
tends to outgrow the other, and a monoch. (cincinnus) may arise in 
later branchings. When infl. axillary, there is usu. only one at each 
node; in the axil of the other 1. there is a veg. shoot, or nothing. 
In some gen. (cf. Asclepias) the infl. is extra-axillary. 

Fl. 5, reg , j-merous, usu. small. K 5, quincuncial, the odd sep. 
post.; C(5) usu. rotate or campanulate, with conv. or valvate aesti- 
vation. The essential organs (5 sta., 2 cpls. ) are complex. The sta. 
and style are usu. united to form a gynosteginm. The cpls. are free 
below as in Apocyn., but united at the tip with a common style ; ov. 
sup. The head of the- style is large and variously shaped, and the 
stigmatic surface is usually upon the edge or under side of it. To its 
margin are united the anthers of the 5 epipet. sta. ; the filaments of 
these are short or non-existent. The pollen in i is united merely 
in tetrads, in the higher group, comprising the bulk of the order, into 
pollinia, as in Orchids. Usu. each anther contains two. In this 
group also there are curtain-like projections at the sides of the anthers, 
leaving a narrow slit between each pair of anthers. 

The pollen is removed from the anthers by a curious mechanism 
the translator. This differs in the two suborders and so also does the 
fert. method. The translator always stands between two anthers 
and serves to carry away half the pollen from each of them. In the 
Periplocoideae it is a spoon- or funnel-like body with a sticky disc at 
the narrow end. Into it is shed the pollen from the two half anthers 
next to it, and as the sticky disc projects outwards in the male stage 
of the flower an insect will be likely to get it attached to its head, 
and carry it about like the pollinia of an orchid. In visiting a second 
flower the pollen may be placed on the stigmalic surface. In the 
Cynanchou/eae, on the other hand, there are pollinia, and the trans- 
lator has a different structure. It forms an inverted \-shaped organ, 
the foot of the Y being formed by the adhesive body (corpiisculuni] ; 
from this diverge the threads (retinaculn) which are attached to the 
pollinia, one in each anther. An insect in obtaining honey catches 
its leg in the slit between the anthers, and in drawing it up removes 
the pair of pollinia. The threads as they dry contract on the inner 
side till the pollinia meet, thus closely clasping the insect's leg. In 
drawing the leg through a similar slit in another fl. the pollinia catch 
on the stigmatic under-surface of the stylar head. (Cf. Apocynmn, 
which shows an approach to this mech.) 

The backs of the anthers as a rule bear appendages (ciiculli) 
forming a corona. In some cases it springs from the C. It may 
consist of small teeth, or be more complex, as in Asclepias and 
Ceropegia, and often takes up the functions of secreting and storing 
the honey. 

G (2), -z-loc., with oo anatr. ov. pend. from the ventral plac. Fr. 
a pair of follicles; seeds usu. crowned by a tuft of hairs for wind- 


carriage. Endosperm slight, cartilaginous. Some give useful 

Closely related to Apocyn., the only absolute distinction being the 
presence of translators in Ascl. ; otherwise the two sub-orders of each 
form a corresponding series, and the lower one in each is almost as 
nearly related to the corresponding one in the other order as to the 
higher group in its own order. Placed in Gentianales by BH. 

Classification and chief genera (after K. Schumann) : 

I. PERIPLOCOIDEAE (pollen in tetrads; translator spoon- 

i. Periploceae : Streptocaulon, Periploca. 

II. CYNANCHOlDEAE(vQ\\\m&\ corpusculum, &c.). 

1. Asclepiadeae (pollinia pendulous on threads): Asclepias, 

Calotropis, Cynanchum. 

2. St'canioneae (pollinia erect or horizontal, 4 in each anther) : 

Secamone (only genus). 

3. Tylophoreae (do but 2 in each, erect): Ceropegia, Stapelia, 

Stephanotis, Hoya. 

4. Gonolobeae (do. but 2 in each, horiz.) : Gonolobus. 
Asclepias L. Asclepiad. (n. i). ' 160 Am., Afr., esp. U.S. (silk-weeds). 

Herbs with umbellate infls. which spring from the stem between the 
petioles of the opp. 1. (cf. Cuphea), or above or below this. Two 
explanations exist, but which is right the evidence available does not 
show. Either the inn. is axillary to the 1. below it and is 'adnate ' to 
the stem (cf. Cuphea), or it is the termination of a shoot, and the stem 
is really a sympodiuin. 

The cuculli of the anthers form little pockets, into which honey is 
poured by the horn-like nectaries that project from them. Insects 
walking over the fl. and sipping honey frequently slip their legs down 
the sides of the gynostegium, and in drawing them up catch in the 
slit between two anthers and remove the pollinia (cf. family). The 
process may be watched on A. Cormtti Decne. in gardens. 

Asclepiodora A. Gray (Asclepias p.p. EP.). Asclep. (n. i). i N. Am. 

Ascocentrum Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 4 New Guinea. 

Ascochilus Ridl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 4 Malay Penins. 

Ascog-lossum Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 17). i New Guinea. 

Ascolepis Nees. Cyperaceae (i). 10 warm Afr., Am. 

Ascotainia Ridl. (Tainia p.p.). Orchid, (n. 7). 2 Malay Penins. 

Ascyrum L. Guttiferae (n). 5 N. Am., W. I., Himalaya. 

Asemnantha Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. 3). i Yucatan. 

Aseptate, without partitions. 

Asexual, sexless ; -generation, Pteridophyta. 

Ash, Fraxinus excelsior L. ; mountain-, Pyrus Aitcuparia Ehrh. ; 
prickly-, Zantlwxyluin fraxineiun Willd. ; -pumpkin, fienincasa 
cerifera Savi. 

Asimina Adans. Anonaceae (2). 6 E. U.S. A. triloba Dun. (papaw) 
has ed. fr. 

Askidiosperma Steud. Restionaceae. i S. Afr. 

Aspalathus L. Leguminosae (in. 3). 160 S. Afr. Many are xero. 
with a heath-like habit. 

Asparagopsis Kunth Asparagus Tourn. p.p. (Lili.). 


Asparagus Tourn. (inch Myrsiphyllum Willd.). Liliaceae (vn). 
1 20 |-*, mostly in dry places. Rhiz. with aerial shoots; 

1. reduced to scales with linear green shoots in axils, usu. stem 
in tufts. These are small condensed cymes, of the type i 
shown in the diagram (figs, represent the branches of sue- 2 2 
cessive orders). The number of shoots that develope 3 3 
varies. In the infl. the same construction holds, the shoots 4 4 

2, 2 bearing the fls. In the sub-genus M. there are flat leaf 
phylloclades (cf. Ruscus). Fr. a berry. A. officinalis L. 

cult., the young shoots being eaten. 

Aspasia Lindl. Ochidaceae (n. 19). 8 trop. Am. 

Aspen, Populus treniula L. 

Asper (Lat.), rough; -ifolius (Lat), rough-leaved. 

Asperella Humb. Gramineae (12). 2 As. (BH.), 4 N. Am , N. As., 
N.Z. (EP.). 

Asperifoliae = Boraginaceae. 

Aspermous, seedless. 

Asperugo (Tourn.) L. Boraginaceae (iv. 2). i Eur., As. 

Asperula L. Rubiaceae (n. n). 80 Eur., As., Austr., esp. Medit. 
A. odorata L. (woodruff) and A. cynanchica L. (squinancy-wort), Brit. 
Fls. homogamous ; fr. of woodruff hooked. 

Asphodel, Asphodelus; bog-, Nartheciitm ossifragiun Huds.; Scottish-, 
Tofiddia palnstris Huds. 

Asphodeline Rchb. Liliaceae (ill). 15 Medit. 

Asphodelus (Tourn.) L. Liliaceae (in). 12 Medit. (asphodel). L. isobil.; 
fls. protog. 

Aspicarpa Rich. Malpighiaceae (i). 5 Texas to Argentina. 

Aspidandra Hassk. Euphorbiaceae (inc. sed.). i Java. 

Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. Liliaceae (vn). 5 E. As. The large flat style 
forms a lid to the cavity made by the 8 P-leaves. Cult. orn. fl. 

Aspidium Sw. Synonymy: A. aemithtm Sw., cristatum Sw., dilatatum 
Willd., Filix-mas Sw., Oreopteris Sw., rigidum Sw., spinulosum Sw., 
Thelypteris Sw. = Dryopteris (same spec, names); A. Filix-foemina 
Sw. = Athyrium F.-f. 

Polypodiaceae, 200 cosmop. A. nculeatiitn Sw. (prickly shield-fern) 
and A. Lone hit is Sw. (holly-fern) in Brit. 

Aspidixia Van Tieghem ( Viscum p.p.). Loranthac. (n). 10 palaeotrop. 

Aspidocarya Hook. f. et Thorns. Menispermaceae. 5 Indomal. 

Aspidopterys A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (i). 20 trop. As. 

Aspidosperma Mart, et Zucc. Apocynac. (i. 3). 50 trop. and S. Am., 
W.I. Wood useful; bark (quebracha) used for tanning. 

Aspilia Thou. Compositae (5). 90 Brazil to Madagascar. 

Aspiliopsis Greenman. Compositae (5). i Mex. 

Aspleniopsis Mett. Polypodiaceae. i Melanesia. 

Asplenium L. Polypodiaceae. 540 cosmop.; n in Brit., including 
A. Filix-foemina Bernh. (lady-fern), A. Rnta-Diuraria L. (wall- 
spleenwort), A. Trichomanes L. (spleenwort) and A. Adiantum- 
nigruin (black spleenwort). The var. clarissima of the lady-fern 
shows apogamy (see Filicineae, Lepto.). A. bulbiferum Forst. and 
other sp. are 'viviparous,' producing young plants on their leaves by 
vegetative budding (not to be confounded with apospory). A. Nidus 


L. (the bird's nest fern) is an interesting epiphyte of the Old World 
tropics. It bears a rosette of leaves forming a nest in which humus 
collects; the roots ramify in this and obtain food and water. A. rhi- 
zophylhun Kunze is the walking fern, so called because the leaf-tips 
when they touch the soil bud into new individuals, and thus the plant 
spreads to some distance. 

Asprella Schreb. = Leersia Sw. (Gramin.). 

Assai palm, Euterpe edulis Mart. 

Assegai wood, Curdsia faginea Ait. 

Associations, plant, the grouping of pi. which occupies any definite 
uniform area and kind of land. 

Assurgent, ascending. 

Astartea DC. (Baeckea L. p.p.)- Myrtaceae (n. i). 5 Austr. 

Astelia Banks et Soland. Liliaceae (vi). 15 Polynes. Dioec. Cult, 
orn. fl. 

Astelma R. Br. Hdichrysum, Helipterum (Compos.). 

Astelma Schlecht. Asclepiadaceae"(n. 3). i New Guinea. 

Astemma Less. Compositae (5). i Ecuador. 

Astemon Regel. Labiatae (inc. sed.). i S. Am. 

Astephania Oliv. Compositae (4). 2 E. Afr. 

Astephanocarpa Baker. Compositae (4). i Madag. 

Astephanus R. Br. Asclepiad. (n. i). 12 Madag., trop. Afr., warm Am. 

Aster Tourn. ex L. Compositae (3). 400 Am., As., Afr., Eur. ; 2 on 
Brit, coast (Michaelmas daisy), somewhat fleshy halophytes. Style 
sta. typical of 3. The China aster of gardens (A. chinensis L.) 
is a Callistephus. Many cult. orn. fl. 

Aster, China, Callistephus hortensis Cass. 

Asteracantha Nees (Hygrophila BH.}. Acanth. (iv. A), i palaeotrop. 

Asteraceae = Compositae. 

Asterales (BH.}. The 2nd cohort of Dicotyledons (Gamopet.). 

Asteranthe Engl. et Diels (Asteranthopsis). Anon. (i). i Zanzibar. 

Asteranthera Hanst. Gesneriaceae (i). r Chili. 

Asteranthopsis O. Ktze. Anonaceae (i). i Zanzibar. 

Asteranthus Desf. Lecythidaceae. i Venezuela, N. Brazil. 

Asteriastigma Bedd. (Hydnocarpus p.p. EP.}. Flacourt. (3). r India. 

Asteriscium Cham, et Schlecht. Umbelliferae (I. 2). 27 Mex., S. Am. 

Asteriscus Moench = Odontospermum Neck. (Comp.). 

Asterocephalus (Vaill.) Arlans. =Scabiosa L. p.p. (Dipsac.). 

Asterochaete Nees. Cyperaceae (n). 4 Masc., S. Afr. 

Asterochlaena Garcke = Pavonia Cav. (Malv.). 

Asterogyne H. Wendl. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 C. Am. 

Asteroid, star-shaped. 

Asterolasia F. Muell. Rutaceae (i). 7 Austr. 

Asterolinon Hoffmannsegg et Link. Primulaceae. 2 Medit., Abyss. 

Asteromaea Blume (Bottonia BH.}. Compositae (3). 3 E. As. 

Asteropeia Thou. Theaceae (Samyd. BH.}. 5 Madag. 

Asterophorum Sprague. Tiliaceae. i Ecuador. 

Asteropsis Less. (Podocoma Cass. BH.}. Compositae (3). i S. Brazil. 

Asterostemma Decne. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i Java. 

Asterostigma Fisch. et Mey. (Staurostigma H.) . Arac. (vn). 5 Brazil. 

Asthenochloa Buese. Gramineae (inc. sed.). i Java. 


Astianthus D. Don (Tecoma Juss. p.p. BH.}. Bignon. (2). i C. Am., 


Astichous, not in rows. 

Astilbe Buch.-Ham. Saxifragaceae (i). 20 As., N. Am. 
Astiria Lindl. Sterculiaceae. i Masc. 
Astoma DC. Umbelliferae (in. 4). i Palestine. 
Astragalus Tourn. ex L. Leguminosae (in. 6). 1600 cosmop. exc. 

Austr. ; 3 Brit, (milk-vetch). Usu. on steppes, prairies, &c. and 

xero. often thorny ; the thorns commonly form by the stiffening of 

the petiole or midrib of the 1. when the blade falls off. A. gummifer 

Labill. and others yield gum-tragacanth, obtained by wounding the 

stem ; the gum exudes and hardens. 

Astrantia ( lourn.) L. Umbelliferae (n. i). 5 Eur., As. 
Astrebla F. Muell. Gramineae (n). 3 Austr. 
Astrephia Dufresne. Valerianaceae. 4 Chili. 
Astrocalyx Merrill. Melastomaceae (n). i Phil. Is. 
Astrocarpus Neck. Resedaceae. i S.W. Eur. 
Astrocaryum G. F. W. Mey. Palmae (iv. 2). 40 trop. Am. Several 

yield fibre and oil, or are cult, as decorative. 

Astrocasia Robinson et Millspaugh. Euphorb. (A. i. i). i C. Am. 
Astrochlaena Hallier f. Convolvulaceae (i). 20 Afr. 
Astrococcus Benth. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 2 Brazil. 
Astrodaucus Drude (Dauais p.p.). Umbelliferae (in. 2). 4 Medit. 
Astroloma R. Br. (Styphelia p.p. EP.). Epacridaceae. 25 Austr. 
Astronia Noronha. Melastomaceae (n). 30 Malay Arch., Polynes. 
Astronium Jacq. Anacardiaceae (3). 10 S. Am. Hard wood. 
Astrophiolate, with no strophiole. 

Astrophyllum Torr. et Gray. Rutaceae (i). i Mex., S.W. U.S. 
Astrostemma Benth. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Borneo. 
Astrothalamus C. B. Robinson. Urticaceae (3). i Phil. Is. 
Astrotheca Miers (Clusia L. p.p. BH.). Guttiferae (v). i Brazil. 
Astrotricha DC. Araliaceae (i). 6 Austr. 
Astydamia DC. Umbelliferae (in. 6). i Canaries. 
Asymmetrical (fl.), with no plane of symmetry, Canna, Marantaceae, 

Valerianaceae ; (1.), divided into unequal parts by midrib, Begonia, 


Asystasia Blume. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 30 palaeotrop. 
Asystasiella Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 trop. As , Afr. 
Ataenidia Gagnep. Marantaceae. i Gaboon. 
Atalantia Correa, Rutaceae (v). 18 trop. As., China, Austr. 
Atalaya Blume. Sapindaceae (i). 5 Austr., Malay Arch. 
Atamasco Raf. =Zephyranthes Herb. (BH.) = Amaryllis L. 
Atamisquea Miers. Capparidaceae (n). i Chili, Arg. 
Atamosco, Zephyranthes texana Herb. 
Atavism, cf. Reversion to type. 
Atelandra Bello (Meliosma Blume EP.}. Sabiaceae [Myrsinaceae 

(BH.)]. 2 Porto Rico. 

Atelanthera Hook. f. et Thorns. Cruciferae (4). i W. Tibet. 
Ateleia Moc. et Sesse. Leguminosae (in. i). 4 trop. Am., W.I. 
Atelophragma Rydb. (Astragalus p.p.). Legumin. (in. 6). 6 N. Am. 
Ater (Lat), black. 

-ATUS 63 

Ateramnus P. Br. Inc. sed. Jamaica. Nomen delendum. 

Athamanta L. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). 10 Medit. 

Athanasia L. Compositae (7). 50 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 

Athenaea Sendtn. vSolanaceae (2). 15 trop. Am. 

Atherandra Decne. Asclepiadaceae (i). 3 Malaya. 

Atheranthera Mast. Passifloraceae. i Angola. 

Atherolepsis Hook. f. Asclepiadaceae (i). 2 Burma. 

Atheropogon Muhl. ex Willd. = Bouteloua Lag. p.p. (Gramin.). 

Atlierosperma Labill. Monimiaceae. 2 Victoria, Tasmania. The 
strongly scented bark is sometimes used as a tea. 

Atherostemon Blume. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Burma, Malaya. 

Athrixia Ker-Gawl. Compositae (4). 20 Austr., Afr. 

Athroisma DC. Compositae (4). i E. Indomal. 

Athroostachys Benth. Gramineae (13). i Brazil. Climbing. 

Athrotaxis D. Don. Coniferae (Pinaceae ; see C. for gen. char.). 
4 Tasmania, Austr. 

Athyana Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Arg., Paraguay. 

Athyrium Roth. Polypodiaceae. 120 cosmop. A. Filix-femina 
Roth, (lady fern) Brit. 

Athyrocarpus Schlecht. (Phaeospherion EP.}. Commel. 3 trop. Am. 

Athysanus Greene. Crucifcrae (4). 2 Calif. 

Atlantic cedar, Cedrtts atlantica Manetti. 

Atomostigma O. Ktze. Rosaceae (vi). i Matto Grosso. 

Atractocarpa Franchet. Gramineae (13). i Congo. 

Atractocarpus Schlechter et Krause. Rubiaceae (I. 8). i New Cal. 

Atractogyne Pierre. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i trop. Afr. 
Atractylis L. Composiiae (u). 20 Medit. to Japan. 
Atragene L. = Clematis L. (Ranunc.). 

Atrapnaxis L. Polygonaceae (n. i). 18 C. As., N. Afr., Greece. 

Atratus (Lat.), blackened. 

Atrichoseris A. Gray. Compositae (13). i Calif. 

Atriplex (Tourn.) L. Chenopodiaceae (A). 180 temp, and subtrop.; 

6 Brit, (orache). Fls. unisexual or polyg., naked or with P. 
Atro- (Lat. pref.), black ; -purpureus, dark purple ; -virens, dark 


Atropa L. Solanaceae (2). 2 Eur., Medit., As. A. Belladonna L. 
(deadly nightshade) contains the alkaloid atropin, the basis of the 
drug belladonna used in medicine. 

Atropanthe Pascher (Sfopolia p.p.). Solanaceae (2). i China. 
Atropin, Atropa Belladonna L. 

Atropis Rupr. (Glyceria R Br. BH}. Gramineae (10). 30 temp. 
Atropous (ovule), in a line with funicle. 
Atroxima Stapf Polygalaceae. 4 trop. Afr. 

Atrutegia Bedd. (Goniothalamus Bl. hP.}. Anonac. (2). i S. India. 

Attalea H. B. et K. Palmae (iv. 2). 30 S. Arn., W. L, tiop. Afr. 

A. fimifera Mart (Brazil) yields Bahia Piassaba fibre (Kew Bull. 

1889, p. 237). A. Cohune Mart. (Honduras) yields the ivory-like 

Cohune nuts. 

Attar of roses, Rosa, Pelargonium. 
Attenuate, tapering. 
-atus (Lat. suffix), provided with. 


Atylosia Wight et Am. (Cantharospermiim W. et A. pp. EP.). Legu- 

minosae (in. to). 20 trop. As., Austr., Madag., Mascarenes. 
Aubergine, Solatium Melongena L. 

Aubletella Pierre (Chrysophytlnm L. p.p.). Sapotac. (i). i Guiana. 
Aubrietia Adans. Cruciferae (4). 15 Medit. Mis. 
Aubrya Baill. (Saccogtottis EP.). Humiriac. 10 S. Am., trop. Afr. 
Aujoumea Pierre. Burseraceae. i Gaboon. Yields resin 
AucubaThunb. Cornaceae. 3 Himal. to Japan. A.japonica1\mxk>. 

(Japan laurel) cult. orn. shrub ; it is dioecious. 

Aucubaephyllum Ahlburg (Grumilea p.p. EP.). Cornaceae. i Japan. 
Audibertia Benth. (Kamona Greene). Labiat. (vi). 10 N. Am. 
AudibertieUa Briq. Labiatae (vi). 10 Calif. 
Audouinla Brongn. Bruniaceae. i S. Afr. 
Augea Thunb. Zygophyllaceae. i S. Afr. 
Augia Lour. Inc. sed. i China. 
Augusta Leandr. = Stifftia Mikan. (Compos.). 
Augusta Pohl (Ucriana Spreng.). Rubiaceae (i. 3). i E. Brazil. 
Aulacocalyx Huok. f. Rubiaceae (11. i). 4 trop. Afr. 
Aulacocarpus Berg. Myrtaceae (i). 2 Brazil. 

Aulacodiscus Hook. f. (Pleiocarpidid). Rubiaceae (I. 7). i Malay Pen. 
Aulacolepis Hackel. Gramineae (8). i Japan. 
Aulacorhynchus Nees. Cyperaceae (inc. sed.). i S. Afr. 
Aulax Berg. Proteaceae (i). 2 Mts. S. Afr. 
Aulaya Harv. = Harveya Hook. (Scrophular.). 
Aulisconema Hua (Disporopsis $.?.). Liliaceae (vn). 2 China. 
Aulojusticia Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv B.). i S. Afr. 
Aulomyrcia Berg. = Myrcia DC. p.p. (Myrtac.). 
Aulospermum Coulter et Rose (Cymopterus p.p.). Umb. (ill. 6). 

12 N. Am. 

Aulostephanus Schlechter. Asclepiad. (n. 3). i Natal. 
Aulostylis Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 9). i New Guinea. 
Aulotandra Gagnep. Zingiber. (i). 2 Madag., trop. Afr. 
Aurantium Tourn. ex Mill. = Citrus L. (Rutac.). 
Aureus (Lat.), golden. 

Auricled (1.), with two lobes overlapping stem. 
Auricula, Primula Auricula L. 
Auricula Tourn. ex Spach= Primula Tourn. 
Aurila Noronha. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Austere, astringent. 
Australian black-wood, Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. ; chestnut, Casta- 

nospermum aitslrale A. Cunn.; -currant, Leucopogon\ -daisy, Vitta- 

dinia; -fuchsia, Correa; -heath, Epacris ; -honeysuckle, Banksia; 

red cedar, Cedrela australis F. Muell. 

Australina Gaudich. Urticaceae (5). 5 Austr., N.Z., S. Afr. 
Australis (Lat.), southern. 
Autochthonous, native. 

Autogamy, self-pollination, Capsella, Senecio, &c. 
Autrandra Pierre ex Prain (Erythrococca p.p.). Euph. (A. II. 2). 

i trop. Afr. 
Autrania C. Winckler et Barbey (Centaurea p.p. EP.). Comp. (tr). 

i Syria. 


Autumn crocus, Colchicum. 

Autunesia O. Hoffm. Compositae (i). i Angola. 

Auxemma Miers. Boraginaceae (i). 2 Brazil. Useful firewood. 

Auxopus Schlechter. Orchidaceae (II. 2). i Cameroons. 

Avellanita Phil. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 3). i Chili. 

Avellinia Parl. Gramineae (10). 2 Medit. 

Avena L. Gramineae (9). 70 temp, and Mts. of trop.; 2 Brit. (oat-, 
grass). A. sativa L., the cult, oat, is perhaps derived from A.fatna L. 
It is cult, in Eur. to 69^ N. and forms the staple of the food of a large 
population. It occurs in two chief forms, the common oat with open 
spreading panicles, and the Tartarian oat with contracted one-sided 
panicles. [See De Candolle's Orig. of Cult. Pits. p. 373.] The 
2-6-flowered spikelets form a loose panicle. The paleae are awned, 
the awn of the inf. palea being usually twisted and hygroscopic. In 
A. steriiis L. the awns cross, and when wetted try to uncurl and thus 
press on one another till a sort of explosion occurs jerking away the 

Avenastrum Jessm. (Avena L. p.p.). Gramineae (9). 10 S. Afr. 

Avens, Geitm. 

Averrhoa L. Oxalidaceae. 4 trop. As. (? ; long cult. ; origin uncertain). 
A. Bilitnbi L. (blimbing) and A. Carambola L. (carambola) cult, for 
fr., which is borne on the older stems (cauliflory). 

Averrlioidium Baill. Sapindaceae (11). 2 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Averse, turned back. 

Avicennia L. Verbenaceae (7). 3 trop., a constituent of the mangrove 
veg. (q.v.). The seeds germinate in the fr., and they have aerial r. 
projecting out of the mud like Sonneratia. 

Avocado, I'ersea gratissima Gaertn. f. 

Awl-wort, Subularia aquatica L. 

Awn, a thread-like organ on a fr., Anthoxanthum, Erodium, Gerania- 
ceae, Gramineae. 

Axanthes Blume=Urophyllum Wall. (Kubiac.). 

Axia Lour. (Boerhaavia L. p.p. EP.\. Nyctaginaceae (Valeriana- 
ceae? BH.}. i Cochinchina. 

Axial, axile, belonging to the axis ; -placentation, on the axis, cf. 
diagram of Guttiferae, Liliaceae, 

Axil, the upper angle between a 1. and the stem on which it is borne ; 
-lary, in the axil. Cf. Buds, Concrescence, &c. 

Axinaea Ruiz et Pav. Melastomaceae (i). 25 trop. Am. 

Axinandra Thw. (BH. incl. Naxiandra Krasser). Melastomaceae (ill)- 
(Lythraceae BH.} i Ceylon. 

Axiniphyllum Benth. Compositae (5). 2 Mex. 

Axis, the stem. 

Axonopus Beauv. = Paspalum L. (Gramin.). 

Axyris L. Chenopodiaceae (A). 6 Mid. and N. As. 

Ayapana, Eupatorium Ayapana Vent. 

Aydendron Nees. Lauraceae (n). 45 trop. Am. 

Ayenia Loefl. (Aniba Aubl.). Sterculiaceae. 25 trop. and subtrop. Am, 

Azadiracnta A. Juss. (Melia L. BH.) i Indomal. A. indica A. Juss. 
(nim) has astringent medicinal bark, and yields good timber. 

Azalea Gaertn. = Loiseleuria Desv. ; Azalea L. = Rhododendron L. 

W. C 


Azaleastnun Rydb. (Rhododendron p.p.)- Ericaceae (i. 2). i N. Am. 

Azara Ruiz et Pav. Flacourtiaceae. 20 Mcx., S. Am. Shrubs with 
alt. 1. ; one stip. is frequently almost as large as the 1. to which it 
belongs, giving the appearance of a pair of 1., not opp. Fl. apetalous ; 
outer sta. often without anthers. 

Azedarach Tourn. ex L. = Melia L. (Meliac.). 

Azeredia Arruda (Cochlospernmm p.p. EP.}. Cochlosperm. i Brazil. 

Azima Lam. Salvadoraceae. 3 S. Afr. to Phil. Is. In the axils are 
thorns (the 1. of an undeveloped shoot, cf. Cactaceae). Polypet. 

Azolla Lam. Salviniaceae. 4 trop. and subtrop. General structure 
like Salvinia. Two 1. are formed at each node, from (he dorsal half 
of a segment of the apical cell ; from the ventral half are formed roots 
and branches, but not at every node. The 1. are all alike ; each is 
bilobed and has a small cavity near the base, opening by a small 
pore, and inhabited by the Alga Anabaeita. The r. hang freely 
down in the water ; usually the root cap is thrown off after a time 
and the r. comes almost exactly to resemble the submerged 1. of 
Salvinia. The sporocarps are formed in pairs (4 in A. mlotica] on 
the ventral lobes of the first 1. of the branches. Each contains one 
sorus. The microspores are joined together into several masses in 
each sporangium by the hardened frothy mucilage (epispore, cf. Sal- 
vinia). Each of these massulae has its outer surface provided with 
curious barbed hairs (glochidia), and escapes on its own account. 
The megasporangium contains one spore. It sinks to the bottom ; 
decay of the indusium frees the spore and it germinates, giving rise 
to a ? prothallus which floats about on the water and may be anchored 
to a floating massula by the barbs. 

Azorella Lam. Umbelliferae (i. 2). 70 Andes to N.Z. Densely tufted 
xero. A. caespitosa Vahl. (balsam-bog, Falklands) forms tufts like 

Azureus (Lat), sky-blue. 

B (fl. -class), fls. with fully concealed honey, Calluna, many Caryophyl- 
laceae, Geranium, Gypsophila, Polemoniitm, Rnbiis, Thy tints. 

B' (fl. -class), like B, but aggregated into dense heads, Armeria, Coni- 
positae, Dipsaceae, Scabiosa. 

Babbagia F. Muell. (Osteocarpum EP.}. Chenopodiac. 4 Austr. 

Babiana Ker-Gawl. Iridaceae (in). 40 S. and trop. Afr., Socotra. 

Babingtonia Lindl. = Baeckea L. p.p. (Myrt.). 

Babul, Acacia arabica Willd. 

Bacca (Lat.), a berry; -cate, with berry; -iform, berry-like. 

Baccaurea Lour. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 60 trop. Afr., As., Polynesia. 

Baccaureopsis Pax. Euphorbiac. (A. i. i). i trop. Afr. 

Baccharis L. Compositae (3). 380 Am., esp. campos. Many are 
leafless xero. with winged or cylindrical green stems (Bot. Jb. 
27, 446). 

Bachelor's button, double fld. Centaurea, Lychnis, Ranunculus, &c.; 
also Jasione, &c. ; do. (W.I.), Goniphrena. 

Bachmannia Pax. Capparidaceae (11). 2 Pondoland. 

Bacillar, rod-shaped. 

Backhousia Hook, et Harv. Myrtaceae (n. i). 5 E. Austr. B. citrio- 
dora F. Muell. gives an essential oil almost entirely citral. 


Baconia DC.^Pavetta L. (Rubi.). 

Bacopa Aubl. (Herpestis Gaertn. f.). Scroph. (il. 6). 50 warm. 

Bacterial colonies, Pavctta. 

Bacteroids, Legnminosae. 

Bactris Jacq. Palmae (iv. 2). 100 trop. Am., W.I. Fls. in groups 
of 3, one ? between two $. B. minor Jacq. (pupunha or peach palm, 
Brazil), ed. fr. 

Bacularia F. Muell (Linospadix p.p. EP.). Palm. (iv. i). 5 Austr., 

Badiera DC. (Polygala p.p. EP.). Polygalaceae. 10 trop. Am., W.I. 

Badinjan (W.I.), Solatium Mclongena L. 

Badius (Lat.), chestnut brown. 

Badula Juss. (Ardisia Sw. p.p. BH.). Myrsin. (n). 5 E. Afr. Is. 

Badusa A. Gray. Rubiaceae (l. 5). i Fiji, Society Is. 

Baeckia L. Myrtaceae (n. i). 60 Austr. to China. 

Bael, Aegle Marmelos Correa. 

Baeobotrys Forst. = Maesa Forsk. (Myrsin.). 

Baeometra Salisb. Liliaceae (i). i S. Afr. 

Baeria Fisch. et Mey. Compositae (6). 20 Calif. 

Bagassa Aubl. Moraceae (i). 3 Guiana, N. Brazil. 

Bagnisia Becc. Burmanniaceae. 3 Malay Arch., N.Z. (?). 

Bahamas hemp, Agave rigida Mill. var. ; -grass, Cynodon Dactylon. 

Baliia Lag. Compositae (6). 15 N. Am. 

BaMa piassaba, Attaleafunifera Mart. 

Baikiea Benth. Leguminosae (n. 3). 6 trop. Afr. 

Baileya Harv. et A. Gray. Compositae (6). 3 Utah-Mexico. 

Baillonacanthus O. Ktze. = Solenoruellia Baill. (Acanth.). 

Baillonella Pierre (Jllh/iiisops L. p.p. EP.). Sapot. (2). i Gaboon. 

Baillonia Bocquillon. Verbenaceae (i). 2 S. Am. 

Baissea A. DC. Apocynaceae (n. i). 12 trop. Afr., As. 

Bajri, Pennisetum typhoideum Rich. 

Bakeria Andre. Bromeliaceae (3). i Colombia. Cult. orn. infl. 

Bakeridesia Hochreut. Malvaceae (2). i Mex. 

Bakeriella Dubard. Sapotaceae (i). n Afr. 

Bakerisideroxylon Engl. (Sideroxylon p.p.). Sapot. (i). 3 trop. Afr. 

Balaka Becc. (Ptychosperma p.p. EP.). Palmae (IV. l). 2 Fiji. 

Balangue Gaertn. Oleaceae. i Madag. 

Balania Nor. Inc. sed. Spp. o. 

Balania Van Tiegh. (Balanophora p.p. EP.). Balan. 2 E. As. 

Balaniella Van Tiegh. (Balanophora p.p.). Balan. 10 E. As. 

Balanites Delile. Zygophyllaceae. 2 Egypt, trop. Afr., Abyss. Oil. 

Balanocarpus Bedd. Dipterocarpaceae. 16 Indomal. 

Balanophora Forst. Balanophoraceae. 20 Indomal. Some apogamous 
(cf. Filicineae, Angiospermae; Treub in Ann. Buitenz. xv). 

Balanophoraceae (EP.; BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Santalales). 15 gen., 
40 sp., all but one trop. Parasites (no chlorophyll) on tree roots, to 
which the tuberous rhiz. is attached by suckers. From it springs the 
infl. (sometimes developed within the rhiz. and breaking through it), 
which comes above ground as a spike or head with scaly 1. and small 
unisexual fls. <J usu. P 3 4 or (3 4), A 3 4 or more or less. usu. 
P o G (i 2, rarely 3); ovule with o or i integument. Nut- or drupe- 


like fr. Endosperm. For details and figures see Nat. Pfl., or Kerner's 
Nat. Hist, of PI. Chief genera: Scybalium, Balanophora, Langs- 
dorffia. [Placed in Achlamydosporeae by BH.} 

Balanops Baill. Balanopsidaceae. 7 New Cal. 

Balanopsidaceae (EP. Balanopseae BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Balanop- 
sidales). An anomalous order placed in Monochlam. Unisexuales by 
BH. Trees with simple 1., $ fl. in spikes, ? sol. Dioec. ; $ with one 
whorl of P, ? with GO scaly bracts. G (2), each with 2 ascending ov. 
with i integument. Drupe. 

Balanopsidales (Engler). The 6th order of Archichlamydeae. 

Balanostreblus Kurz. Moraceae (n). i Burma. 

Balansaephytum. Drake del Castillo. Morac. (n). i Tonquin. 

Balansochloa O. Ktze. = Germainia Bal. et Poitr. (Gramin.). 

Balantium Kaulf. Cyatheaceae. 7 Am., Polynesia, Afr. 

Balata, a guttapercha-like body ; Mimnsops Batata Crueg. ; -tree (W.I.), 

Balaustion Hook. Myrtaceae (u. i). i W. Austr. 

Balbisia Cav. Geraniaceae. 3 Chili, Peru. 

Balboa Planch, et Triana. Guttiferae (v). i Colombia. 

Bald-money, Meum athamanticum Jacq. 

Balduina Nutt. (Baldwinia}. Compositae (5). 3 S. U.S. 

Baldwinia Nutt. (Ba/dieina). Compositae (5). 3 S. U.S. 

Balfourodendron Mello. Rutaceae (iv). i S. Paulo. 

Baliospermum Blunie. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 6). 4 Indomal. 

Balisaea Taub. Leguminosae (in. 7). i Brazil. 

Ball moss (Am.), Tillandsia recurvata L. 

Ballochia Balf. f. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 Socotra. 

Ballota L. Labiatae (vi). 30 Eur., Medit., W. As. B. nigra L. 
(foetid horehound), Brit. 

Balls-Headleya F. Muell. Saxifragaceae (inc. sed.). Undescribed. 

Balm, Melissa officinalis L. ; bastard-, Alelittis Melissopkylliini L. ; 
of Gilead, Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. 

Balognia Endl. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). 15 E. Indomal., New Cal. 

Balsa, Ochroma Lagopns Sw. 

Balsam, Impaticns spp.; fluid resins; -apple (W.I.), Momordifa Bal- 
samina L. ; -bog, Azorella; broad-leaved- (W.I.), Orcopanax capi- 
tatum Decne. et Planch.; Canada-, Abies balsamca Mill.; -fig (W.I.), 
Clasia rosea Jacq.; -fir, Abies balsamea Mill.; Gurjun-, Diptero- 
carpus ; of Copaiba, Copaifera spp. ; of Peru, Myroxylon Pereirae ; 
of Tolu, M. punctatiun ; pig's-, Hedwigia balsainifrra Sw. ; -poplar, 
Popu/tis balsamifera L. ; -tree, Commiphora\ yellow- (W.I.), Croton 
flavens L. 

Balsamea Gled. = Commiphora Jacq. (Burser.). 

Balsamina Tourn. ex Scop. = Impatiens Linn. (Balsam.). 

Balsaminaceae (EP. ; Geraniaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Sapindales). 2 gen., 230 sp., As., Afr., Eur., N. Am. Herbs with 
watery translucent stems and alt. 1., usu. exstip. Fl. 5, ] K 5 (the 
2 ant. small or aborted, the post, one spurred), petaloid ; C 5 (the lat. 
petals united in pairs) ; A 5, anthers adhering to one another and 
forming a cap over the ovary, whose growth ultimately breaks the 
sta. at their bases; G (5), j-loc., with oo ovules, anatr., pend. with 


dorsal raphe. Explosive capsule. Seed exalb. Chief genus: Im- 
patiens. BH. unite B. with Geraniacenc (</.T.)< but the arrangement 
of the ovule is that of Sapindales. 

Balsamita Desf. = Chrysanthemum L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Balsamocitrus Stapf. Rutaceae (v). i Uganda. 

Balsamodendrum Kunth=Commiphora Jacq. (Burser.). 

Balsamorhiza Hook. Compositae (5). 10 \V. N. Am, 

Baltimora L. Compositae (5). 3 Am. 

Bambarra groundnut, Voandzeia subterranea Thou. 

Bamboo, a member of the i3th group of Gramineae, char, by stems 
that become woody below and often grow to great size. The trop. 
forms usu. grow in clumps, which continually expand, the new shoots 
appearing at the outer side ; the subtrop. and temp, forms are usu. 
continuous in their growth. There is a big rhiz. below ground and 
erect perenn. woody stems above, which appear in the rains (or spring) 
and grow rapidly to the full height, when the scale 1. fall and the 
leafy branches spread out. Growth is very rapid in Dendrocalanuts 
giganteus Munro, reaching as much as 41 cm. a day (cf. Lock, Ann. 
Perad. II. 211). Some climb. The height is often great, reaching to 
1 20 feet in some forms. 

Some fl. annually, others at longer intervals, and some are like 
Agave and Corypha, flowering only once, all together, and then 
dying down. They fl. only when in full leaf, and as the infl. grows 
the 1. usu. fall. The seedlings grow for several years without forming 
tall shoots, producing large well-stored rhiz. They then send up shoots 
increasing in length from year to year. 

Spikelets 2-co -flowered in racemes or panicles. Sta. usu. 6. 
The economic uses of bamboos are very numerous, esp. in Asia. 
The stems are hollow, with cross partitions at the nodes, and the 
wood is elastic and very hard, owing to the deposition of silica in 
the cell walls. The stems are consequently very light and strong, 
and are also easily split. They are largely used in building, entire 
as posts, and split as roofing tiles, while the houses in Assam, Burma, 
and Malaya are often made of bamboo split finely, and woven into 
a kind of mat which is fastened upon bamboo posts. Bridges are 
often made of them, and they furnish water-pipes, water-vessels, 
gutters, floats, beehives, walking-sticks, pipes, flutes, masts, furniture, 
household utensils, agricultural tools, &c. The distichous bamboo 
shoot, with the side branches cut down to about 6 inches, is used as 
a ladder. Split bamboos, with the edges trimmed sharp, are used as* 
grass cutters, and \vill keep lawns in good order. Finely split bam- 
boos are made into mats, blinds, rigging, baskets, fans, hats, coarse 
clothing, umbrellas, ropes, brushes, &c., esp. in Japan, where fine 
work is done in bamboo. Paper is made from bamboos in China 
and elsewhere. The stout stems of the male bamboo (Dendrocalamus 
strictus Nees) are used for the handles of lances. The stems cut into 
lengths form very useful flower pots, largely employed in tropical 
gardens. The young shoots are eaten like asparagus, and the poorer 
natives also use the seeds as food. In the stems of B. arundinacea 
\Villd. curious concretions of silica are found, known as tabashir or 
bamboo manna, used in the East as a medicine in many diseases. 


(See Kurz, Bamboo and its uses, Ind. Forester, 1876. and art. in Nat. 

PJl. by Sir D. Brandis ; Lock, on growth, in Ann. Pcrad. \\. 211 ; 

Freeman-Mitford, The Bamboo Garden.} 
Bamburanta L. Linden. Marantaceae. i trop. Air. 
Bambusa Schreb. Gramineae (13). 70 trop. and subtrop. As., Afr., 

Am. The typical genus of bamboos (q.i'.}. 
Bamia (L.) R. Br. ex Wall. = Hibiscus Tourn. (Malv.). 
Bamlera K. Schum. et Lauterb. Melastomaceae (n). i New Guinea. 
Banalia Moq. Amarantaceae (2). i Inciomal. 
Banana, Musa Sapientnm L. 

Banara Aubl. FJacourt. (5) (Samyd. BH.}. 24 W.I., trop. Am. 
Bandakai, Hibiscus esciilentus L. 

Bandeiraea Welw. (Griffonia EP.). Legumin. (n. 4 ). 3\V. trop. Afr. 
Baneberry, Aclaea spicata L. 
Bania Becc. Menispermaceae. i New Guinea. 
Banisteria L. Malpighiaceae (i). 90 trop. S. Am. Fr. like Acer. 
Banisteriopsis C. B. Robinson. Malpighiaceae. 6 C. Am. 
Banjolea Bowdich. Acanthaceae (inc. seel.), i Madeira. 
Banksia L. f. Proteaceae (n). 50 Austr. (Austr. honeysuckle). Shrubs 

and trees with xero. habit. Fls. in dense spikes. Hard woody follicle 

enclosed in woody twigs derived from bract and bracteoles. Seeds 


Ban rhea, Vilkbrunia integrifolia Gaudich. 
Banyan, Ficus benghalensis L. 
Baobab, Adansonia digitata L. 

Baoulia A. Chevalier. Cojnmelinaceae. i Ivory Coast. 
Baphia Afzel. Leguminosae (in. i). 12 trop. Afr., Madag. B. nitida 

Afzel, cam-wood, used for red dye ; the wood when first cut is white, 

but turns red in the air. 

Baphiastrum Harms. Leguminosae (in. i). i Cameroons. 
Baphiopsis Benth. Leguminosae (n. 9). 2 trop. Afr. 
Baptisia Vent. Leguminosae (in. 2). 25 N. Am. In B. perfoliata 

R. Br. there are perfoliate L, really in two vertical ranks, but becoming 

one-ranked by twisting of internodes alt. right and left. 
Baptistonia Barb. Rodr. Orchidaceae (n. 19). i Brazil. 
Barbacenia Vand. Velloz. (Amaryll. BH.}. 36 Brazil, Afr. 
Barbadoes gooseberry, Pereskia aculeata Mill.; -pride, Caesalpima 

pidcJierriina Sw., Adeiianthera pavoitina L. 
Barbarea R. Br. Cruciferae (2). 15 N. temp.; 2 Brit, (yellow rocket, 

Barbatus (Lat.), bearded. 

Barberetta Harv. Haemodoraceae. i S. Afr. 
Barberina Veil. = Symplocos L. p.p. (Symploc.). 
Barberry, Berberis. 

Barbeuia Thou. Phytolaccaceae. i Madag. 
Barbeya Schweinf. Ulmaceae. i Arabia, Abyssinia. 
Barbeyastrum Cogn. Melastomaceae (i). i Congo. 
Barbiera DC. Leguminosae (ill. 6). i trop. Am., W.I. 
Barbosa Becc. Palmaceae (iv. 2). i E. Brazil. 
Barcella Drucle (Elaeis Jacq. p.p. BH.}. Palmae (iv. 2). i Ama- 



Barcena Duges. Rhamnaceae. i Mex. 

Barclaya Wall. Nymphaeaceae (in). 3 Indomal. K 5 hypog. ; C up 

^to (21), epig., tubular; A oo ; G (1012) with projections forming a 
tube above the stigmatic disc. 

Bargemontia Gaudich. (Delia Lindl. EP.). Nolan, i Peru. 

Barilla, Halogeton sativits Moq. ; - (W.I.), Bails. 

Barjonia Decne. Asclepiadaceae (11. 3). 8 Brazil. 

Bark, the outer coat of a tree, applied esp. to that of Cinchona ; 
Angostura-, Cuspariafebrifuga Humb. ; Cartagena, crown, Jesuit's, 
Peruvian, brown and red Peru, yellow, &c. cf. Cinchona ; Canella-, 
Canella ; Cascarilla-, Croton Cascarilla Benn. ; Cassia-, Cinnamomum 
Cassia Blume ; iron-, Eucalyptus; quercitron, Quercus tinctoria 
Bartr. ; stringy-, Eucalyptus ; West Indian-, Exostemma ; Winter's-, 
Drimys IVinteri Forst. 

Barkerwebbia Becc. Palmae (iv. i). i New Guinea. 

Barkhausia Moench = Crepis L. (Compos.). 

Barklya F. Muell. Leguminosae (in. i). i Queensland. 

Barlaea Reichb. f. (Habenaria p.p.). Orchid, (n. i). i trop. Afr. 

Barleria L. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 1 80 trop. largely xero. on steppes. 
Bracteoles frequently repres. by thorns. The seeds have surface hairs 
which swell when wetted. Many cult. orn. fl. 

Barleriola Oerst. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 2 W. Ind. 

Barley, Hordeiim vulgar -e L. ; -grass, Hordeum. 

Barnadesia Mutis. Compositae (12). 128. Am. Shrubs. 

Barnyard grass (Am.), Panicum Crns-galli'L. 

Baronia Baker. Anacardiaceae (3). i Madag. 

Baroniella Costantin et Galland. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Madag. 

Barosma Willd. Rutaceae (i). 15 S. Afr. The 1. of 3 spp., esp. 
B. betulina Bartl. et Wendl. f. (buchu 1.) are offic. 

Barren (fl.), male. 

Barreria, L. Inc. sed. i S. Afr. 

Barrettia T. R. Sim. Euphorbiaceae (inc. sed.). i E. trop. Afr. 

Barringtonia Forst. Lecythidaceae. 30 palaeotrop. Char, of beach- 
jungle. Wood of some useful ; the seeds yield oil. 

Barroetia A. Gray. Compositae (2). 5 Mex. 

Barrotia Gaudich. = Pandanus L. (Pandan. ). 

Barrowia Decne. (Orthanthera p.p. EP.}. Asclep. (n. 3). 2 S. and 
trop. Afr. 

Barteria Hook. f. Flacourt. (6) (Passifl. BH.}. 5 W. Afr. 

Barthea Hook. f. Melastomaceae (i). 3 China. 

Bartholina R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. i). i S. Afr. 

Bartlettia A. Gray. Compositae (8). i Mex. 

Bartlingia F. Muell (Laxmannia R. Br.). Liliac. (in). 8 Austr. 

Bartonia Muhl. Gentianaceae (i). 5 N. Am. Saprophytes with a little 
chlorophyll and leaves reduced to scales. 

Bartonia Sims. = Mentzelia L. (Loasac.). 

Bartramia L. = Triumfetta L. 

Bartsia L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). 6 N. temp., trop. Mts.; i Brit. 
Mostly herbs, semi-parasitic on grass-roots (see fam.). Fl. with loose- 
pollen mech. (see fam.). 

Barus camphor, Dryobalanops aroniatica Gaertn. 


Barwood, Baphia nitida Afzel. 

Baryxylum Lour. (Peltophorum'WaXy. EP.). Legum. (n. 7). i China. 

Basal (plac.), at base of ovary. 

Basanacantha Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 15 trop. Am. 

Basananthe Peyr. (Tryphostemnia EP.}. Passifl. 3 trop. Afr. 

Basella (Rheede) L. Basellaceae. i trop. As., a climbing herb whose 
fls. remain closed. Fr. enclosed in the P. Cult, as spinach. 

Basellaceae (EP.; Chenopodiaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Centro- 
spermae). 4 gen. 15 sp. Am. , As., Afr. Rhiz. or tuber, giving annually 
a climbing shoot, often with fleshy 1., and racemes or panicles of fls., 
stalked and often conspic. coloured, each with 2 bracteoles. K 2, 
C 5, A 5 opp. pets.; G (3) with terminal style and 3 stigmas, i-loc. ; 
ovule i, basal, campylotropous. Usu. berry. Chief genera : Basella, 
Ullucus, Boussingaultia. 

Baseonema Schlechter et Rendle. Asclep. (i). 4 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Basi- (Lat. pref. ), basal; -fixed (anther), joined to filament at base; 
-fugal, from base upwards ; -lar, basal ; -petal, towards base down- 
wards ; -scopic, facing the base ; -tonic, Orchidaceae. 

Basil, Calamintha, Ocinnim Basilicum L. 

Basiloxylon K. Schum. Sterculiaceae. i Brazil. Good timber. 

Basistelma Bartlett. Asclepiad. (n. i). 2 Mex., C. Am. 

Basistemon Turcz. Scrophulariaceae (il. 4). 2 Colombia, Peru. 

Baskervilla Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i Peru. 

Basket-hoop (W.I.), Croton lucidm L. ; -withe (W.I.), Tourneforlia. 

Baskets, cf. Andropogon, Bamboos, Borassus, Cocos, Junciis, &c. 

Bass, inner fibrous bark, esp. of Tilia ; -wood, Tilia ainericana L. 

Bassellinia Vieill. Palmaceae (inc. sed.). 5 New Cal. 

Bassia All. (Anisacantha R. Br. BH.} Chenopodiaceae (A). 30 N. 
palaeotemp., Austr. 

Bassia Koenig ex L. (Illipe F. Muell. EP.}. Sapotaceae (i). 50 Indo- 
mal., Austr. B. pallida Burck yields a gutta-percha. The seeds of 
B. butyracea Roxb. (Indian butter tree) yield a butter-like substance, 
used for soap-making, &c. The fls. of B. latifolia Roxb. (mahua, 
mahwa, or mowa) are ed., and the wood useful. 

Baesora gum, a mixture of Indian bassorin gums. 

Bassorin, cf. Gums. 

Bassovia Aubl. Solanaceae (2). 15 Cent, and S. Am. 

Bast, the outer part of a vascular bundle ; also piassaba fibre, &c. 

Bastard-balm, Melittis Melissophyllnm L. ; -cedar, Chickrassia tabu- 
laris A. Juss. ; -teak, Butea frondosa Roxb.; -toadflax, Thesium 
Jiumifusiini DC. 

Bastardia H. B. et K. Malvaceae (2). 5 W. Ind. and S. Am. 

Bastardiopsis Hassler. Malvaceae (2). i S. Am. 

Bat pollination, Freycinetia. 

Batanthes Raf. (Gilia Ruiz et Pav. p.p. BH.}. Polemon. 10 N. Am. 

Bataprine Nieuwland (Galium L. p.p. ). Rubiac. (n. n). 2 N. Am. 

Batatas Choisy=Ipomoea L. p.p. (B. cdulis Choisy=I. Batatas). 

Batemannia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 12). i Brit. Guiana. 

Batesanthus N. E. Br. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Cameroons. 

Batesia Spruce. Leguminosae (n. 8). i Amazon valley. 

Bathieaea Drake del Castillo. Leguminosae (il. 2). i Madag. 


Bath-sponge, Luffa cylindrica M. Roem. 

Bathyphytium (Cl.), a lowland plant formation. 

Bathysa C. Presl. Rubiaceae (I. 3). 7 Brazil, Peru. 

Bathysograya O. Ktze. (Baditsa A. Gray). Rubiaceae (i. 5). i Fiji, 

Batidaceae (EP. ; Batideae, BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Centrospermae). 

Only genus Batis (q.v.}. Placed in Curvesibryae by BH, 
Batidaea Greene. Rosaceae (in. 2). 16 N. Am. 
Batidales. The 9th cohort of Dicots. Archichl. 
Batis L. Batidaceae. i N. Am., Sanclw. Is. Coast shrub with opp. 

fleshy linear 1. and spikes of dioec. fl. $ in axils of 4-ranked br., with 

cup-like P, A 4. 9 naked, G (2), with 2 anatr. ov. in each. No 


Batocarpus Karst. Moraceae (II). i Colombia. 
Batodendron Nutt. (Vaccinium L. p.p.)- Eric. (in. i). 3 N. Am. 
Batrachium S. F. Gray = Ranunculus Tourn. (the aquatic sp.). 
Batratherum Nees = Arthraxon Beauv. (Gramin.). 
Batschia Vahl. (Humboldtia Vahl. BH.). Legum. (n. 3). 4 Ceyl., 

S. Ind. 

Bauchea Fourn. (Epicampes ] . Presl EP.). Gramineae (8). i Mex. 
Baucis Phil. Compositae (12). i Chili. 
Baudouinia Baill. Leguminosae (n. 5). 2 Madag. 
Bauera Banks. Saxifragaceae (vn). 4 temp. E. Austr. Shrubs. Fls. 

solitary, axillary, 4 ro-merous. Sta. = pet. or oo . 
Bauerella Borzi. Rutaceae (v). i Austr. 
Bauhinia L. Leguminosae (u. 4). 220 trop. Many lianes with stems 

curiously shaped, flattened or corrugated and twisted owing to a 

peculiar mode of growth in thickness (cf. other lianes). Some sp. 

have tendrils (branches). In some the young 1. droop. In the axils 

of the stips. are usu. found small linear trichome structures ; in some 

they form stout interstipular thorns. Great variety in floral structure, 

&c. (see Nat. Pfl. in. 3, p. 151). 
Baukea Vatke. Leguminosae (in. 10). i Madag. 
Baumannia K. Schum. Rubiaceae (n. i). i trop. E. Afr. 
Baumea Gaudich. = Cladium P. Br. p.p. (Cyper.). 
Baumia Engl. et Gilg. Scrophulariaceae (ill. 2). i trop. Afr. 
Bawchan seed, Psoralea corylifolia L. 
Baxteria R. Br. Liliaceae (in) (June. BH.}. i W. Austr. 
Bay, Laurus nobilis L. ; -bean (Bermuda), Canavalia obtusifolia DC.; 

-berry Myrica cerifera L. ; loblolly-, Gordonia Lasianthus L. ; 

-rum, Pimento, offidnalis Lindl. ; sweet-, Magnolia, Laurus. 
Bdallophyton Eichl. (Cytinus L. BH.). Rafflesiaceae. 2 Mex. 
Bdellium, Commiphora. 
Beach-grass (Am.), Ammophila ; -jungle, a palaeotrop. shore formation, 

char, by Barringtonia and other woody pi., e.g. Pandanus, Pemphis, 

Premna, Scaevola, Sophora, Thespesia, &c. ; -pea (Am.), Lathyrus 

maritimus Bigelow. 

Beadlea Small [Spiranthes Rich. p.p.). Orchid. (11. 2). i N. Am. 
Bead-tree, Melia Azedarach L. ; do. (W.I.), Ormosia dasycarpa]a.c\is.; 

-vine (W.I.), Rhynchosia. 
Beads, Abrus, Adenanthera, Coix, &c. 

74 . BEAK 

Beak, a pointed outgrowth ; -rush, Rhynchospora. 
Beam tree, Pyrus Ana Ehrh. 

Bean, Vida Faba L. ; asparagus- (W.I.), Dolichos sesquipedalis L.; 
bog-, Menyanthcs trifoliata L. ; Bengal-, Mucuna (Stizolobium) sp. ; 
broad-, Vida Faba L. ; black-, Castanospermum aitstrale A. Cunn. ; 
Calabar-, Physostigma venenosum Balf,; cherry-, Vigna sinensis 
Endl. ; cluster-, Cyaniopsis psoraloiiies DC. ; duffin-, Phaseolus 
lunatus L. ; French or haricot-, P. vulgaris L. ; Hibbert- (W.I.), 
P. lunatus L. ; Florida velvet-, Mucuna pruriens DC. var. ; horse- 
(W.I.), Canavalia ensiformis DC.; horse-eye- (W.I.), Mucuna 
urens Medic. ; kidney-, Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Lima-, P. lunatus L. ; 
nickar-, Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming, Entada scandens Benth. ; 
ordeal-, Physostigma venenosum Balf.; red- (W.I.), Vigna Catjang 
Walp. ; sabre-, Canavalia; sacred-, Nelumbium spedosum Willd.'; 
seaside- (W.I.), Canavalia obtusifolia DC., Vigna glabra Savi ; 
soja or soy-, Glydne Soja Sieb. et Zucc.; sugar- (W.I.), Phaseolus 
lunatus L. ; St Ignatius'-, Strychnos Ignatii Berg.; sword- (W.I.), 
Canavalia ensiformis DC. ; Tonka or Tonquin-, Dipteryx odorata 
Willd.; -tree, Castanospermum australe A. Cunn.; do. (W.I.), Ery- 
thrina; white-, Lima-; yam-, Pachyrhizus tuberosus Spr., Dolichos 
Lablab L. ; year- (W.I.), Phaseolus vulgaris L. 

Bearberry, Arctostaphylos, (Am.) Rhamnus Purshiana DC.; -grass 
(Am.), Yucca ; -'s foot, Helleborus foetidus L. 

Beard grass, Polypogon. 

Beatsonia Roxb. (Frankenia L. p.p. BH.}. Franken. i St Helena. 

Beaucarnea Lem. (Nolina Michx.). Liliaceae (vi). 15 N. Am. 

Beaufortia R. Br. Myrtac. (ir. i). 15 W. Austr". Some cult, 
orn. fl. 

Beaumontia Wall. Apocynaceae (n. i). 5 Indomal. 

Beauprea Brongn. et Gris. Proteaceae (i). 7 New Cal. 

Beauvisagea Pierre = Lucuma ( J 5 > ^T.) = Sideroxylon (Dill.) L. 

Beaver poison (Am.), Cicuta maadata L. 

Bebbia Greene. Compositae (5). 3 S.W. U.S. 

Beccaxianthus Cogn. Melastomaceae (n). i Borneo. 

Beccariodendron Warb. (Mitrephora EP.}. Anonac. (2). i Oceania. 

Becium Landl.=Ocimum Tourn. (Labial.). 

Beckera Fresen. Gramineae (4). 3 Abyss. 

Beckeria Ridl. Rubiaceae (i. 7). 'i Malaya. 

Beckmaunia Host. Gramineae (n). i N. temp. 

Beckwithia Jepson (Ranunculus p.p.). Ranunc. (3). i Calif. 

Becquerelia Brongn. Cyperaceae (ll). 3 trop. S/Am. 

Beda nut, Terminalia belerica Roxb. 

Beddomea Hook. f. (Aglaia p.p. EP.). Meliaceae (in), i India. 

Bedfordia DC. Compositae (8). 2 temp. Austr., Tasm. 

Bed-straw, Galium. 

Bee-flowers, fl. esp. of class H, chiefly visited by bees ; Antirrhinum, 
Aquilegia, Boraginaceae, Borago, Calluna, Campanulaceae, Cobaea, 
Compositae, Digitalis, Gentiana, Labiatae, Lamium, Lavandula, 
Leguminosae, Lotus, Lychnis, Monarda, Onagraceae, Pedicidaris, 
Phacelia, Pyrus, Rhododendron, Sympkytum, Tiiia, Trifolium, 


Beech, Fagns sylvatica L. ; -fern, Diyopteris Phegopterh L.; -mast, 

the capsules of fr.; seaside- (W.I.), Exostemma. 
Beef-apple (W.I.), Sapota; -wood, Stenocarpus, Casuarina, &c. 
Beesha Kunth = Melocunna Trin. (Gramin.) ; do. Munro = Ochlandra. 
Beetroot, Beta vulgaris L. ; sugar-, a var. 

Befaria Mutis (Bejaria}. Ericaceae (i. i). 20 trop. and subtrop. Am. 
B. racemosa Vent, and others (Andes rose) form a consp. feature in 
the veg., taking the place of Rhododendrons. 

Begonia (Tourn.) L. Begoniaceae. 600 trop. and subtrop., esp. Am. 
Many cult, for handsome fls. and foliage. Most are perenn. herbs 
with thick rhiz. or tubers. Several climb by aid of roots like ivy. 
L. rad. or alt., in two ranks, with large stips. One side of the 1. is 
larger than the other, whence the name 'elephant's ear,' by which 
they are sometimes known. The surface of the 1. is easily wetted, 
and drip-tips are frequent (cf. Fiats}. In the axils groups of little 
tubers are frequently found ; these are not axillary branches, but are 
borne upon the true axillary branch, which does not lengthen. They 
also repr. easily by adv. buds which readily form on pieces of 1. cut 
off and placed on the soil under suitable conditions of moisture &c. 
(the common mode used in horticulture). A callus forms over the 
wound, and in it there develops a meristem which gives rise to one 
or more buds. 

Infl. axillary, clich. with a bostryx tendency. The first axes 
usually end in c?, the last and sometimes the last but one in ?, fls. 
In the i , P 2, valvate, or 4, decussate, corolline; A oo , free or not, 
the connective often elongated and the anthers variously shaped. In 
the ?, P 2 5 ; G usu. (i 3), with 2 3 loc., and axile plac. often 
projecting far into them ; ovules oo , anatr.; styles free. Ovary usu. 
winged ; the wings persistent upon the capsular fr. No endosperm. 

Begoniaceae. Dicotyledons (Archichl. Parietales). 4 gen. with the 
characters of Begonia (q.v.). Placed in Passiflorales by BH. 

Begoniella Oliv. Begoniaceae. 3 Colombia. 

Behaimia Griseb. Leguminosae (in. 8). i Cuba. 

Behen-oil, Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. 

Behnia Didrichsen. Liliaceae (x). i S. Afr. 

Behria Greene. Liliaceae (iv). i S. Calif. 

Behuria Cham. Melastomaceae (i). 7 S. Brazil. 

Beilschmiedia Nees. Lauraceae (11). 40 trop., and Austr., N.Z. 

Bejaria Zea (Befaria Mutis, q.v.). Ericac. (i. i). 15 warm Am. 

Belairia A. Rich. Leguminosae (ill. i). 2 Cuba. 

Belamcanda Adans. Iridaceae (n). i E. As. Cult. orn. fl. 

Belangera Cambess. Cunoniaceae. 10 S. Brazil, Paraguay. 

Belencita Karst. Capparidaceae (n). i Colombia. 

Belladonna, Atropa Belladonna L. 

Belladonna Sweet = Amaryllis L. (Amaryll.). 

Bell apple (W.I.), Passiflora lanrifolia L.; -flower, Campanula, Wahlen- 

Bellardia All. (Bartsia L. p.p. BH.}. Scroph. (in. 3). i Medit. 

Bellendena R. Br. Proteaceae (i). i Tasmania. 

Bellevalia Lapeyr. = Hyacinthus Tourn. p.p. (Liliac.). 

Bellida Ewart. Compositae (3). i Austr. 


Bellis (Tourn.) L. Compositae (3). 15 Eur., Medit. B. percnnis L. 
(daisy) Brit. Multiplies and also hibernates by short rhiz. Kay 
florets ?. The head closes at night and in wet weather. Cult. 
orn. fl. 

Bellium L. Compositae (3). 6 Medit. 

Bellonia (Plum.) L. Gesneriaceae (n). 2 W.I. 

Bellucia Neck. Melastomaceae (i). 15 trop. Am. Fr. eel. 

Belly-ache bush (W.I.) t Jatropha gossypifolia L. 

Belmontia E. Mey. Gentianaceae (i). 20 S. and trop. Afr., Maclag. 

Beloanthera Hassk. Inc. sed. i Java. 

Belonanthus Graebn. Valerianaceae. 2 Peru, Bolivia. 

Belonophora Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. i). i W. Afr. 

Beloperone Nees. Acanth. (iv B). 45 warm Am., many cult. orn. fl. 

Belotia A. Rich. Tiliaceae. 'i Cuba, Mex. 

Bembicia Oliv. Flacourt. (7) (Samyd. BH.}. i Madag. 

Bembicina O. Ktze. = Bembicia Oliv. (Flacourt.). 

Bembix Lour. Malpighiaceae (inc. sed.). i Cochinchina. 

Bencomia Webb, et Berth. Rosaceae (in. 5). 2 Canaries, Madeira. 

Benevidesia Saldanha et Cogn. Melastomaceae (i). i S. Brazil. 

Bengal beans, Stizolobium (Mncuna) sp.; -kino, Butea frondosa Roxb. 

Benl seed (W. Afr.), Poly gala btityracea Heckel. 

Benincasa Savi. Cucurbitaceae (in). 2 trop. As. The fr. of B. cerifera 
Savi. is eaten in curries. It has a thick coating of wax. 

Benjamin, gum-, Styrax Benzoin Dryand.; -bush (Am.), Lindera 
Benzoin Meissn. 

Bennettia Miq. Flacourtiaceae (4). 2 S. As. ; do. R. Br. = Galearia. 

Ben nut, -oil, Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. 

Bent-grass, Agrostis, Apera ; silky-, Cynositrus. 

Benthamantha Alef. = Cracca Benth. (Legum.). 

Benthamia Lindl. (1830) = Amsinckia Lehm. ; (i833) = Cornus Tourn. 

Benthamiella Spegazz. Solanaceae (inc. sed.). 10 Patagonia. 

Bentia Rolfe. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i S. Arabia. 

Bentinckia Berry. Pahnae (iv. i). 2 India. 

Benzoin Hayne= Styrax L. do. Nees Lindera Thunb. 

Benzoin, gum, Styrax Benzoin Dryand. 

Benzonia Schum. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). i W. Afr. 

Berardia Brongn. = Nebelia Neck. (j9ZT.) = Diberara Baill. (EP.). 

Berardia Vill. Compositae (12). i Alps. 

Berberidaceae (EP. ; BH. incl. Lardizabalaceae}. Dicotyledons 
(Archichl. Ranales). n gen., 135 sp., N. temp. (Berberis in trop. 
Mts. and S. Am.). Perennial herbs or shrubs, in the former case 
usu. with sympodial rhiz. Fls. in racemes, ?, reg. ; typical formula 
P 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 A 3 + 3, G i ; fl. sometimes 2-merous. Of the 4 outer 
whorls, the two outer are P proper, the two inner ' honey-leaves ' 
usu. with nectaries at the base (see Rammculaceae). The former are 
often termed the K, the latter the C. Anthers introrse, but in most 
cases open by two valves (</. Lauraceae) at the back ; the valve with 
the pollen on it moves upwards and turns round so that the pollen 
faces towards the centre of the fl. Cpl. always i, with one or many 
ovules, in the former case usu. basal, in the latter ventral. Berry, or 
a dry fruit opening in various ways. Embryo straight in rich endo- 


sperm. Chief genera: Podophyllum, Epimedium, Leontice, Berberis. 
[Placed in Ranales byBH.; their chars, include unisexual fl., extrorse 

Berberideae (BH.} includes preceding and Lardizabalaceae. 

Berberidopsis Hook. f. Flacourt. (i). (Berber., Lardizabal. auct.) 
i Chili. 

Berberis (Tourn.) L. Berberidaceae. 160 sp. S. Am. B. vulgaris L. 
(barberry) Brit. Shrubs. Two sections. In i, Mahonia (Nutt.), 
the 1. are pinnate; many cult, shrubs. In 2, Euberberis, the 1. are 
simple, but usu. show a joint where the blade meets the petiole, 
seeming to indicate a derivation from a cpd. 1. There are also 'short' 
and ' long ' shoots (if. Coniferae) in this , to which B. vulgaris 
belongs. The latter have their 1. met. into spines (usu. tripartite) ; 
transitions may often be seen. The former stand in the axils of the 
spines and bear green 1. and racemes of fls. (afterwards sometimes 
elongating to ' long ' shoots). The pollination mechanism is in- 
teresting. The upper surface of the base of each sta. is sensitive to 
contact, and when it is touched by an insect in search of honey 
(secreted by the nectaries upon the bases of the inner P 1.) the sta. 
springs violently upwards, covering the side of the visitor's head 
with pollen, which it may place on the stigma in the next flr. visited. 
The fr. is sometimes made into preserves. 

An interesting.point about the common barberry is its connection 
with the disease known as black rust, which occurs on wheat and 
other Gramineae. The fungus (Pitccinia graminis or Aecidium 
berberidis} passes through two alt. stages in its life history, one on 
the grass, the other on the barberry, so that if there are no barberry 
plants in a district, it is to a large extent, though by no means 
absolutely, insured against black rust. 

Berberry, Berberis. 

Berchemia Neck. Rhamnaceae. 15 palaeotrop., Atl. N.Am. 

Bere, Hordeuni vnlgare L. 

Berendtia A. Gray. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). 4 JNIex., C. Am. 

Berendtiella Wettst. et Harms = Berendtia A. Gray. 

Berenice Tul. Saxifragaceae (v). i Bourbon. 

Bergamot, Mentha citrata E\irh.=aguat/'t:a L. ; -orange, Citrus 
Aitrantiitni L., var. Bergamia Wight et Arn. 

Bergenia Moench (Saxifraga p.p. BH.). Saxifr. (i). 10 E. As. 

Bergera Koen. ex L. = Murraya L. (Rutac.). 

Bergerocactus Britton et Rose (Cereus p.p.). Cact. (m). i Calif. 

Bergeronia M. Micheli. Leguminosae (in. 8). i Paraguay. 

Bergliesia Nees. Rubiaceae (inc. seel.), i Mex. 

Bergia L. Elatinaceae. 25 trop. and temp. 

Berginia Harv. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Calif. 

Bergsmia Blume (Ryparosa Blume). Flacourt. (3) (Bix. BH.}. 
8 S.E. As. 

Beringeria Neck. = Ballota L. p.p. (Labiat.). 

Berinia Brignol. = Crepis Vaill. p.p. (Compos.). 

Berkheya Ehrh. Compositae (6). So Afr. 

Berkheyopsis O. Hoffm. Compositae (10). 5 S. and trop. Afr. 

Berlandiera DC. Compositae (5). 5 sp. S. aYid E. U.S. 


Berlinia Soland. Leguminosae (n. 3). 18 trop. Afr. 

Bermuda arrowroot, cf. A. ; -grass, Cynodon Dactylon Pers. 

Bennudiana (Tourn.) L. =Sisyrinchium L. p.p. (Crucif.). 

Bernardia Houst. ex P. Br. Euphorb. (A. n. 2). 24 warm Am., 

Bernardinia Planch. Connaraceae. 2 S. Brazil. 

Berneuxia Decne. Diapensiaceae. i E. Tibet. 

Bernieria Baill. Lauraceae (11). i Madag. 

Bernoullia Oliv. Bombacaceae (2) (Stercul. BH.}. i C. Am. 

Berria Roxb. (Berrya). Tiliaceae. 2 Indomal., Polynesia. B. Am- 
monilla Roxb. gives a valuable timber (Trincomali wood, Ceylon, 

Berries, yellow, Rhamnus infectoria L. 

Berroa Beauverd (Lucilia p.p.)- Compositae (4). i S. Am. 

Berry, a fleshy fr. containing no hard part but the seeds, Actaea, 
Berberis, Ribes, Solatium, Vaccitiium, Vitis ; dehiscent in Akebia, 
Myristica, constricted between seeds in Maenta, Unona, &c. ; bay-, 
Myrica cerifera L. ; toil-, Vaccinium Myrtilius L. ; black-, Rubus ; 
blae-, = bil-; buflEalo-, Shepherdia argentea Nutt. ; checker-, Gaul- 
theria procumbens L. ; cloud-, Rubus Chamaemorus L. ; COW-, 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea L. ; cran-, Vaccinium Oxycoccus L. ; crow-, 
Empetrum nigrum L. ; dew-, Rubns caesitts L.; goose-, Ribes 
Grossularia'L,.; buckle-, Gaylussacia ; partridge-, checker; rasp-, 
Rubns Idaeus L. ; straw-, Fragaria vesca L. ; trimble-, Rubus 
occidentalis L. ; wbortle-, = bil-. 

Berrya Roxb. (Berria, q.v.}. Tiliaceae. 2 Indomal., Polynesia. 

Bersama Fres. Melianthaceae (Sapind. BH.}. 20 trop. and S. Afr. 

Bersim, Trifolium alexandrinum L. 

Berteroa DC. (Alyssum p.p. BH.}. Cruciferae (4). 5 N. palaeotemp. 

Bertholletia Humb. et Bonpl. Lecythidaceae. 2 trop. S.Am., W. I. 
Fr. a large woody capsule, containing seeds with hard woody testa 
and oily endosperm (Brazil nuts). The fr. is indehiscent and the 
seeds are procured by opening it with an axe. It is closed by a plug 
formed of the hardened calyx, and in germination the seedlings 
escape here (Watson, Ann. Bot. xv. 1901, p. 99). 

Bertiera Aubl. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 25 trop. Am., Afr. 

Bertiera Blume = Adenosacme Wall. (BH.\ =Mycetia Reinw. 

Bertolonia Raddi. Melastomaceae (i). 10 Brazil, cult. orn. Young 
plants form at cuts across the midrib of a 1. placed on damp soil. 

Bertya Planch. Euphorbiaceae (B. u). 12 Austr., Tasm. 

Berula Hoffm. ex Bess. = Sium Tourn. p.p. (Umbell. ) 

Berzelia Brongn. Bmniaceae. 7 S. Afr. 

Bescliorneria Kunth. Amaryllidaceae (n). 10 Mex. Cult. orn. fl. 
and 1. 

Beslerla Plum, ex L. Gesneriaceae (i). 70 warm Am., W.I. 

Bessera Schult. f. (BH. excl. Androstephium}. Liliac. (iv). i Mex., 

Besseya Rydb. (Synthyris Benth. EP.}. Scroph. (in. i). 7 N. W. Am. 

Beta (Tourn.) Linn. Chenopodiaceae (2). 6 sp. Eur., Medit.; i in 
Brit., B. viilgaris L. or B. maritima L. the sea-beet, from which are 
derived the garden beetroot, the sugar-beet (var. Rapa Dumort.), 



and the mangold-wurzel. The plant is a biennial and stores reserves 
in the root, the non-nitrogenous materials taking the form of sugar. 

The sugar-beet is largely cult, in W. Eur. for its sugar, a for- 
midable rival to the older industry of cane sugar. The sugar-contents 
of the roots have been continually improved by selection, and now 
frequently represent over 2O/ of the weight. Germany grows ii 
million tons of beet sugar annually, and other countries about 
another 3 millions. [Herzog, Monographic der Zucker-riibe, Ham- 
burg, 1899.] 

The garden beet is a favourite vegetable ; the mangold is valuable 
for feeding cattle, &c. The 1. are sometimes eaten like spinach. 

Betckea DC. = Plectritis DC. (Valerian.). 

Betel-nut, Areca Catechu L. ; -pepper, Piper Betle L. 

Betonica (Tourn.) Linn. =Stachys Tourn. (Labial.). 

Betony, Stachys. 

Betula (Tourn.) L. Betulaceae (2). 38 N. temp., arct. B. alba L., 
the birch, is common in Brit, and reaches to the N. limit of trees, 
which is occupied by B. nana L. , a creeping shrubby form, in much 
of the N. temp. zone. The winter buds are scaly, the scales 
representing stips. : the outer two or three pairs of them have no 1. 
Witches' brooms are very commonly to be seen as dense tufts of twigs. 
Trees with catkins of fls. The <? calkins are laid down in autumn 
as large buds at the end of the year's growth, ihe ? furlher back, on 

B. alba. A, bract, bracteoles, and perianth, of $ , from within, with sta. re- 
moved ; B, a stamen ; C, floral diagram of A ; D, bract, bracteoles and fls. of ? 
from within ; E, the same with fls. removed ; /', the same at ripeness of seed ; G, 
floral diagram of D. b = bract ; a. /3 = bracteoles of fl. i, or bracts of fls. 2, 3. After 

leafy branches. In the axil of each 1. of the catkin there are 3 fls. 
(cf. other genera of B.). The bracts of the lateral fls. occur (a, /3) 
but no bracteoles. In the 3 the bracteoles a /3 are joined to ihe 
bract itself. Each fl. has l\vo sta. and a perianlh, often reduced from 
the typical 4 1. to the 2 median 1. , or even to ihe single anterior 1. 
The sta. are divided into halves nearly lo ihe base ; the lat. ones are 
absent. In ihe ? the bracteoles a /3 are free from the bract al ihe 
lime of fertilisation, but afterwards they unite \vith it to form the 
3-lobed woody scale (F in figure) under the fruit (or rather the tissue 


beneath them grows up, carrying all up together). The 2-loc. ovary 
gives rise to a i -seeded nut, attached to the scale. There is no P. 

Birch-wood is tough and is used for various purposes, e.g. for 
wooden shoes and for charcoal. The oil prepared from the bark is 
used in tanning* Russia leather, to which it gives its peculiar fragrance. 
The bark of B. papyracea Ait. (N. Am.) is used in making canoes. 
Betulaceae (EP.; Cupuliferae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Fagales). 
6 gen. with 90 sp., chiefly N. temp. Shrubs or trees with alt. 
undivided slip. 1., the membranous stips. soon falling. The seedling 
stems are radial in symmetry, but in the old branches the 1. are often 
2-ranked and face upwards. 

Fls. monoecious, anemophilous, in terminal catkins ; the stem is 
thus sympodial. In the axils of the 1. of the catkins are small 
dichasial cymes, typically of 3 fls. (see Betula, &c.). The central fl. 
is often absent, and some of the bracteoles also. Thejfl. is united 
to the bract and may have a perianth ; sta. 2 12. The ? may have 

an epig. perianth. G (2), 2-loc., each with i pend. ovule with one 
integument. Some genera are chalazogamic. Nut i -seeded; seed 
exalb. After fert. the bract and bracteoles grow into a scale- or 
cup-like organ which may remain attached to the fruit. 
Classification and genera (after Winkler) : 

i. Coryleae (3 fl. solitary, naked, on bract) : Ostryopsis, Carpinus, 
Ostrya, Corylus. 

i. Betuleae (<J fl. with perianth, in dichasia) : Betula (sta. bifid), 
Alnus (not). 

Beureria Jacq. (Bourreria P. Br.). Borag. (n). 30 trop. Am., W.I. 

Beyeria Miq. Euphorbiaceae (B. n). 13 Austr. 

Beyeriopsis Muell.-Arg. = Beyeria Miq. p.p. (Euphoria.)- 

Beyrichia Cham, et Schlechtd. Scrophular. (n. 6). 3 Brazil, W.I. 

Bhang, Cannabis. 

Bhotan pine, Pinus excelsa Wall. 

Bi-, bis- (Lat. pref.), two- ; -auriculate, -carpellary, -ceps (Lat. heads), 
-color (Lat.), -cuspidate, -dentate, -ennial (lasting two- years), 
-farious (two ranked), -fid, -foliate, -geminate, -labiate, -lateral, 
-lobus (Lat. lobecl), -locular, -nary (of two members), -nate (of two 
leaflets), -parous (dichasial), -partite, -pinnate, -seriate, -serrate, 
-spinose, -sulcate, -ternate, &c., are intelligible enough. 

Biarum Schott. Araceae (vn). 7 Medit. 

Biasolettia Koch (Freyera Rchb.). Umbel, (in. 2). 6 Medit. 

Bicarpellatae (Benth.- Hooker). The 3rd series of Gamopetalae. 

Bicornella Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. i). 2 Madag. 

Bicornes (Warming). The ist order of Sympetalae. 

Bicuculla Borkh. = Adlumia Raf. (Papav.). 

Bicuspidaria Rydb. (Menlzelia L. p.p.). Loasac. 3 Calif. 

Bidaria Decne. = Gymnema R. Br. p.p. (Asclep.). 

Bidens (Tourn.) L. Compositae (5). 120 cosmop. (Spanish needle) ; 
2 Brit, (bur-marigold). Fr. distr. by the 2 6 barbed bristles of the 
pappus. B. Beckii'Torr. (N. Am.) a heterophyllous water pi. 

Bidwillia Herb. Liliaceae. Nomen. 

Biebersteinia Steph. Geraniaceae. 4 E. Medit., W. As. 

Bieneria Reichb. f. (Chloraea BH.}. Orchid, (n. 2). i Bolivia. 


Bienertia Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (B). i W. As. 

Biermannia King et Pantl. Orchid, (n. 20). 2 E. Indies. 

Bifaria O. Ktze. (Panicum L. p.p.). Gramin. (5). 3 Brazil. 

Bifaria Van Tiegh. Loranthaceae (i). 50 warm j *. 

Bifora Hoffm. Umbelliferae (in. 3). 4 N. subtrop. 

Bifrenaria Lindl. Orchidac. (n. 12). 14 trop. S. Am. Cult. 

Big, 4- rowed barley. 

Big tree, Sequoia gigantca Lindl. et Gord., Eucalyptus. 

Bigelovia Spreng. = Spermacoce L. (BH. ) = Borreria G. F. W. Mey. 

Bigelowia DC. Compositae (3). 40 N. Am. to Ecuador. 

Biglandularia Karst. (Leiphaimos p.p. EP.}. Gentian, (i). i Venezuela. 

Bignonia (Tourn.) L. (BH. incl. Cremastus, Cydista, Doxantha, 
Phaedranthus, Pleonotoma, Stizophyllum^ of Miers, and Paragonia 
Bur., Pyrostegia Presl, making 150 spp. in all). Bignon. (i). 
2 W. I. to Argentina, incl. B. Ungttis-cati L. cult, for its masses 
of fl., which appear simultaneously. Tendrils grapnel-like with 
three claws (modified 1.), thickening after clasping. Fl. protandr. 

Bignoniaceae (BH. EP.). Dicots. (Sympet. Tubiflorae; Personales, 
BH.). 60 gen., 500 sp. trop. One genus (Catalpa) common to old 
and new worlds. Most in Brazil ; a few temp. Trees and shrubs, 
most commonly lianes, with opp. usu. cpd. exstip. 1. Many xero. 
shrubs with condensed stems, but the chief interest centres in the 
climbers, a very important feature in the forest veg. of S. Am. 
Twiners (e.g. Tecomaria, Pandorea), root-climbers (Tecoiua radicans), 
and tendril climbers (most B.). In Eccremocarpus &c. the inter- 
nodes and petioles are sensitive, but in most B. the tendrils are at 
the ends of the 1. (in place of leaflets, as in Vicia). The tendrils are 
frequently branched ; in some cases the branched tendril occupies the 
place of one leaflet. Three types of tendril are found simple twiners, 
tendrils provided with adhesive discs (as in Virginia creeper), and 
hooked tendrils. See Glaziovia, Bignonia &c. The climbing stems 
exhibit many features of anatomical interest, owing to the peculiar 
growth in thickness. 

Infl. usu. dich. with cincinnal tendency ; bracts and bracteoles 
present. Fir. ,-!, hypog. K (5) : C (5), usu. bell- or funnel-shaped, 
descendingly imbr.; A 4, epipet., didynamous, the anther-lobes usu. 
one above the other, the post. std. always present ; G (2) on hypog.disc, 
2- (or rarely i-) loc., with oo erect anatr. ov. onaxileplac. Caps, septifr. 
or loculic. : seed usu. flattened and with large membranous wing, exalb. 
Classification and chief genera (after Schumann): 

I. Bignonieae (ovary completely 2-loc., compressed || septum, or 

cylindrical ; caps, septifr. with winged seeds ; usu. tendril- 
late) : Glaziovia, Bignonia, Oroxylum. 

II. Tecomeae (ovary 2-loc., compressed _L septum or cylindrical ; 
caps, loculic. with winged seeds ; rarely tendrillate) : Incar- 
villea, Jacaranda, Catalpa, Tecoma, Spathodea. 

III. Eccremocarpeae (ovary j-loc. ; caps, splits from below up. ; 
seeds winged ; tendrils): Eccremocarpus (only gen.). 

IV. Crescentieae (ovary i - or 2-loc. ; fr. berry or dry indehiscent ; 
seed not winged; usu. erect pi.) : Parmentiera, Crescentia, 
Phyllarthron, Kigelia. 

w. 6 


Bihai Adans. = Heliconia L. (Musac.). 
Bikh poison, Aconitum ferox Wall. 

Bikkia Reinw. Rubiaceae (i. i). 15 E. Malay Arch., Polynesia. 
Bilabium Miq. = Didymocarpus Wall. p.p. (Gesner.). 
Bilberry, Vacdnium Myrtillus L. 

Bilegnum Brand (Kindera Pall.). Boragin. (iv. i). i Persia. 
Bileveillea Vaniot (Blumea p.p. EP.}. Compos. (4). 5 Nepal, China. 
Bilimbi, Averrhoa Bilimbi L. 
Bilitalium Buch.-Ham. Inc. sed. i India. 
Billardiera Sm. Pittosporaceae. 9 Austr. 

Billbergia Thunb. Bromel. (4). 40 trop. Am. Epiph. Cult. orn. mfl. 
Billia Peyr. (Aesculus p.p. BH.}. Hippocast. 2 trop. Am. 
Billiard balls, Phvtelcphas. 

BUliottia DC. (Melanopsidium EP.). Rubi. (i. 8). i Brazil. 
Billottia R. Br. = Agonis DC. (Myrt.). 
BUtia Small (Rhododendron p.p.). Eric. (i. 2). i N. Am. 
Bima Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Bindweed, Convolvulus spp. ; black-, Polygonum. 
Bingeria A. Chevalier (Guarea p.p.). Meliaceae (in), i Afr. 
Binotia Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. 19). i Brazil. 
Biogenesis, life from life. 

Biolettia Greene (Trichocoronis p.p.). Compos. (6). i Calif. 
Biology, in narrower sense, ecology. 
Biometry, statistical measurement of living beings. 
Bion, an independent individual. 

Biondia Schlechter. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i China. 
Biophytum DC. Oxalid. 25 trop. Many have sensitive pinnate 1.; 
the leaflets bend down when touched (cf. Mimosa). Explosive aril 
on the seeds (cf. Oxalis). 
Biota D. Don = Thuja L. p.p. (Conif.). 
Biotia DC. =Aster Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 
Biovularia Kamienski. Lentibul. i W. Ind., N. Brazil. 
Bipinnula Comm. ex Juss. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 8 temp. S. Am. 
Birch, Betula ; (W.I.) Bursera. 

Bird-cherry, Primus Padus L. ; -pepper, Capsicum minimum. 
Birds as agents in pi. dispersal, cf. Seed-dispersal. 
Bird's foot, Ornithopus perpusillus L. ; - -trefoil, Lotus ; -nest fern, 
Asplenium Nidus L. ; - -orchis, Neottia Nidus-avis Rich. ; yellow 
-nest, Monotropa Hypopitys Walt. 
Birthwort, Aristolochia Clematitis L. 

Bisboeckelera O. Ktze. (Hoppia Nees). Cyper. (n). 4 S. Am. 
Bischofla Blume. Euphorb. (A. I. i). i Indomal., Polyn. Bark medic. 
Biscutella L. Cruciferae (2). 15 S. and mid. Eur. 
Biserrula L. Leguminosae (ill. 6). Medit. 
Bisglaziovia Cogn. Melastomaceae (i). i Brazil. 
Bisgoeppertia O. Ktze. (Goeppertia p.p.). Gent. (i). 2 Cuba. 
Bishop's cap (Am.), Mitella; -weed, Aegopodium. 
Bisluederitzia O. Ktze. (Neohiederitzia). Zygophyll. i S. Afr. 
Bismarckia Hildebr. et H. Wendl. (Mfdemia Princ. Guil. de Wurtt.). 

Palmae (11). i Madagascar. 
Bisphaeria Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 


Bisrautanenia O. Ktze. (Neorautanenia}. Legum. (in. to), i S. Afr. 

Bissy nuts, Cola nuts, Cola. 

Bistania Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Bistella Adans. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Bistort, Polygon a in. 

Bistorta Tourn. = Polygonum L. p.p. (Polyg.). 

Biswarea Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (3). i W. Himal. 

Bitchwood (W.I.), Lonchocarpits. 

Bitter ash (W.I.),P/u-ae>/a; cress, Cardamine; -nut, Carya ; -orange, 
Citrus Anrantinm L. var. Biganuiia ; -root, Lnwisia ; -sweet, 
Solatium Dulcamara L. ; -wood, Picraena, Picramna, &c. 

Bitteria Borner (Carex p.p.). Cyperaceae (in). 5 N. temp. 

Bivinia Tul. (Calantica p.p. EP.). Flac. (9) (Samyd. BH.}. i Madag. 

Bivolva Van Tiegh. (Balanophora p.p.). Balan. 5 India, China. 

Bivonaea DC. Cruciferae (2). 4 W. Medit. 

Bixa L. Bixaceae. i trop. Am. B. Orellana L. cult for the seed ; 
the orange colouring matter of the outer layer of the testa (annatto, 
arnotto, roucou) is used in dyeing sweetmeats &c. 

Bixaceae (EP. ; Bixineae BH. incl. Flacourtiaceae and Cochlosper- 
maceae). Dicots. (Archichl. Parietales EP. BH.}. 3 gen. 6 sp. 
trop. Small trees or shrubs ; 1. alt. slip, entire. Fl. in panicles, 
5 , reg. K 5, C 5, A oo , G (2), i-loc. with parietal plac. and oo anatr. 
ov. Style simple. Capsule splitting between plac. Seeds with red 
fleshy papillae. Endosp. starchy. Chief genus Bixa. 

Bixineae (BH.). Bixaceae, in wide sense. See above. 

Blachia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 5). 8 Indomal. 

Black bead shrub (W.I.), Pithecolobium Unguis-cati Benth. ; -berry, 
Rubus fmticosus, &c.; -bindweed, Polygon ni/i Convolvulus L. ; 
-boy, Xanthorrhoea hastilis R. Br.; -bryony, l^annts communis L. ; 
-butt, Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. &.C.; -cap raspberry, Rubus occi- 
dentalis L. ; -dammar, Canarium ; -gram, Phaseolus Mungo L., 
var. radiatus ; -grass (Am.), Juncits Gerardi Loisel. ; -gum tree 
(Am.), Nyssa ; -jack (Am.), Quercus nigra L. ; -moss (Am.), Til- 
landsiansneoides'L.; -mustard, Brassica nigra Koch ; -oil, Celastrus; 
-snake-root, Ciinicifuga (Actaea) racemosa Nutt. ; -spleenwort, 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigruin L. ; -thorn, P minis spinosa L. ; 
-wattle, Acacia decurrens, Willd. ; -wood, Acacia inelanoxylon R.Br., 
Dalbergia latifolia Roxb., &c. 

Blackstonia Huds. = Chlora Ren. (Gentian.). 

Blackwellia Comm. ex Juss. = Homalium Jacq. p.p. (Flacourt.). 

Blackwellia Gaertn. Inc. sed. i sp. Habitat? 

Bladder-campion, Silene inflata Sm. ; -fern, Cystopterisfragilis Bernh. ; 
-nut, Staphylea pinnata L. ; -seed, Physospennum ; -senna, Colutea 
arborescens L. ; -wort, Utricitlaria. 

Blaeberry, Vacciniwn Myrtillus L. 

Blaeria L. Ericaceae (iv. i). 25 S. and trop. Afr. 

Blainvillea Cass. Compositae (5). 10 cosmotrop. 

Blairia Houst. ex L. = Priva Adans. (Verben. ). 

Blakea P. Br. Melastomaceae (i). 35 S. Am., W.I. Ed. fr. 

Blanchetia DC. Compositae (i). i Bahia. Raises perspiration. 

Blanchetiastrum Hassler. Malvaceae (3). i Brazil. 



Blancoa Lindl. Amaryllid. (in), i S.W. Austr. (Haemodor. BH. ) 
Blandfordia Sm. Liliaceae (in). 4 E. Austr. Cult. orn. fl. 
Blanket flower, Gaillardia. 

Blastania Kotschy et Peyr. Cucurbit. (2). 3 trop. Afr. and As. 
Blastemanthus Planch. Ochnaceae. 3 N. Brazil, Guiana. K5 + 5. 
Blastocaulon Ruhland (Paepalanthus p-p.). Eriocaul. 3 Brazil. 
Blastochore (Cl.), a plant distr. by offshoots. 
Blastus Lour. Melastomaceae (i).. 4 E. As. 
Blatti Adans. (Sonneratia L. f. q.v.}. Sonnerat. 6 Indomal. 
Blattiaceae = Sonneratiaceae. 
Blazing star, Liatris sqitarrosa Willd. 

Blechnum L. Polypodiaceae. 220 cosmop. B. boreale Sw. (B. Spicant 
Roth.) in Brit, has fertile and barren 1., the latter larger. Cf. Bower, 
Studies, Ann. Bot. 28, 1914, p. 363. 

Blechum P. Br. Acanthaceae (IV. A). 4 trop. Am., W.I. 
Bleeding heart, Dicentra', (W.I.), Colocasia antiquornm. 
Bleekrodea Blume. Moraceae (i). 3 Madag., Borneo, Indochina. 
Blennodia R. Br. Cruciferae (4). 1 1 Austr. 
Blennosperma Less. Compositae (6). 2 Chili, California. 
Blepharacanthus Nees = Blepharis Juss. (Acanth.). 
Blepharandra Griseb. Malpighiaceae (n). i Guiana. 
Blepharanthera Schlechter. Asclep. (n. 3). 2 Damaraland. 
Blepharidachne Hackel (Eremochloe Wats.). Gramin. (10). 2 W.N. 


Blephariglottis Rafin. = Habenaria Willd. (Orchid.). 
Blepharipappus Hook. Compositae (5). i W. U.S. Many = Layia. 
Blepharis hiss. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 80 palaeotrop., Medit., S. Afr. 
The seeds have hairs which swell up when wetted. 

Blepharispermum Wight ex DC. Compos. (4). 10 trop. As. and Afr. 

Blepharistemma Benth. in Wall. Rhizophoraceae. i India. 

Blepharizonia Greene. Compositae (5). 2 California. 

Blepharocalyx Berg. (Myrtus p.p. BH.}. Myrtac. (i). 3 warm 
S. Am. 

Blepharocarya F. Muell. Anacard. (3). (Sapind. BH.} i E. trop. 

Blepharodon Decne. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 25 Mex. to Chili. 

Blepharoneuron Nash (Vilfa p.p-)- Gramin. (8). i S.W. U.S., Mex. 

Blephilia Rafin. Labiatae (vi). 2 N. Am. 

Bletia Ruiz et Pav. Orchid, (n. 9). 20 trop. Am., W.I. Cult. 

Bletilla Reichb. f. Orchidaceae (n a. n). i E. As. 

Blighia Kon. Sapindaceae (i). 3 trop. Afr. B. sapida Kon (akee, 
vegetable marrow) cult, for ed. fr. (fleshy arillate seed stalk). 

Blimbing, Averrhoa Biliinbi L. 

Blinding tree (Ceylon), Excoecaria Agallocha L. 

Blinks, Montia fontana L. 

Blinkworthia Choisy. Convolvulaceae (i). 2 Burma. 

Blitum (Tourn.) L. = Chenopodium L. p.p. (Chenopod.). 

Blood-flower, Haeianthus, (W.I.) Asclepias curassavica L. ; -leaf, 
Iresine ; -lily, Haemanthus ; -root, Sanguinaria caitadt'iisis L. ; 
-wood, Eucalyptus, (W.I.) Laplacea. 

Bloomeria Kellogg. Liliaceae (iv). 2 S. California. 


Blue-bell, Campanula rotundifolia L., Sdlla festalis Salisb. ; -berry 

(Am.), Vaccininm spp. ; -bottle, Centaurea Cyamis L. ; -flag (Am.), 

Iris ; -grass (Am.), Poa pratensis L. ; -gum, Eucalyptus Globulus 

Labill.; -lettuce (Am.), Mttlgedium ; -tangle (Am.), Gaylussacia 

frondosa Ton. et Gray; -weed (Am.), Echiuin. 

Bluet, Vaccinium pennsylvanicum Lam., Houstonia. 

Blumea DC. Compositae (4). 80 palaeotrop. Ai or ngai camphor is 
distilled from B. balsamifera DC. (S.W. China). 

Blumenbachia Schrad. Loasaceae. 6 temp. S. Am. Fr. very light, 
twisted, covered with grapnel hairs. 

Blumeodendron Muell.-Arg. =Mallotus Lour. p.p. (Euphorb.). 

Blunt, with rounded end. 

Blysmus Panz. =Scirpus Tourn. p.p. (Cyper.). 

Blyxa Noronha. Hydrocharidaceae. 10 * warm. 

Blyxopsis O. Ktze. (Enhydrias Ridl.). Hydrocharid. i Malay Penin. 

Bo (Ceylon), Ficus religiosa L. 

Bobartia L. Iridaceae (n). 10 S. Afr. L. sword-like or centric. 

Bobea Gaudich. Rubiaceae (n. 2). 5 Sandwich Is. 

Bobua DC. = Symplocos L. p.p. (Symploc.). 

Bocagea St. Hil. Anonaceae (i). ro trop. Am. and As. 

Bocconia Plum, ex L. (BH. inch Macleya Reichb.). Papaveraceae (ti). 
2 Mex. to Peru, W.I. Apetalous. 

Bocoa Aubl. (InocarpiiS Forst. Bff.}. Leguminosae (in. 8). i Guiana. 
The seeds are ed. 

Bocquillonia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. 11.2). 6 New Caled. 

Bodinieria Leveille et Vaniot. Ranunc. (2). i China. 

Bodinieriella Leveille. Ericaceae (n. i). i China. 

Boea Comm. ex Lam. Gesneriaceae (i). 25 trop. As. and Austr. 

Boebera Willd. = Dyssodia Cav. p.p. (Compos.). 

Boeberastrum Rydberg (Dyssodia p.p.). Compos. (10). 3 S.W. U.S. 

Boeckeleria T. Durand (Decalepis Boeck.). Cyper. (n). i S. Afr. 

Boehmeria Jacq. Urticaceae (3). 60 trop. and N. subtrop. B. nivea 
Gaudich. has good drip-tips (cf. Acer). It is cult, in China for the 
fibre (China grass, rhea) obtained from the inner bark (cf. Linum), 
perhaps the longest, toughest, and most silky of all veg. fibres, but 
most difficult to prepare. In the trop. the var. tenacissima (ramie) is 

Boehmeriopsis Komarow. Urticaceae (3). i Corea. 

Boeica C. B. Clarke. Gesneriaceae (i). 6 S.E. As. 

Boenninghausenia Reichb. Rutaceae (n). i Khasias to Japan. 

Boerhaavia Vaill. ex L. Nyctaginaceae. 40 cosmop. Anthocarp 
often glandular, aiding in seed-dispersal. 

Boerlagea Cogn. Melastomaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Boerlagella Pierre. Sapotaceae (n). i Sumatra. 

Boerlagiodendron Harms. Araliaceae (i). 20 Malaya. 

Bog-asphodel, Narthecium 'ossifragum Huds. ; -bean, Menyanthes tri- 
foliata L. ; -myrtle, Myrica Gale L. ; -rush (\\\\.},Juncus. 

Bogoria J. J. Sm. Orchidaceae (11. 20). r Java. 

Bois fldele, Citharexylum ; -immortelle, Erythrina nmbrosa. 

Boisduvalia Spach (Oenothera p.p. BH.}. Onagr. (2). 8 W. coast 


Boissiera Hochst. et Steud. Gramineae (10). i W. As. 

Bojeria DC. (Inula p.p. EP.}. Compositae (4). 3 Maclag., S. Afr. 

Bolandra A. Gray. Saxifragaceae (i). 2 Pac. N. Am. 

Bolanosa A. Gray. Compositae (i). i Mex. 

Bolax Comm. ex Juss. = Azorella Lam. (Umbell.). 

Bolbophyllaria Reichb. f. Orchidaceae (n. 16). 6 trop. 

Bolbophyllum Sprang. = Bulbophyllum Thou. (Orchid.). 

Bolboschoenus Palla (Scirfius p.p.). Cyper. (i). i cosmop. 

Bolboxalis Small (Oxalis p.p.). Oxalidaceae. i S. Afr. 

Boldo, Peumus Boldns Molina. 

Boldoa Cav. Nyctaginaceae. i Mex., W.I. 

Boldoa Endl. = Peumus Molina. (Monim.) 

Bole, straight main trunk. 

Boleum Desv. Cruciferae (2). i Spain. 

Bolivaria Cham, et Schlecht. = Menodora Humb. et Bonpl. p.p. 

Boll, a capsule, especially of cotton. 

Bollea Reichb. f. (Zygopetalum p.p. BH.}. Orchid, (n. 14). 3 W. 
trop. Am. 

Bollwilleria Zabel (Pyrus p.p.). Rosaceae (n). 2 Eur., Meclit. 

Boltonia L'Herit. Compositae (3). 4 U.S. 

Bolusanthus Harms (Lonchocarpus p.p.). Leguni. (ill. i). i S. Afr. 

Bolusia Benth. Leguminosae (ill. 6). i S. Afr. 

Bomarea Mirb. Amaryllidaceae (in). 90 Mex., C. and S. Am. L. 
like Alstroemeria. Often climbing. Umbels cymose. Cult. orn. fl. 

Bombacaceae (EP. ; Malvaceae^, p. BH. ). Dicots.(Archichl.Malvales). 
20 gen., 140 sp., trop., esp. Am. Trees, often very large, with thick 
stems, sometimes egg-shaped owing to formation of water storage 
tissue ; 1. entire or palmate, with deciduous slips. Fl. , often 
large, usu. reg. K (5), valvate, often with epicalyx ; C 5, conv., pets, 
asymmetric ; A 5 oo , free or united into a tube, pollen smooth ; 
G (2 5), in the latter case the cpls. opp. the pets., multiloc. ; style 
simple, lobed or capitate ; ovulus 2 oo in each loc.. erect, anatr. 
Capsule ; seeds smooth, often embedded in hairs springing from wall ; 
enclosp. little or o. The Adansonieae are myrmecophilous (cf. 
Acacia), with extrafloral nectaries on 1., K, or fl. stalk. Chief genera 
Adansonia, Bombax, Chorisia, Durio, Eriodendron. 

Bombax L. (incl. Pachira Aubl. EP.). Bombacaceae. 60 trop. B. 
inalabaricum DC. (cotton-tree, Ind., Ceylon) drops its 1. in Dec. and 
remains leafless till Apr., but fls. in Jan. The cotton is used for 
cushions, &c. Dug-out canoes are made of the soft wood. 

Bombay aloe, Agave \ -hemp, Crotalaria, Agave. 

Bombycidendron Zoll. ct Morr. (Hibiscus p.p.). Malv. (4). 4 Phil. Is. 

Bombycinus (Lat.), silky. 

Bombynia Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Bonace (W.I.), Daphnopsis. 

Bonamia Thou. Convolvulaceae (i). 3 Sandwich Is., Madag. 

Bonania A. Rich. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 6 Cuba. 

Bonannia Guss. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 2 S. Eur. 

Bonapartea Haw. = Agave L. (Amaryll.). 

Bonatea Willd. (Ilabenaria p.p.). Orchid, (n. i). ,s trop. and S. Afr. 

Bonatia Schlechter et Krause. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i New Calecl. 



i E. Medit. 

Bonaveria Scop. (Securigera DC.). Legum. (in. 5). 

Bonavist (W.I.), Dolichos Lablab L. 

Boneset (Am.), Eupatorium. 

Bongardia C. A. Mey (Leontice p.p. EP. ). Berberid. 

Bonla Bal. Gramineae (13). i Tonquin. 

Boninia Planch. Rutaceae (i). 2 Bonin Is. 

Bonjeania Reichb. =Dorycnium L. p.p. (Legum.). 

Bonnaya Link et Otto (Ilysanthes p.p. EP.}. Scroph. (n. 6). 5 Warm. 

Bonnetia Mart, et Zucc. Theaceae. 5 trop. Am. 

Bonniera Cordemoy. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 2 Reunion. 

Bonnierella Viguier (Panax p.p.). Araliaceae (i). 2 Tahiti. 

Bonplandia Cav. Polemoniaceae. 2 Mex. 

Bontia L. Myoporaceae. i W.I. 

Bonyunia Schomb. Loganiaceae. 3 Guiana, Brazil. 

Boopis Juss. Calyceraceae. 25 Andes, Argentina. 

Boottia Wall. Hydrocharidaceae. 20 palaeotrop. 

Boquila Decne. Lardizabal (Berber. BH.}. i Chili. 

Borage, Borago officinalis L. 

Boraginaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Sympet. Tubiflorae; Polemo- 
niales BH.}. 85 gen. 1600 sp., trop. and temp., esp. Medit. Most 
are herbs, perenn. by fleshy roots, rhiz., &c. ; a few shrubs and trees. 
L. usu. alt., exstip., generally, as well as the rest of the plant, 
covered with stout hairs (hence the name Asperifolieae, by which 
the B. are sometimes known). Infl. a coiled cincinnus, sometimes 
double, with a marked dorsiventrality. As the fls. open it uncoils, 
so that the newly opened fls. face always in the same direction. The 
morphology of this infl. is but imperfectly understood; adnation or 
concrescence occurs, and apparently dichotomy at the growing apex. 
The general agreement is, however, in favour of the view that the 
"boragoid," as it is sometimes called, is composed of dorsi-ventral 
monopodia. Cf. Nat. Pfl., Miiller in Flora, 94, Schumann, Morphol. 
Studien, n. 

Fl. ?, usu. reg., hypog., and 5-merous. 
rarely valvate, the odd sepal post.; C (5), 
funnel-shaped or tubular, the limb usu. 
flat; AS, epipet., alt. to petals, anthers 
introrse; G(2), on hypog. disc, usu. 4-loc. 
by "false" septum (see Labiatae), usu. 
with gynobasic style ; ovules i in each loc., 
erect, anatr. Fr. a drupe or 4 achenes. 
Seed with straight or curved embryo in 
usually slight endosp. ; the radicle directed 
upwards. [Cf. V.] 

The floral arrangements are interesting. 
Most B. have a short tube, partly conceal- 
ing the honey; many (esp. IV. i and 3) have 
scales projecting inwards from the throat 
of the corolla, fully concealing the honey, 
protecting it from robbery and narrowing 

the entrance, so that visiting insects must take a definite track. 
" Many sp., in the course of their individual development, seem to 

K (5), imbr. or open, 

Floral diagram of Anchusa ; 
after Eichler. 


recapitulate to us the evolution of their colours white, rosy, blue in 
several sp. of Myosotis; yellow, bluish, violet in M. versicolor; and 
red, violet, blue in Pulmonaria, Echium, &c. Here, white and yellow 
seem to have been the primitive colours." (Miiller.) Many B. are 
heterostyled, e.g. Pulmonaria. The fls. of many sp. are pendulous 
(and thus bee-flowers), e.g. Borago, Symphytum. Echium is gyno- 

Classification and chief genera (after Giirke) : 
I. CORDIOIDEAE (drupe; style terminal: twice bi- 
lobed): Cordia. 

II. EHRETIOIDEAE (do.; style simple or bi-lobed or 

double ; no ring of hairs) : Ehretia. 

III. HELIOTROPIOIDEAE (do., do., but ring of hairs near 

tip of style): Tournefortia, Heliotropium. 

IV. BORAGINOIDEAE (style gynobasic : achenes). 

1. Cynoglosseae (fl. reg. ; base of style more or less conical ; 

tips of achenes not projecting above pt. of attachment) : 
Omphalodes, Cynoglossum, Rindera. 

2. Eritrichieae (do., but tips projecting above pt. of attach- 

ment) : Echinospermum, Eritrichium, Cryptanthe. 

3. Anchuseae (fl. reg.; base of style flat or slightly convex ; 

achenes with concave attachment surface) : Symphytum, 
Borago, Anchusa, Alkanna, Pulmonaria. 

4. Lithospermeae (do., but surface of attachment flat) : Myo- 

sotis, Lithospermum, Arnebia, Cerinthe. 

5. Echieae (fl. zygomorphic) : Echium. 

V. WELLSTEDIOIDEAE ( 4 -merous ; ov. compressed, 2-loc. 

with one pend. ov. in each ; caps.) : Wellstedia. 

Boragineae (RH. ) = Boraginaceae. 

Boraginodes Post et O. Ktze. (Trichodesma p.p.). Borag. (iv. i). 
i Somaliland. 

Borago L. Boraginaceae (iv. 3). 3 Medit., Eur., As. B. officinalis L. 
Brit, (borage) cult, for bee feeding. It has a typical bee-fl. The 
blue pendulous fl. secretes honey below the ovary ; the elastic sta. 
form a cone and dehisce introrsely from apex to base, the pollen 
ripening gradually and trickling into the tip of the cone. Insects 
probing for honey dislocate the sta., receiving a shower of pollen 
(cf. Erica, Galanthus, Cyclamen). In older fls. the stigma, now ripe, 
projects beyond the sta. so as to be touched first. 

Boragoid, Boraginaceae. 

Borassodendron Becc. Palmae (n). i Perak. 

Borassus L. Palmae (n). 2 palaeotrop. B. fiabellifer L. (Palmyra 
palm) cult, in Ceylon, India, &c. Dioecious. Its uses are legion ; 
an old Tamil song enumerates 801. The wood of the trunk is very 
hard and durable, and resists salt water ; it is also used for rafters, 
well-sweeps, &c. The large fanshaped 1. are used as thatch, and 
made into olas or writing "paper" sheets, the writing being done 
upon them with a stylus. From the base of the 1. Palmyra fibre is 
collected, and used for making brushes, &c. The split 1. are woven 
into mats, baskets, &c. The fr. is eaten roasted, and the infl. is 
tapped for toddy (cf. Cocos, Agave) from which sugar or jaggery is 


made, as well as vinegar, &c. The young seedlings are also eaten 

and yield a good flour when ground, and there are many other uses. 
Borbonia L. Leguminosae (ill. 3). 158. Afr. 
Borderea Miegeville (Dioscorea p.p. BH.}. Dioscor. i Pyrenees, 

i Chili. 

Borea Zipp. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Boreava Jaub. et Spach. Cruciferae (2). 2 E. Medit. 
Borecole, Brassica oleracea L. var. 
Boree (Austr. ), Acacia pendula A. Cunn. 
Boretta Neck. = Daboecia D. Don (Eric.). 
Borneo camphor, Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. ; -rubber, Willugh- 

beia edulis Roxb., &c. 

Bommuellera Hausskn. Cruciferae (4). i E. Medit. 
Boronella Baill Rutaceae (in). 2 New Caled. 
Boronia Sm. Rutaceae (i). 65 Austr. 

Borreria G. F. W. Mey. (Spermacoce L.). Rubi. (n. 10). 95 trop. 
BorricMa Adans. Cumpositae (5). 6 warm Am., W.I. 
Borsczowia Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (B). i Aral plain. 
Borthwickia W. W. Smith. Capparidaceae (n). i Burma. 
Borya Labill. Liliaceae (in). 2 Queensland, W. Austr. 
Borzicactus Riccobono (Cereus p.p.). Cactac. (in. i). i Ecuador. 
Boschia Korth. Bombacaceae. 4 Malaya. 

Boschniakia C. A. Mey. Orobanchaceae. i N.E. As., N.W. N. Am. 
Boscia Lam. Capparidaceae (n). 20 trop. Afr. 
Bosea L. Amarantaceae (2). 3 Medit., India. 
Bosistoa F. Muell. Rutaceae (i). 2 E. Austr. 
Bosleria Aven Nelson. Solanaceae (2). i Nevada. 
Bosqueiopsis de Wild, et Durand. Morac. (n). 2 trop. Afr. 
Bosquiea Thou. Moraceae (n). 4 Madag., trop. Afr. 
Boss, a protuberance. 

Bossekia Necker (Riibus p.p.). Rosaceae (ill. 2). 2 N. Am. 
Bossiaea Vent. Leguminosae (in. 3). 35 Austr. Several xero. sp. 

have flattened green stems (phylloclades) with minute scaly 1. As in 

Acacia, &c., seedlings show transitions from 1. 
Bostrychanthera Benth. Labiatae (in), i China. 
Bostryx, a monoch. cyme where each lat. branch falls upon the same 

side of relatively main axis, Begonia, Bittomus, ffeuierocallis, 

Hypericum, Liliaceae. 
Boswellia Roxb. ex Colebr. Burseraceae. 10 trop. As. and Afr. 

B. Carteri Birdw. (Somaliland, &c.) and other sp. yield the resin 

frankincense or gum-olibanum, formerly offic., now used in incense. 

Other sp. also yield fragrant resins. B. serrata Roxb., an important 

tree on dry hills in India. 

Bothriochloa O. Ktze. (Andropogon p.p.). Gramin. (2). i Annam. 
Bothriocline Oliv. Compositae (i). 10 trop. Afr. 
Bothriospermum Bunge. Boragin. (iv. 2). 5 trop. and N.E. As. 
Bothriospora Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Guiana. 
Botryanthus Kunth - Muscari Mill. p.p. (Liliaceae). 
Botryceras Willd. (Laurophyllus EP.). Anacard. (3). i S. Afr. 
Botrychlum Sw. Ophioglossaceae. 40 cosmop. B. Lunaria Sw. 

(moonwort) in Brit. Habit like Ophioglossum, but the sterile as 


well as the fertile part of the 1. is usu. branched. The r. appear one 

at the base of each 1., and branch monopodially. The spike is usu. 

much branched, the ultimate twigs being the sporangia. 

B. Lunaria has no veg. repr. like Ophioglossum, and each new 

pi. comes from a prothallus, which is small, not > i or 2 mm. long, 

oval, saprophytic, buried to a depth of i-io cm. In B. virginianum 

Sw. it is as mvfch as 20 mm. long, and seems to remain attached to 

the sporophyte for 5 or 6 years. The prothallus has a mycorhiza. 

(Jeffrey, Univ. of Toronto Studies, 1898; Bruchmann in Flora, 96, 

1906, p. 203.) 

Botrymorus Miq. (Pipturns Wedd. EP.). Urtic. (3). i Malaya. 
Botryophora Hook. f. Euphorbiaceae (B. li). i Perak. 
Botryopleuron Hemsl. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). 5 China. 
Botryose, racemose. 

Bottionea Colla. Liliaceae (in), i Chili. 
Bottle-brush, Callistemon; -cod-root (W.I.), Capparis; -gourd, Lage- 

naria; -grass (Am.), Setaria viridis Beauv. 
Boucerosia Wight et Arn. (Caralluma p.p. EP.). Asclepiad. (n. 3). 

30 trop. Afr. and As. 

Bouchardatia Baill. (Mdicope BH.}. Rutac. (i). i E. Austr. 
Bouchea Cham. Verbenaceae (2). 20 trop. 
Bouchetia DC. Solanaceae (4). 3 Texas to Brazil, 
Bouea Meissn. Anacardiaceae (i). 4 Malaya. 
Bouetia A. Chevalier. Labiatae (vn). i Dahomey. 
Bougainvillaea Comm. ex Juss. Nyctaginaceae. 12 S. Am. The 

group of 3 fls. is surrounded by 3 lilac or red persistent bracts. 

B. spectabilis Willd. is a splendid flowering creeper often cult. 
Bougueria Decne. Plantaginaceae. i Andes. 
Bourgeon, to bud or sprout. 

Bourgia Scop. Boraginaceae (inc. sed.). Nomen. 
Bournea Oliv. Gesneriaceae (i). i China. 
Bourreria P. Br. (Beureria Jacq.). Boragin. (n). 30 trop. Am., 

W. Ind. 

Bousigonia Pierre. Apocynaceae (i. i). 3 Cochinchina. 
Boussingaultia H. B. et K. Basellaceae. 10 trop. Am. Tubers ed. 
Bouteloua Lag. Gramineae (n). 40 Canada to S. Am., mainly in 

SW. U.S. (mesquit grasses, grama, side-oats). They form a large 

proportion of the herbage of the prairie, and are valuable as fodder. 
Boutonia DC. (Periblema DC. BH.}. Acanth. (iv. A), i Madag. 
Bouvardia Salisb. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 30 trop. Am. Some heterostyled 

like Primula. Cult. orn. perf. fls. 

Bouzetia Montr. Rutaceae (inc. sed.). i New Caled. 
Bowdichia H. B. et K. Legumin. (in. i). 2 trop. S. Am. Good 

Bowenia Hook. Cycad. i Queensland, B. spectabilis Hook., easily 

recognized by the bipinnate 1. The upper part of the main r. gives 

rise to curiously branched apogeotropic r., which contain Anabaena 

(an alga) living in symbiosis, and branch exogenously (Ann. Bot., 

Bowlea Ilarv. Liliaceae (in), i S. Afr., B. vo/nbilis Harv., a xero. 

like Testudinaria, with a large partly underground stock (corm), 


giving off each year a much-branched climbing stem. This bears 

small 1., but they soon drop, and assim. is carried on by the green 


Bowkeria Harv. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). 7 S. Afr. 
Bowlesia Ruiz, et Pav. Umbelliferae (i. 2). 20 Am. 
Bowringia Champ. Leguminosae (ill. i). i Hongkong. 
Bowstring hemp, Sansevieria zeylanica Willd. 
Bow-wood, JMaclura aurantiaca Nutt. 
Box, Buxus', (Austr.) Eucalyptus; jasmine-, Phillyrea; Maracaibo 

or W. Indian-, Casearia praecox Griseb. ; -wood (W.I.), Vitex 

itinbrosa Sw. 

Boykinia Nutt. Saxifragaceae (i). 8 N. Am., Japan. 
Brabejaria Burm. f. Inc. sed. i S. Afr. 
Brabejum L. Proteaceae (i). i S. Afr., B. sfcllatifoliuni L. (wilde 

castanjes), whose seeds are eaten roasted. 
Bracea Britton. Apocynaceae (inc. sed.). i Bahamas. 
Bracea King = Sarcosperma Hook. f. (Sapot.). 

Brachialis (Lat.), a cubit long; brachiate, with spreading branches. 
Brachiaria Griseb. = Panicum L. p.p. (Gram.). 
Brachiolobos All. = Nasturtium R. Br. (Crucif.). 
Brachionidium Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 8). 6 W.I., trop. S. Am. 
Brachistus Miers. Solanaceae (2). 20 Cent, and S. Am. 
Brachtia Reichb. f. Orchid, (n. 19). 3 Colombia. 
Brachy- (Gr. pref.), short. 

Brachyachaenium Baker (Dicome p.p.). Compos. (12). i Madag. 
Brachyactis Ledeb. (Aster p.p. EP.}. Compos. (3). 6 N. As., N. Am. 
Brachyandra Phil. Compositae (2). 2 Chili. 
Brachybotrys Maxim. Boraginaceae (iv. i). i China. 
Brachycarpaea DC. Cruciferae (i). i S. Afr. 
Brachychaeta Torr. et A. Gray. Compos. (3). r S. U.S. 
Brachychilum Petersen. Zingiberaceae (i). i Java. 
Brachychiton Schott et Endl. (Steradia L. p.p. BH.}. Sterculiaceae. 

n Austr. B. rnpcstris K. Sebum, (bottle tree) has swollen stems, 

B. acerifolius N. Muell. (flame tree) very fine fl. 
Brachyclados D. Don. Compositae (12). i S. Andes. 
Brachycome Cass. Compositae (3). 50 Austr., N.Z., N. Am., Afr. 
Brachycorythis Lindl. Orchidaceae (11. i). 12 W. and S. Afr. 
Brachyelytrum Beauv. Gramineae (8). 4 warm Am., Afr. 
Brachyglottis Forst. Compositae (8). i N.Z. 
Brachygyne Small (Seymeria p.p.). Scroph. (in. 2). i N. Am. 
Brachylaena R. Br. Compositae (4). 10 S. and trop. Afr. Shrubs. 
Brachylepis C. A. Mey. = Anabasis L. p.p. (Chenopod.). 
Brachylepis Wight et Am. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Nilgiris. 
Brachyloma Sond. Epacridaceae. 7 Austr. 
Brachylophon Oliv. Malpighiaceae (i). 3 Malay Penins. 
Brachynema Benth. Ebenaceae. i N. Brazil. 
Brachyotum Triana. Melastomaceae (i). 35 S. Am. 
Brachypodium Beauv. Gramineae (10). 10 temp., and Mts. of trop. 

2 Brit, (false brome grass). Leaf reversed (cf. Alstroemeria). 
Brachypterys A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (i). 3 trop. S. Am., W.I. 
Brachyris Ntttt. = Gutierrezia Lag. p.p. (Compos.). 


Brachysema R. Br. Leguminosae (in. 2). 15 Austr. 

Brachysiphon A. Juss. Penaeaceae. 5 S. Afr. 

Brachystegia Benth. Leguminosae (n. 3). 20 trop. Afr. 

Brachystelma R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 50 palaeotrop. B.Bingeri 
A. Chev. has an ed. tuber. 

Brachystelmaria Schlechter. Asclepiad. (n. 3). 6 S. Afr. 

Brachystemma D. Don (Arenaria p.p. BH.). Caryoph. (i. i). 
i Himal. 

Brachysteplianus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 10 trop. Afr., Matlag. 

Bracnythalamus Gilg. Thymelaeaceae. 2 New Guinea. 

Brachytome Hook. f. (Kandia p.p. EP.). Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 In- 

Bracken, Pteridiuin aqnilinum (L.) Kuhn. 

Brackeniidgea A. Gray. Ochnaceae. 10 palaeotrop. 

Bract, the 1. in whose axil a fl. arises ; coloured-, Amherstia, Bougain- 
villaea, Castilleja, Euphorbia, Sahna, &c. ; persistent-, forming 
wings to fr., Bougainvillaea, Carpinus, Mirabilis, Spinada\ bract- 
eate, bearing bracts ; bracteole, a bractlet, borne on same axis as 
the fl. 

Bradburia Torr. et Gray. Compositae (3). 2 Texas, Mexico. 

Bradburya Rafin. (Centrosema Benth. Bff.}. Legu. (ill. 10). 30 Am. 

Bradleia Banks = Glochidion Forst. (Euph.). 

Bragantia Lour. (Apaina Lam. p.p.). Aristoloch. 5 Indomal. 

Brahea Mart. Palmae (i. 2). 4 Mexico, Texas. Decorative. 

Brainea J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. i E. As., B. insignis Sin., a dwarf 
tree-fern. The primary veins branch and rejoin repeatedly, forming 
small areas in the leaf; the veinlets run parallel and distinct. 

Brake, Pteridiwn aquilinum (L.) Kuhn ; curled rock-, Cryptogramme 
crispa R. Br. 

Bramble, Rnbus. 

Branch, an outgrowth of r. or shoot which repeats its structure ; usu. 
lat. (not dichotomous), exogenous in case of shoot, endogenous in r. 
In many ferns the branches are on the 1. bases, but in Equisetum and 
fl. plants are usu. axillary. Usu. only one in each axil ; if more than 
one, the others are accessory ; if side by side, collateral, Allium, 
Araceae, Crataegus, Liliaceae, Ahiscari, Quercus, Salix ; if one above 
the other, serial, Aristolochia, Calycanthus, Cercis, Colletia, Fuchsia, 
Gleditschia, Robinia, Syringa. Branches of two kinds long and 
short shoots, or shoots of unlimited and limited growth occur in 
Pinus and other Coniferae, Berberis, Cactaceae, Ginkgo, Spergula. 

Branching may be of two types monopodial, Punts and other 
Coniferae, Orchidaceae, Paris, Pathos, or sympodial, Acorus, Aglao- 
nema, Ancistrocladus, Anonaceae, Anthurium, Araceae, Asariim, 
Eichhornia, Fagus, Iridaceae, Iris, Juncus, Liliaceae, Nartheciuin, 
Orchidaceae, Peperomia, Pistia, Polygonatttin, Pontederiaceae, Pota- 
mogeton, Ranunculus, Rhaphidophora, Ulmaceae, Vilis, Zostera. 
And cf. Buds, Concrescence, &c. 

Branda (W. L), Chione glabra DC. 

Brandegea Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (4). 2 California. 

Brandesia Mart. = Telanthera R. Br. (Bff.) = Alternanthera Forsk. 

Brandisia Hook. f. et Thorns. Scrophular. (n. 4). 3 Burma, China, 


Brandy-bottle, Nuphar hiteum Sibth. et Sm. 

Brandzeia Baill. Leguminosae (ll. i). i Seychelles, Madagascar. 

Brasenia Schreb. Nymphaeaceae (n). t cosmop., exc. Eur. A 12 or 

Brassaia Endl. (Schefflera EP.}. Araliaceae (i). 3 Malaya. 

Brassaiopsis Dene, et Planch. Araliaceae (i). 10 Indomal. 

Brassavola R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 24 trop. Am. 

Brassia R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 19). 30 trop. Am. 

Brassica (Tourn.) L. (BH. incl. Erucastruni Presl and Sinapis L.). 
Cruciferae (2). 85 Eur., Medit., As. 7 in Brit. Many forms are 
cult., some for the flr., others for the stem, root, leaf, or seed. B. 
nigra Koch is the black mustard, whose seeds yield the condiment. 
B. oleracea L. is the cabbage, with the various races derived from it, 
such as cauliflower and broccoli (fleshy infl.), kale or curly greens or 
borecole, brussels-sprouts (a form in which miniature cabbages are 
produced in all the leaf-axils on the main stem), kohl-rabi or knol- 
kohl (trop.) (a thickened stem, or conn, showing leaf scars on its 
surface), &c. B. campestris L. is the turnip, a biennial with thickened 
root, and a var. of it B. Napus L. is the rape, used in salads and 
in the preparation of rape- or colza-oil, expressed from the seeds. 
[See De Candolle's Orig. of Cultiv. Pits.] It is of interest to notice 
the great variety of morphology in the veg. organs, correlated with 
the different ways in which storage of reserve materials is effected, in 
the root, stem, leaf, flowerstalk, &c. 

Sauer-kraut, or salted cabbage, made by packing cabbage shreds 
in barrels with salt and pepper, and slightly fermenting, is a favourite 
food in Germany, esp. for winter use. 

The outer coat of the seed has mucilaginous cell-walls which swell 
when wetted (cf. Linum). 

Brassocattleya x Rolfe. Hybrid, Brassavola x Cattleya ; others are 
Brassolaelia, Brassoepidendrum, Brassocattlaelia (triple). 

Brathys Mutis ex L. f. = Hypericum Tourn. p.p. (Guttif.). 

Brauna, Melanoxylon Branna Schott. 

Bravaisia DC. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 2 trop. Am., W. I. 

Bravoa Lex. Amaryllidaceae (n). 5 Mexico. Rhizome with tuberous 
roots. Fl. zygomorphic by bending. 

Braya Sternb. et Hoppe. Cruciferae (4). 18 Eur., As., S. Am. 

Brayera Kunth. (Hagenia Willd.) Rosaceae (ill. 5). i Abyssinia. 
The dried 1 fls. (Koso) are used as a remedy for tapeworm. 

Brayodendron Small (Diospyros p.p.). Ebenaceae. i Texas, Mex. 

Brayopsis Gilg et Muschler (incl. Draba p.p.). Cruc. (2). 10 Andes. 

Brayulinea Small (Guilleminea p.p.). Amarant (3). i Ecuador. 

Brazil-cherry, Eugenia spp ; -nut, Bertholletia excelsa H. et B. ; -wood, 
Caesalpinia Sappan L. &c. ; -ian arrowroot, Manihot utilissima 
Pohl, M. Aipi Pohl ; -nutmeg, Cryptocarya moschata Nees & M. 

Braziletto (W.I.), Caesalpinia, Peltophorum, Sciadophyllum, Wein- 

Brazoria Engelm. et Gray. Labiatae (vi). 2 Texas. 

Brazzeia Baill. Tiliaceae. 2 W. trop. Afr. 

Bread-fruit, Artocarpus incisa L ; Nicobar-, Pandanus. ; -nut, Brosi- 
(Barbados) Artocarpus. 


Bredemeyera Willd. Polygalaceae. 30 Austr., Tasmania. 

Bredia Blume. Melastomaceae (i). 3 Japan, China. 

Bremontiera DC. (Indigofera p.p. EP.}. Legum. (in. 6). i Masc. 

Breonia A. Rich. Rubiaceae (i. 6). 6 Madag., Mauritius. 

Bretschneidera Hemsi. Hippocast. (Sapind. BH.} i China. 

Brevi- (Lat. pref.), short; -lobous, -lobed, &c. 

Brevoortia Wood. Liliaceae (iv). i Calif. 

Breweria R. Br. Convolvulaceae (i). 25 trop. and subtrop. 

Brexia Noronha. Saxifragaceae (v). i Madag., Seychelles. 

Breynia Forst. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 20 trop. As., Austr. 

Briar, Rosa ; -wood, Erica scoparia L. 

Bricchettia Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i Somaliland. 

Brickellia Ell. Compositae (2). 75 trop. and subtrop. Am. 

Bridelia Willd. Euphorbiaceae (A. 1.2). 40 palaeotrop. 

Bridgesia Bert, ex Cambess. Sapindaceae (i). i Chili. 

Bridgesia Hook, et Arn. = Ercilla A. Juss. (_5Zf.) = Phytolacca L. p.p. 

Brieya de Wild. Anonaceae (2). i Belgian Congo. 

Brighamia A. Gray. Campanulaceae (in), i Sandwich Is. 

Brillantaisia Beauv. Acanth. (iv. A). 20 trop. Afr., Madag. The 
posterior sta. are perfect (only case in family). 

Brinjal, egg-fruit, Solanutn Melongena L. 

Briquetia Hochreutiner. Malvaceae (2). i Paraguay. 

Brissonia Neck. = Indigofera L. and Tephrosia Pers. 

Bristle-fern, Trkhomanes. 

Britoa Berg. (Campomanesia BH.}. Myrtac. (i). 10 Brazil. Ed. fr. 

Brittenia Cogn. Melastomaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Brittonastrum Briq. Labiatae (vi). 15 Mex., SW. U.S. 

Brittonella Rusby (Mionandra EP}. Malpigh. (i). i Bolivia. 

Briza L. Gramineae (10). 12 temp. 2 Brit, (quake-grasses). 

Brizopyrum J. Presl (Distichlis BH}. Gram. (10). 7 S. Afr. 

Brizula Hieron. (Aphelia BH}. Centrolep. 5 S. Austr., Tasm. 

Broad bean, Vicia Faba L. ; -leaf tree (W. I.), Terminated latifolia Sw 

Brocchinia Schult. f. Bromeliaceae (3). 3 trop. Am., W. Ind. 

Broccoli, Brassica oleracea L., var. 

Brochoneura Warb. Myristicaceae. 4 Madag., E. Afr. 

Brodiaea Sm. Liliaceae (iv). 50 W. Am. Fls. in cymose umbels. 
The sta. have curious projecting appendages. Cult. orn. fl. 

Brombya F. Muell. (Mclicope p.p. EP}. Rutac. (i). i Austr. 

Brome grass, Bromns ; false-, Br achy podium. 

Bromelia Plum, ex L. Bromeliaceae (4). 10 W.I. , Brazil. 

Bromeliaceae (EP.,BH.}. Monocotyledons (Farinosae; Epigynaej?//.). 
40 gen., 1000 sp. trop. Am. Many terrestrial pi. (xero., living on 
rocks &c.), but the bulk of the sp., by virtue of their good seed- 
distribution and their xero. habit, have become epiph., forming a 
very char, feature in the veg. of trop. Am., more so than the orchids, 
which they surpass in number of individuals though not of sp. Most 
have a very reduced stem, bearing a rosette of fleshy 1. channelled on 
the upper surface and fitting closely together by their bases, so that 
the whole pi. forms a kind of funnel, usu. full of water. In this are 
dead 1., decaying animal matter and other debris (certain sp. of Utri- 
cularia live only in these pitchers). There are a number of adv. r. 


which fasten the plant to its support, but which do not aid in its 
nutrition, or very little. The bases of the 1. are covered with scaly 
hairs by which the water in the pitcher is absorbed. Water is stored 
in the 1., which consist largely of water-tissue. They have a thick 
cuticle and often bear scaly hairs that reduce transpiration. Some 
show a totally different habit to this, e.g. Tillandsia usneoides (q.v.). 
[See Schimper, Epiph. Veg. Amerikas.} 

Infl. usu. out of the centre of the pitcher; bracts coloured. Fl. 
usu. ? , reg., 3-merous. P. 3 + 3 or (3) + (3), the outer whorl sepaloid, 
persistent, the inner petaloid ; A 6, introrse, often epipet. ; G (3), 
inf., semi-inf., or sup., 3-loc., with oo anatr. ov. on the axile plac. in 
each. Style i, stigmas 3. Berry or caps. ; seeds in the latter case 
very light, or winged. Embryo small, in mealy endosp. 
Classification and chief genera (after Wittmack) : 

1. Tillandsieae (caps.; ov. sup.; 1. entire; seed hairy): Til- 


2. Ptiyeae (caps. ; ov. sup. ; 1. thorny; usu. large stem) : Puya, 


3. Pitcairnieae (caps.; ov. semi-inf. or almost sup.; 1. entire, 

or toothed at base, rarely at top) ; Pitcairnia. 

4. Bromelieae (berry; ovary inf.; 1. with thorny teeth): Bro- 

melia, Ananas, Billbergia, Aechmea. 

Bromheadia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 5). 6 Malaya. 

Bromus Dill, ex L. Gramineae (10). 70 temp., and trop. Mts. 7 Brit. 
(brome-grass). Of little value as pasture. 

Brongniartia H. B. et K. Leguminosae (in. 6). 30 trop. Am. 

Brookea Benth. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). i Borneo. 

Brook-lime, Veronica Beccabunga\; -weed, Satnolus Valerandi. 

Broom, Cytistis (Sarothamnus) scoparius Link.; -bush (W.I.), Par- 
theniuin ; -corn, Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; butcher's-, Ruscus acu- 
leattis L. ; -rape, Orobanche ; Spanish-, Spartium junceum L. ; 
-root, Epicampes ; -tree (W.I.), Baccharis; -weed (W.I.), Cor- 
chorus, Scoparia. 

Brosimopsis Sp. Moore. Moraceae (il). i Matto Grosso. 

Brosimum Sw. Moraceae (li). 10 trop. and S. temp. Am. Infl. 
remarkable, a spherical pseudo-head composed of one ? fl. and many 
tf fls. The former is sunk into the centre of the common recept. 
and its style projects at the top, whilst the latter occupy the whole of 
the outer surface. Each $ fl. has a rudim. P. and one sta., whose 
versatile anther in dehiscing passes from a shape somewhat like ^ 
to one like T. Achene embedded in the fleshy recept. 

The achene of B. Alicastruw Sw. is the bread-nut (not to be con- 
fused with Artocarpus, the bread-fruit), which is cooked and eaten 
in the W.I., &c. [The bread-nut of Barbados is, however, a seeded 
var. of the bread-fruit.] B. Galactodendron D. Don is the cow-tree 
or milk-tree of Venezuela. The milky latex flows in considerable 
quantities, tastes very like ordinary milk, and is used for the same 
purposes. The wood of several sp. is useful (snake-wood). 

Brossardia Boiss. Cruciferae (2). i Persia. 

Brotera Willd. (Cardopatium Juss. ). Compos, (u). 4 Medit. 

Broughtonia R. Br. (Epidendrum EP.}. Orchid, (n. 6). 2 W. Ind. 


Brousemichea Bal. Gramineae (8). i Tonquin. 

Broussa tea, Vaccinimn Arctostaphylos L. 

Broussaisia Gaudich. Saxifragaceae (in). 2 Sandwich Is. 

Broussonetia L'Herit. Moraceae (i). 3 E. As., Polynes. Dioecious; 
<? fls. in pseudo-racemes with explosive sta. like Urtica (unus. in M.) ; 
? fls. in pseudo- heads. Multiple fr. (cf. Moras, &c. ) A good fibre, 
used for paper, &c., is obtained from the inner bark of B. papyrifera 
Vent, (paper-mulberry, Japan) ; in Polynes. the natives make tapa 
or kapa cloth from it. The 1. double upwards during the heat of 
the day. 

Browallia L. Solanaceae (5). 6 trop. Am. 

Brown Peru bark, Cinchona officinalis L 

Brownea Jacq. (Hermesias Loefl.). Leguminosae (n. 3). 10 trop. 
Am., W. Ind. The young shoots emerge very rapidly from the 
bud and hang downwards on flaccid stalks, the leaflets at first 
rolled up, and later spread out, and pink or red speckled with 
white. After a time they turn green and stiffen up and spread out 
normally. Cf. Amherstia. B. grandiceps Jacq. and others have fine 
bunches of fl. 

Browneopsis Huber. Leguminosae (II. 3). 2 Brazil. 

Brownleea Harv. ex Lindl. Orchid, (n. i). 8 S. and trop. Afr. 

Brownlowia Roxb. Tiliaceae. 6 Indomal. 

Brucea J. S. Mill. Simarubaceae. 5 paleotrop. Very astringent. The 
seeds of B. sumatrana Roxb. &c. are remedies in dysentery. 

Bruckenthalia Reichb. Ericaceae (iv. i). i S.E. Eur. 

Bruea Gaudich. Moraceae (inc. sed.). i E. Ind. 

Brugmansia Blume. Rafflesiaceae. 3 Malay Arch. 

Brugmansia Pers. = Datura L. p.p. (Solan.). 

Bruguiera Lam. Rhizophoraceae. 6 palaeotrop. One of the man- 
groves (q.v.\. Like Rhizophora, but without the aerial r. from higher 
branches. The r. in the mud give off erect aerating branches, as in 

Bruinsmea Boerlage et Koorders. Styraceae. 2 Java, Celebes. 

Brumalis (Lat.), winter. 

Brunella Tourn. ex L. (Prunella). Labiat. (vi). 5 cosmop. i Brit. 

Brunellia Ruiz et Pav. Brunelliaceae. 10 Peru to Mexico. 

Brunelliaceae (EP. ; Simarubaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Resales). Only genus Brunellia. Trees and shrubs; 1. opp. or in 
whorls. Fl. monochlam., unisex., 4-5-7-merous, diplost. Cpls. 5-2, 
each with 2 pend. ov. Caps. Endosp. 

Brunfelsia Plum, ex L. Solanaceae (5). 25 trop. Am. Several 
cult. The fl. change colour as they grow older (cf. Ribes, 

Brunla L. Bruniaceae. 5 S. Afr. 

Bruniaceae (/>. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Resales EP. BH.}. 12 gen., 
50 sp. S. Afr. Heath-like shrubs, with alt. exstip. 1., and racemose 
infl. Fl. 5 usu. reg., 5-merous, generally perig. Sta. in one whorl. 
Cpl s . (32) each with 3 or 4 ov., or i with i ov. Caps, with 2, or 
nut with i, seeds. Aril. Endosp. Chief gniera : Brunia, Berzelia. 
Brunneus (Lat.), brown. 

Brunnichia Banks. Polygonaceae (in. i). 3 N. Am., W. Afr. 


Brunonia Sm. Brunoniaceae. i Austr , Tasm. Herb with rad. entire 

exstip. 1. Blue fl. in heads, 5 . K (5), C (5), A 5, G i-loc. i-ovuled. 

Achi-ne. Exalb. 
Brunoniaceae (EP. ; Cioodeniaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Cam- 

panulatae). Only genus Brunonia, q.v. 

Brunsvigia Heist. Amanllidaceae (i). 10 Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 
Brush (N.S. Wales, Queensland), forest ; -box, Tristunia. 
Brussels sprouts, Brassica oleracea L. var. 
Bruxanelia Demist. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). i E. Ind. 
Bruyere, Erica sropana L. 
Brya P. Br. Leguminosae (in. 7). 5 Cent. Am., W. Ind B. Ebenus 

DC. yields the \vood Jamaica or American ebony, cocus or cocos 

wood, the heart wood turning black with age (ff. Diospyrosj. 
Bryanthus S. G. Gmel. Ericaceae (i. 3). i E. Siberia. 
BrylKinia F. Schmidt, Graniineae (loj. i Japan, Saghalien. 
Bryo- (Gr. pref. ), moss. 

Bryocarpum Hook. f. et Thorns Primulaceae. i Sikkim. 
Bryodes Benth. Scrophulariaceae (11. 6). i Mauritius. 
Bryomorphe Harv. Compositae (4). i Cape Colony. 
Bryonia L. Cucurbitaceae (3). 10 Eur., As., Afr. B. dioica Jacq. 

(Brit., white bryony) marks the N. limit of the family in Eur. 3 fl. 

larger. Honey secreted at the base of the P. 
Bryonopsis Am. Cucurbitaceae (3). 2 trop. Afr. and As. 
Bryony, bastard (W.I. ), Cissits; black-, Tamns comm-unis L. ; white-, 

Bryonia dtoica |acq. 
Bryophyllum Salisb. Crassul. 4 trop. In the notche. on the 1. of 

B. calycimim Salisb. adv. buds develops, giving rise to new pi. In 

B. proliferum Bowie there are simple and cpd. 1. on the same pi. 

K and C both gamophyllous. Cult. orn. 

Bryopsis Reiche (Lyallia^ Rcicheella p.p ). Caryo. (i. 3). i Chili. 
Buaze fibre, Securidaca longipedunculata Fres. (trop. Afr.). 
Bubon L. =Seseli L. (Umbel ). 
Bucco Wendl. = Agathosma Willd. (Rutac.). 
Bucephalandra Schott. Araceae (v). i Borneo. 
Bucephalon L. =Trophis P. Br. (Morac.). 
Buceragenia Greenman. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Mexico. 
Buceras Hall, ex All. = Trigonella L. p.p. (Legum.). 
Buchanania Spre'ig. Anacard. (i). 20 trop. As. G 4 6, one fertile. 
Buchenavia Eichl. (Terminalia p.p. BH.}. Comhret. 8 Brazil., W.I. 
Bucbenroedera Eckl. et Zeyh. Leguminosae (in. 3). 15 S. Afr. 
Buchholzia FLngl. Capparidaceae (n). 3 trop. Afr. 
BucMngera Boiss. et Hohen. Cruciferae (4). i Persia. 
Buchloe Engelm. (Bulbilis Rafin.). Gramineae (n). i (B. dactyloides 

Engelm.) the buffalo-grass of the western prairies of the U.S., a good 

fodder. It is a small creeping grass. 

Buclinera L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2) 60 trop. and subtrop. 
Buchnerodendron Giirke. Flacourtiaceae (2). 6 trop. Afr. 
Bucholzia Mart.--Telanthera R. Br. (BH.} Alternanthera Forsk. 
Bucbu, Bai-o^ma betuiina Bartl. et Wendl. f. and others. 
Bucida L. (Terminalia p.p. BH.}. Combret. i Cent. Am., W I. 
Buck-bean, Menyanthes trifoliata L. ; -eye (Am.), Aesculus ohioensis 

w. 7 


Michx. ; -'a horn plantain, Plantago Coronopus L. ; -thorn, Rhamnus 
(W.I.), Rosa laevigata Michx., sea -thorn, Hippophae rhamnoides 
L. ; -wheat, Fagopymm esculentum Moench. 

Buckinghamia F. Muell. Proteaceae (11). i Queensland. 

Bucklandia R. Br. Hamamelidacc-ae. i Himal. to Java, B. populnea 
R. Br. The large slips, are folded against one another, enclosing and 
protecting the young axillary hud or infl. Fls. in heads in groups of 
4, polyg. or monoec., sunk in the axis. The "calyx-tube" becomes 
visible as a ring alter flowering. Wood valued. 

Buckleya Torr. Santalaceae. 5 N. Am., China, Japan. 

Bucquetia DC. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Colombia, Ecuador. 

Bud, the much condensed undeveloped shoot end of the axis, composed 
of closely crowded young 1. with very short internodes, well seen in 
Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Lettuce, Acer, Aesculus, Hippuris, Punts, 
Syringa, Ulmus; usu. axillary or terminal; abortion, Syringa\ 
accessory, extra buds in an axil, which may be collateral (side by 
side), Araceae, Crataegns, Muscari, Quercus, or serial (one above 
another), Aristolochia, ChrysophyJum, Colletia, Fraxinus. Fuchsia, 
Gledilsckia, Goethea, Gymnocladus, Juglandaceae, Lonicera, Meni- 
spcrmaceae, Oleaceae, Rhamnaccae. Sambucus, Theophrasta ; ad- 
ventitious, arising elsewhere than normally in an axil, Begonia, 
Bryophyllum, Cardamine, Cystopteris, Linaria, Ophioglossum, Ptt-ns, 
Pyrola ; dormant, branch buds which do not develope at once ; 
extra-axillary, Fagus, Monstera, Juglans ; -scales, the altered 1. 
which protect the (usu. winter) hud, Acer, Aesculus, Betula, &c. ; 
sub-petiolar-, Cladrastis, (ileditschia, Platanus, Rhus, Robinia, 
Wormia ; winter-, Acer, Aesculus, Betitla, Hottonia, Hydrocharis, 
Juglandaceae, Myriopkyllitm, Quercus, Rhododendron, Sophora, 
Utricularia, Viburnum. And cf. Aestivation, Flower bud, Vege- 
tative Repr., Vernation, and next art. -protection against cold, 
heat, radiation, &c. is obtained in many ways ; by stipules in Arto- 
carpus, Bucklandia, Cosmibuena, Cunonia, Dipterocarpus, Ficus, 
Magnoliaceae; the young 1. are pendulous in Aesculus, Amherstia, 
Bauhinia, Bioumea, Cinnamomum, Dryobalanops,Maniltoa, Saraca, 
Theobroma ; the young 1. red in Cinnamomum, Dryobalanops, 
Haematoxylon, Mesua, &c. ; the buds sub-petiolar in Cladrastis, 
Glcdilschia, Platanus, Rhus, Robinia, Wormia ; other ways occur 
in lockroma, Manihot, Philadelphia, Pathos, Spathodea, l^abernae- 
montana, &c. 

Buda Adans. = Spergularia Presl (Caryoph.). 

Buddleia Houst. Loganiaceae. 90 trop. and subtrop. Sometimes 
placed in Scrophul., but possesses slips (sometimes reduced to inter- 
peliolar lines). 

Buena Pohl = Cosmibuena Ruiz et Pav. and Cascarilla Wedd. 

Buergersiochloa Pileer. Gramineae (5). i New Guinea. 

Buettneria Loefl. Sterculiaceae. 60 trop. 

Buffalo-berry, Shepherdia argmtea Nutt. ; -wood, Burchellia. 

Bufonia Sauv. ex L. (Buffunia}. Caryophyllaceae (i. j). 20 Medit., 
Eur. Not unlike Juncus bufonius in habit. 

Buforrestia C. B. Clarke. Commelinaceae. 5 trop. W. Afr. 

Bugbane, Cimicifuga. 



Bugle, Ajitga reptans L. 

Bugloss, Lycopsis arvensis L. ; viper's-, Echium vulgare L. 

Buglossum (Tourn.) Adans. = Anchusa L. p p. (Borag.). 

Bugula Tourn. ex Mill. =Ajuga L. p.p. (Labiat.). 

Bulb, a modified stem, bearing a spherical mass of swollen 1. closely 

folded over one another, A Ilium, Galanthus, Li/iaceae, Lilium, 

Oxahs. Common in dry climates. 
Bulbil, a little bulb, usu. in place of a fl. in the infl. , Agave, Alliuiu, 

Cardamine, Gagea, Globba, Lilinin, Lycopodiuin, Oxalis, Remusatia, 

Saxifraga, Sfilla, and cf. Vegetative Repr. 
Bulbilis Rarin. = Buchloe Kngelm. (Gram.). 
Bulbine L. Liliaceae (in). 25 S. Afr., E. Austr. 
Bulbinella Kunth. Liliaceae (in). 15 S. Afr., N.Z., &c. 
Bulbinopsis Borzi. Liliaceae (in). 2 Austr. 
Bulbocodium L. Liliaceae (l). i Eur. 
Bulbophyllum Thou. Orchidaceae (n. 16). 350 trop., and S. temp. 

Epiph. with great reduction of 1. The 1. are often mere scales and 

assim. is perlormed by the tubers. In B. minulissimum F. Muell., 

&c., the tubers are hollow with stomata on inner surface (cf. 1. of 

Empetrum). For the fl. see Darwin's Orchids, p. 137. Cult. orn. fl. 
Bulbostylis DC. = Brickellia Ell. (Comp.). 

Bulbostylis Kunth (Kmbristylis p.p.)- Cyper. (i). 60 S. Am., Afr. 
Bull apple tree (W.I.), Sapota rugosa Griseb. ; -hoof (W.I.), Passi- 

ftora Murucuja L. ; -ock's heart, Anona reticulata L. ; -pine, Finns; 

-'s horn thorn, Aciicia sphaerocephala. 
Bullace, Prumis insititia L. 
Bullate, puckered. 

Bulleyia Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 3). i Yunnan. 
Bulliarda DC. = Tillaea Michx. (j6'^7.) = Crassula L. p.p. 
Bully-tree (W.I.), Dipholis, Alyrsine, Sapota, &c. 
Bulnesia C. Gay. Zygophyll. 6 Argentina, Chili. Timber. 
Bulrush, Typha, Sdrpus; -millet, Pennisetttm typhoideum. 
Bumelia Sw. Sapotaceae (i). 30 Am. 
Bunch-berry (Am.), Cornus canadensh L. 

Bunchosia Rich, ex Juss. Malpighiaceae (n). 40 trop. Am., W.I. 
Bungea C. A. Mey. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). 3 As. 
Bunias (Tourn.) L. Cruciferae (4). 5 Medit, As. 
Bunioseris Jord. (Lactuca p.p.). Compositae (13). 2 France. 
Buniotrinia Stapf. et Wettst. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i Persia. 
Bunium L. (Carum L. p.p. BH.}. Umbell. (ill. 5). 30 N. palaeo- 


Bunophila Willd. =Machaonia Humb. et Bonpl. (Rub.). 
Bunya-bunya pine, Araucaria Bidwillii Hook. 
Buphane Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 3 S. and trop. Afr. Cult. 

orn. fl. 
Buphthalmum L. Compositae (4). 4 Eur., As. minor. B. salici- 

foliiim L. is a char. pi. of the chalky Alps. 
Bupleurum (Tourn.) L. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). 100 Eur., As., Afr., 

N. Am. 4 Brit, (buplever or hare's ear). B. rotundifolinm L. 

has perfoliate L, whence the name throw-wax (thorow-wax) by 

which it is known. All sp. have entire 1., umisu. in this family. 



Buplever, Bnphurum. 

Buprestis Spreng. = Bupleurum Totirn. (Umliel.). 

Bur or burr, a hooked fr. ; -bark (W . I.), Triumfctta; Bathurst or 

Noogoora, Xanthium : -dock, Arcthim Lappa L. ; -grass (Am.), 

Ceiuhrus; -marigold, Btdens; -reed (Am.), Spargamum; -weed, 

Mfdicago, Sparganium, 

Buraeavia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 3 New Caled , Fiji. 
Burasaia Thou. Menispermaceae. 4 Madag 
Burbidgea Hook. f. Zingiheraceae (i). i Borneo. C-segments large, 

lat. stds. absent. The small labellum and petaloid sta. stand up in 

the cent i e of the fl. 

Burcharaia R. Br. (Reya O. Ktze.). Liliaceae (i). i Austr., Tasm. 
Burcbellia R. Br. Rubiaceae(i.S). i Cape Col. Buffalo wood, very hard. 
Burdachia Mart. Maipighiaceae (n). 2 N. Brazil. 
Bureavella Pierre. Sapotaceae (11). i Indomal. 
Burkea Benth. Leguminosae (n. i). i W. and S. Afr. 
Burlingtonia Lindl. = Rodriguezia Ruiz et Pav. (Orch.). 
Burmannia L. Burmanniaceae. 40 trop. and subtrop. 
Burinanniaceae (EP., BH.). Monocots. (Microspermae). 5 gen., 

60 sp., trop. forest herbs, chiefly 'colourless' saprophytes. P (3 + 3), 

A 6 or 3, G (3), with parietal plac., or 3-loc. Caps. Seeds oo . 

Endosp. Chief genera: Burmannia, Thismia. (See Nat. P//., and 

Ann. of Bot. 1895.) 

Burmeistera Karst. et Triana. Campanulac. (in). 10 trop. S. Am. 
Burnatastrum Briq. Labiatae (vn). 2 S. Afr., Madag. 
Burnatia M. Mich. Alismaceae. i trop. Air. 
Burnet, Potcrium ; -saxifrage, Pimpinella Saxifraga L. 
Burnettia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i Tasmania. 
Burning bush (Am.), Euonvnius atr-^piirpureus Jacq . 
Burn-nose (W.I.), Daphnopsis. 
Burragea Donn. Smith et Rose (Gaura p.p.). Onagr. (2). 2 Lower 


Burrielia DC. Compositae (6). i Calif. 
Bursa Weber in Wigg. = Capsella Medic. (Crucif.). 
Bursaria Cav. Pittosporaceae. i Austr. 
Bursera 'Jacq.' ex L. Burseraceae. 45 trop. Am. B. gummifera L. 

(birch tree, gommier, turpentine tree) furnishes the balsam resin known 

as American elemi, chibou, cachibou, or gomart. 
Burseraceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Geraniales EP., BH.}. 

13 g en -' 35 sp., trop. Shrubs and trees with alt., usu. cpd., dotted 1. 

Balsams and re.-ins occur, in lysigenous or schizogenous passages. 

Fls. small, generally unisex., with disc like Rutaceae, 5- or 4-merbus, when both whorls of sta. are present. Cpls. (5 3), ov. usu. 

i in each. Ovary multiloc. with one style. Drupe or caps. Seed 

exalb. Many of the order are useful on account of their resins, &c. 

Chief genera: Commiphora, Boswellia, Bursera, Canarium. 
Burtonia R. Br. Leguminosae (in. 2). 10 Austr. 
Buseria Th. Dur. (Leiochilus EP.). Ruhiaceae (il. 4). i Madag. 
Bush (Austr.), scrub, cf. Acacia; -clover, Lespedeza. 
Bush-wood, a forest in which the shrubs are so abundant as to keep the 

crowns of the trees from touching. 

BUXUS 10 r 

Bushiola Nieuvvland (Kochia p.p.). Chenopod. (A), i N. Am. 

Bussea Harms. (II. 7). i E. trop. Afr. 

Bustelma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (u. i). i Brazil. 

Butayea Wiklem. (Pseudoblepkatis EP.). Acanth. (IV. B). i Congo. 

Butcher's broom, Ruscus aculeams L. 

Butea Keen, ex Roxb. Leguminosae (in. 10). 4 Ind , China. B. 
fiondosa Roxb (dhak or palas tree, or bastard teak), one of the 
handsomest of fig. trees. A red juice flows from incisions in the bark ; 
when dried it is known as Bengal kino and used as an astringent. 
The fls. yield a lugitive orange-red dye. The tree also yields lac (see 
fiats), and is very important for lac cult. 

Butomaceae (EP.; Alismaceae p.p. BH.}. Monocots. (Helobieae). 
4 gen., 5 sp., trop. and temp. Water and marsh herbs with 1. of various 
types. Infl. usu. a cymose umbel. Fir. , reg., 2- or 3 merous, 
hypog. P 6, in two whorls, the outer sepaloid, the inner | etaloid 
^exc. Butomus). Sta. 9-00, with introrse anthers. Cpls. 6-00, 
apocp., with oo anatr. ov. scattered over their inner walls (cf. 
Nymphaea), except on midrib and edges. Follicles; seed ex-alb.; 
embryo straight or horse-shoe shaped. Chief genera: Butomus, 

Butomopsis Kunth ( Tenagocharis EP. ). Butomaceae. i Austr. 

Butomus L. Butom. i temp. As., Eur. (incl. Brit.), B. unibellatus 
L. (flowering rush). Infl. a term. fl. surrounded by 3 bostryx- 

Butonica Lam. = Barringtonia Forst. p.p. (Lecyth.). 

Butter, cf. oils ; -bean, Phaseolus vtilgaris L. ; -bur, Petasites officinalis 
Moench. ; -and eggs (Am.), Linaria; -cup. Ranunculus; -nut, 
Caryocar, (\m.) Juglans ; shea-, Butyro sperniutn ; -tree, Pentadesma, 
Bassia ; -wort, Pinguicula. 

Butterfly flowers (class F), Cuphea, Daphne, Eupatoriiun , Gentiana. 
Lonicera, Lychnis, Onagraccae, Rubiaceae, &c. ; -orchis, Habcnaria, 

Button-bush (Am.), Cephalanthus\ -tree, (W.I.), Conocarpus ; -weed 
(W.I.)i Spermacoce, Borreria; -wood, Platanus occidental is. 

Buttonia MacKen. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). i S. and trop. Afr. 

Butua bjchl. = Abuta Aubl. p.p. (Menisperm.). 

Butyrospermum Kotschy. Sapotaceae (i). 2 trop. Afr. The oily 
seeds of B, Parkii Kotschy when pressed yield shea butter. 

Buxaceae (EP. ', Euphorbiaceae p.p. BH.) Dicots (Archichl. Sapin- 
dales). 6 gen., 30 sp. temp, and trop. Evergreen shrubs with 
exstip. leathery 1. , and no latex. Fls. in heads or spikes, unisex., 
re g., apet. or naked. Sta. 4 oo . G usu. (3), 3-loc., with 3 styles 
which are persistent on the fr. Ov. 2 i in each loc., pend., anat., 
with dorsal raphe. Loculic. caps., or drupe. Seed with caruncle or 
none. Endosp. Chief genera: Buxus, Pachysandra. 

Buxanthus Van Tieghem (Buxus p.p.). Buxaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 

Buxella Van Tieghem (Buxus p.p.). Buxaceae. 2 S. Afr., Madag. 

Buxus L. Buxaceae. 20 palaeotemp. . W.I. B. Semperuirens L. 
(box) often cult. Fls. in heads, a term. ? flr. surrounded by a number 
of <? fls. The fr. dehisces explosively the inner layer of the pericarp 
separating from the outer and shooting out the seeds by folding into 

102 BUXUS 

a U-shape (cf. Viola). The wood of the box is exceedingly firm and 
close-grained, and is largely used in turning, wood-engraving, &c. 

Byblis Salisb. Lentibulariaceae (usually in Droseraceae, but cf. Lang 
in Flora 88, p. 179). 2 Austr. Insectivorous undershrubs, with 
stalked and sessile glands like Pinguicula. 

Byronia Endl. (Ilex p.p.). Aquifol. 3 Austr., Polynesia. 

Byrsa Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Byrsanthus Guillem. Flacourt. (9) (Samyd. BH.}. 2 W. Afr. 

Byrsocarpus Schumach. et Thonn. Connar. 5 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Byrsonima Rich, ex Juss. Malpighiaceae (n). 120 Cent, and S. Am., 
W. Ind. Fr. a drupe, ed. The bark of some sp. is used in tanning. 

Byrsophyllum Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 India, Ceylon. 

Bystropogon L'Herit. Labiatae (vi). 20 Andes, Canary Is. 

Bythophyton Hook. f. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i Indomal. 

Caatinga forests (Brazil), forests in which the 1. fall in dry season. 

Cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. ; -bark tree (W.I.), Andira inermis 
II. B. et K. ; Kerguelen-, Pringlea antiscorbutica R. Br. ; -palm, 
Oreodoxa oleracea Mart., Euterpe, Sabal, &c. ; -rose, Rosa centifolia 
L. ; skunk-, Symplocarpus foetidus Nutt. ; -tree, Sabal (W.I.), 
Oreodoxa, Andira. 

Cabomba Aubl. Nymphaeaceae (n). 4 warm Am. Water pi. with 
peltate floating 1. and much-divided submerged 1. (cf. Ranunculus, 
Trapa). Fl. 3-merous (P 3 + 3, A 3 6, G. usu. 3) and fully apocp. 
(thus forming a link to the other Ranales, with which the gynaeceum 
of most N. does not agree). Closed follicles. No aril ; endo- and 
peri-sperm. Ovules sometimes attached to the cpl. midrib. 

Cabralea A. Juss. Meliaceae (ill). 35 trop. Am. 

Cacabus Bernh. Solanaceae (2). 4 W. trop. S. Am. 

Cacalia L. (Senecio p.p. Bit.}. Compositae (8). 40 N.E. As., Am. 

Cacaliopsis A. Gray. Compositae (8). i Pac. U.S. 

Cacao, Theobroma; do. Tourn. ex Mill. =Theobroma L. 

Cacara Thou. = Pachyrhizus Rich. p.p. (Legum. ). 

Caccinia Savi. Boraginaceae (iv. i). 7 W. and Cent. As. 

Cachibou, Bursera gummifera L. 

Cachrys L. Umbelliferae (in. 4 ). 8 Medit., W. and Cent. As. 

Cacoon (W. I.), Entada scandens Benth. 

Cacosmia H. B. et K. Compositae (6). i Peru. 

Cacoucia Aubl. (Combrettun p.p. EP.), Combret. 5 W. trop. Afr. 

Cactaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Opuntiales'; Ficoidales^ZT.). 
2 5 g en -> i.? 00 S P-, chiefly localised in the dry regions of trop. Am., 
but spreading to a distance N. and S. (Opuntia missouriensis as far 
as 59 N.), and far up the mountains (to 12,000 ft. and even higher). 
Even in the damp forest regions some sp. appear as epiphytes. The 
only representative of the order in the Old World is Rhipsalis, found 
in Afr., Mauritius, &c., but several sp. of Opuntia, &c. are now nat. in 
S. Afr., Austr., &c. and becoming troublesome. 

Xero. of the most pronounced t>pe, exhibiting reduction of the 
transpiring surface, and also storage of water, often in great quantity. 
The veg. organs show great var. of type; the classification is perhaps 
better based upon them than upon the repr. organs. R. generally 
long and well-developed (in cultivation liable to decay). Stem 


fleshy, of various shapes, rarely bearing green 1. , and usu. provided 
with sharp barbed thorns, which give protection against animals. 
We may consider briefly some of the more important types of shoot 
found in C. (refer to genera for further details). The nearest approach 
to the ordinary plant-type is perhaps Pereskia, which has large green 
1., somewhat fleshy, in whose axils are groups of thorns mixed with 
hairs ; the space occupied by these is termed the areole. About the 
morphology of the spines there has been much dispute; most authors 
regard them as repres. the 1. of the axillary shoot, whose stem is 
undeveloped, but there is also good evidence in favour of the view 
that they are "emergences." In some gen. they are provided with 
barbs. The next stage is found in Opuntia, where the stem has 
taken over the water-storing and assim. functions, but still bears 1. ; 
in some sp. these aid the stem functions throughout life, but in most 
they fall off very early, and the stem is usually flattened to expose 
more surface to air and light. Then we come to Leuchtenbergia, 
which has an aloe-like habit with the areoles on the tips of the 
apparent 1. ; the fl. arises either in the axil of the "leaf" or on the 
areole. Development shows that the apparent 1. is really a cpd. 
structure. The bud stands, not exactly in the axil, but on the base 
of the 1., and the two grow out together to form a leaf-cushion or 
mammilla^ at the outer end of which is the growing point and the 
rest of the 1. itself; the latter is represented by a small scale (often 
microscopic) and the former gives rise to the thorns, &c. on the areole. 
The same phenomenon is seen in Mammillaria, Cereus sp., &c. In 
some cases the growing point divides, during the growth of the 
mammilla, into two, one on the tip, the other in the axil, of the 
cushion. The latter gives rise to the fl. In Cereus, Echinocactus, 
&c. the stem is cylindrical, bearing ribs on which are the areoles at 
regular intervals; the rib is formed by the "fusion" of mammillae, 
i.e. by the growth of the tissue under them during their development 
(cf. formation of sympetalous corolla). In Phyllocactus, Epiphyllum, 
and sp. of Rhipsalis some or all of the shoots exhibit a flattened leafy 
form with areoles in notches on their edges. This form appears to be 
derived from the preceding by abortion of some of the ridges, and 
reversions are often seen (they appear if access ot light lie prevented). 
Lastly, other sp. of Rhipsalis show perfecily cylindrical stems. 

The bulk of the internal tissue consists of parenchyma in which 
water is stored ; the cell-sap is commonly mucilaginous, thus further 
obstructing evaporation. The cuticle is thick, and the ridges of the 
stem are usu. occupied by mechanical tissue, whilst the stomata are 
in the furrows. Everything thus goes to check transpiration to the 
utmost extent ; it is very difficult to dry a cactus for the herbarium, 
and its vitality is very great. Its growth is slow, but sp. of Cereus, &c. 
reach a great size. Veg. repr. is frequent in the mammillate forms, 
and occurs to some extent in others. In garden practice, cacti are 
often multiplied by cuttings, for a piece cut off and stuck into the 
soil will usually grow. Grafting is also largely resorted to. 

Fls. usu. solitary (exc. Pereskia), borne upon or near the areoles 
or in the axils of mammillae, large, brightly coloured, ? , reg. or !. 
P (oo ), showing gradual transition from sepaloid to petaloid 1., spirally 


arranged, often up the side of the ovary (ef. Nymphnea). Sta. cc , 
epipet. G (4 -co), uniloc. with parietal plac. and anatr. ov. ; 
style simple. Berry, the flesh derived from the furicles. Endosp. 
or none. 

The fr. of many sp. is edible (e.g. Opuntia, &c.). Several are used 
in making hedges. Cochineal is cultivated on Nopalea, Opuntia, &.C. 
Classification and chief genera (after K. Schumann): 

I. PERESKIOIDEAE (habit of ordinary pi., with flat 1. 
and panicles ; no barbed thorns) : Pereskia (only genus). 
II. PUN TIG WE 4E (succulents with round or flat leaf-like 
joints; 1. cylindrical, usu. falling very early; barbed 
thorns; fl. rotate): Opuntia, Nopalea (only genera). 
III. CEREOIDEAE (succulents; 1. reduced to scales, often 
very minute ; no barbed thorns) : 

1. Echinocacteae ifl. funnel- or salver-shaped, in or near the 

areole) : Cereu.s, Phyllocactus, Epiphyllum, Echino- 
cactus, Melocactus, Leuchtenbergia. 

2. Mammillarieae (do., but in axil of mammilla) : Mammil- 

laria, Pelecyphora. 

3. Rhipsalideae (fl. rotate) : Rhipsalis. 

For lurther details refer to genera. Also Goebel, Pflanzeftb. Sch. 

and in Flora 1895, Ganong in f'/ora 1894, fiot. Gaz. 1895, Ann. Bot. 

1898, Schumann in Nat. Pfl. and Gesammtbesehreibung tier Kakteeti, 

1897-99, and Vochting in Pringsh. Jahrb. 1894. Cf. also Euphorbia 

and Stapelia. 

Cacteae (Bff.} ^-Cactaceae. 

Cactiflorae (Warming), the /th order of Choripetalae. 
Cactus L. =Cactaceae, esp. Mammillaria. 
Cactus, night-flowering:, Circus ; old man-, <"ereus senilis. 
Cadaba Forsk. Capparidaceae (ll). 20 palaeotrop. Disc prolonged 

post, into a tube ; both androphore and gynophore present. 
Cadalvena Fen/,1. Zin^iberaceae (II). i trop. Air. 
Cadellia F. Muell. Simarubaceae. 2 subtrop. Austr. 
Cadetia Gaudich. = Dendrobium Sw. (Orchid). 
Cadia Forsk. Leguminosae (III. i). 5 E. Afi., Madag., Arabia. 

Fl. almost reg. with free sta. 

Cadiscis E. Mey. Compositae (6). i S.W. Cape Colony. 
Cadjans. Cocos, Ni/>a, &c. 
Caducous, dropping early. 

Caecum, a prolongation of the embryo-sac, Casitarina, &r. 
Caelestina Cass. = Ageratum L. (Compos.). 
Caeruleus (Lat.), pale sky blue. 
Caesalpinia L. Leguminosae |ii. 7). 60 trop. and subtrop., often 

hook climbers. The pods of C. bonducella Fleming (nickar bean) 

are brought to Eur. by the Gulf Stream. Those of C. coriaria Willd. 

(divi-divi) are imported from Venezuela and W.I. for tanning. 

C. sappan L. (Indomal., cult.) and several Brazilian sp. yield a red 

dye Irom the wood (sappan, Brazil, or peach wood). C. pulcherrima 

Sw. (peacock fl., Barbados pride) is cult. orn. fl. 
Caesarea Cambess. =Viviania Cav. p.p. (Geran.). 
Caesia R. Br. Liliaceae (in). 10 Austr., S. Afr. 

C A LA THE A 105 

Caesius (Lat.), lavender-coloured, or pale green and grey. 

Caespitose, in tufts. 

Caesulia Roxb Compositae (4) i N.E. India. 

Caffein, Coffea, Cola, Ilex. 

Cafta, Cat ha edulis Forsk. 

Caiophora Presl (Btumenbachia p.p. BH.). Loasaceae. 50 S. Am. 

Cajanus DC. Legum. (in. 10). i trop. Afr., As., C. indicus Spreng. 
(dhal, pigeon pea, or Congo pea) cult, in India, cScc. for its ed. seeds. 

Cajeput oil, A/elaleitca Leucaden<iron L. 

Cakile L. Cruciferae (2). 4 *.. C maritima Scop, (sea-rocket, 
Brit.) has fleshy leaves, and long tap root. 

Calabar bean, Physostigtn-i venenosum Balf. 

Calabash, Crescentia; -cucumber, Lagenaria ; -nutmeg (W. Afr.), 
Monodora grandiflora Benth., (W.I.) M. myristica Uun. ; sweet-, 
Passiftora maliformis L. 

Calacanthus T. Anders. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i Indomal. 

Caladenia R. Br. Orchiclaceae (n. 2). 35 Austr. , N.Z. Lnbellum 
in some irritable (cf. Pterostylis ; Darwin, Orchids, p. 90). 

Caladiopsis Engl. Araceae (vi). i Colombia. 

Caladium Vent. Araceae (vi). 15 trop. S. Am. Cult. orn. I. (oo vars.). 

Calais DC. =Microseris D. Don, p.p. (Compos.). 

Calalu (W.I.), Phvtolacca. 

Calamagrostis Adans. (incl. Deyenxia Beauv. EP.). Gramineae (8). 
200 temp., 3 Brit. 

Calamander, Diospyros quaesita Thw. 

Calamiferous, with hollow stem. 

Calamint, Ccdamintha. 

Calamintha (Tourn.) Lam. (Satureia p.p. EP.}. Labiatae (vi). 
60 N. temp., trop. Mts. ; 3 Brit, (basil, calamint). Often gynodioec. 

Calamocnloa Fourn. Gramineae (10). i Mexico. 

Calamovilfa Hack. (Ammophila p.p. BH.). Gramineae (8). 2 N. Am. 

Calamus L. Palmae (in). 280 palaeotrop., mostly leaf-climbers with 
thin reedy stems. In some there are hooks on the back of the mid- 
rib, but the more common type of 1. is one in which the pinnae at 
the outer end are repres. by stout spines pointing backwards (cf. 
Desmoncus). The 1. shoots almost vertically out of the bud up 
among the surrounding veg., and the hooks take hold. The stem 
often grows to immense lengths (500 600 ft.) ; the plants are 
troublesome in trop. forests because the hooks catch. The stripped 
stems (rattan canes q.v.), are largely used for making chair bottoms, 
baskets, cables, &c. 

Calanda K. Sebum. Rubiaceae (n. i). 3 Afr., Austr. 

Calandrinia H. B. et K. Portulacaceae. 80 sp. Vancouver to Chili, 
Austr. The fls. close very quickly in absence of sunlight. 

Calandriniopsis Franz. (Calandrinia p.p.). Portul. 4 Chili. 

Calanthe R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 9). 80 trop. 8 pollinia, which, 
if re-introduced, strike the sides of rostellum and diverge into 

Calanthidium Pfitz. Orchidaceae (n. 9). i Burma. 

Calantica Jaub. ex Tul. Flac. (9) (Samyd. BH.) 5 Madag., E. Afr. 

Calathea G. F. W. Mey. Marantaceae. 90 trop. Am., and W. Afr. 

io6 C ALA THE A 

Std. /3 (see fam.) present in most. The tubers of C. Allouia Lindl. 

(topee tampo) are eaten like potatoes in the W.I. 
Calathodes Hook. f. et Thorns. (Trollius p.p. EP.). Ranunc. (2). 

i Himal. 

Calathostelma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (il. r). i Brazil. 
Calcaratus (Lat.), spurred. 
Calceolaria L. Scrophulariaceae (n. i). 200 S. Am., Mexico, N. Z. 

Many forms and hybrids cult. orn. fl. 
Calceolate, slipper-shaped. 

Calcicolous, living on chalk, -philous, chalk-loving. 
Calcitrapa Hall. =Centaurea L. p.p. (Comp.). 
Caldasia Lag. = Oreomyrrhis Endl. (Umbell.). 
Caldcluvia D. Don. Cunoniaceae. i Chili. 
Caldesia Pad. (Alisma L. Bff.}. Alismaceae. 3 palaeotrop. 
Calea L. Compositae (5). 80 Am., esp. campos. 
Caleana R. Br. Orchidaceae (IF. 2). 4 temp. Austr. 
Calectasia R. Br. Liliaceae (m). i S. and W. Austr. 
Calendula L. Compositae 9). 15 Medit., C. offidnalis L. (mangold) 

cult. A " hen-anJ-chickens" var. occurs, in which each principal 

head is surrounded by others, springing from the axils of the invol. 

br. Disc florets i , ray florets ? . Three kinds of fr. occur. 
Caleopsis Fedde (Goldmania Greenman). Compos. (5). i Mex. 
Calepina Adans. Cruciferae (2). i Eur., Medit. 
Calesiam Adans. (Lannea A. Rich.; Odiiia BH.}. Anacard. (2). 

15 trop. Afr. and As. 

Caletia Baill. =Micrantheum Desf. (Euphorb.). 
Calibanus Rose (Dasvlirion p.p.). Liliaceae (vi). i Mex., a xero. 

with remarkable tuber and a few grass-like 1. 
Calibrachoa Cerv. Solanaceae (Inc. sed.). i Mex. 
Calico bush (Am.), Kalmia latifolia L. 

Calicorema Hook. f. (Sericocoma Fenzl.). Amarant. (2). i S. Afr. 
Calif brnia bluebell, Nemophila; -hyacinth, Brodiaea; -lilac, Ceanothus; 

-nucmeg, Torreya ; -poppy, Eschscholtzia, Platystemon ; -redwood, 


Calimeris Nees - Aster Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 
Caliphruria Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 4 S. Am. Sta. with stipular 

appendages (see fam.). Cult. orn. fl. 
Calisaya bark, Cinchona Calisaya Wedd. 
Calla L. Araceae (in), i N. temp, and sub-arct , C. palustris L. 

Fls. 5 with P, borne once in two years. Aquatic. C. aethiopica L. 

= Richardia. 

Callaeolepis Karst. (Fimbristemma BH.). Asclep. (n. 4). i C. Am. 
Callaeum Small (Jubelina p.p.). Malpigh. (i). i Nicaragua. 
Cam- (Gr. pref.), beautiful. 
Calliandra Benth. Leguminosae (i. i). 100 warm Am., As. Cult. 

orn. fig. shrubs. 
Callianthemum C. A. Mey. Ranunculaceae (2). 5 Mts. of Eur. and 

Cent. As. See Bot. Mag. t. 7603, 1898. 
Calliature wood, Pterocarpus santalinus L. f. 
Callicarpa L. Verbenaceae (4). 40 trop. and subtrop. 
Callichilia Stapf. ( Tabemaemontana p.p.). Apocyn. (i. 3). 6 trop. Afr. 


Callichlamys Miq. Bignoniaceae (i). 4 warm S. Am. 

Callichroa Fisch. et Mey. = Layia Hook, et Am. p.p. (Comp.). 

Callicoma Andr. Cunoniaceae. 2 E. Austr. 

Calligonum L. Polygonaceae (n. i). 20 N. Afr., W. As., S. Eur. 

Callilepis DC. Compositae (4). 3 S- Afr. 

Callionia Greene (Potentilla p.p.). Rosaceae (ill. 2). i N. Am. 

Calliopsis Reichb. = Coreopsis L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Callipeltis Siev. Rubiaceae (n. 11). 3 Egypt to Persia. 

Callliprora Lindl. = Brodiaea Sm. p.p. (Lili.). 

Callipsyche Herb. (Eitcrosia Ker-Gawl. EP.). Amaryllidaceae (i). 
3 Ecuador, Peru. Cult. orn. fl. 

Callirrioe Nutt. (Maha p.p. EP.). Malvaceae (n). 8 N. Am. 

Callisia L. in Loefl. Commelinaceae. 4 trop. Am. 

Callista U. Don = Erica Tourn. p.p. (Eric.). 

Callistachys Vent. (Oxylobium Andr. BH.}. Legum. (in. 2). 27 Austr. 

Callistennna Boiss. (Scabiosa p.p. Bff.). Dipsaceae. i E. Medit. 

Callistemon R. Br. Myrtaceae (n. i). 12 Austr., often cult, (bottle- 
brushes). The axis of the inn. grows on beyond the fl. and continues 
to produce 1. (cf. Eucomis). Sta. conspicuous, as is often the case in 
the dry climate of Austr. (cf. Acacia). Cult. orn. fig. shrubs. 

Callistephus Cass. Compositae (3). i Chi., Jap., C. hortensis Cass., 
cult, under the name China aster. Bot. Mag., 1898, t. 7616. 

Callisteris Greene (Gilia, Cantua, &c. p.p.) Polem. 10 N. Am. 

Callisthene Mart. Vochysiaceae. TO S. Am. 

Callitriamna Herb. = Stenomesson Herb. p.p. (Amaryll.). 

Callitricriaceae (EP. ; Haloragidaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Geraniales). Only genus Callitriche (q.v.). As usu. in water plants 
(cf. Ceratophyllaceae), the systematic position is doubtful. B.-H. 
unite C. with Haloragidaceae, but the differences are considerable. 
They have also been placed near Caryophyllaceae, Verbenaceae, 
Boraginaceae, &c., but seem on the whole nearest to Euphorbiaceae, 
where they are placed by Engler and by Warming (Tricoccae). 
Callitriche L. Callitrichaceae. 25 (perhaps only vars. of i or 2), 
cosmop. (exc. S. Afr.). Several forms (water star-wort) in Brit. 
The submerged 1. are longer and narrower than the floating, and the 
more so the deeper they are below the surface. Land forms also 
occur. Fl. unisex., naked, commonly with 2 horn-like bracteoles, 
protog. ; <? of i sta. ; ? of (2) cpls., transv. placed, 4-loc. by ' false ' 
septum (cf. Labiatae), with 2 styles ; r ov. in each loc., pend. anatr. 
with ventral raphe. Schizocarp. Fleshy endosp. 

Callitris Vent. (excl. Tetraclinis Mast., Widdringtonia Endl.). Coni- 
ferae (Pinac. ; see C. for gen. char.). 18 Austr. (cypress pine). L. 
and cone-scales in whorls. The cone ripens in i or 2 years. Wood 
valuable. Yield a sandarach resin. 

Callixene Comm. ex Juss. = Luzuriaga Ruiz et Pav. (Lili.). 
Callopsis Engl. Araceae (i). i Usambara. 
Callostylis Blume. Orchidaceae In a, in), i Java. 
Calluna Salisb. Ericaceae (iv. i). i, C .vidgaris Salisb. (heather or 
ling), Eur., Greenland, and from Newfoundland to Massachusetts 
(the only repres. of Ericoideae in Am.), covering large areas, together 
with sp. of Erica and Vaccinium. A low evergr. shrub, with linear 


closely crowded wiry 1. and racemes of fls. K coloured like the 
almost polypctalous C. The honey is more easily accessible than in 
Erica ifl. of class B) and there is a larger circle of visiting insects, 
including however many bers (heather honey is among the best). 
'1 he stigma projects beyond the mouth of the fl. ; insects touch it first 
and in probing lor honey jostle the anthers. The rl. is also wind 
pollinated ; the loose powdery pollen blows about easily and the 
stigma is not covered by the C. 

Callus, new tissue covering a wound, usu. corky. 

Callyntranthele Ndz. Malpigliiaceae (11). i Venezuela. 

Calocephalus R. Br. Compositae (4). 12 temp. Austr. 

Calochilus R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 4 E. Austr., New Caled., N.Z. 

Calochortus Pursh. Liliaceae (v). 40 W. N.Am. 

Calocrater K. Schum. Apocynaceae (ii. i). i Cameroons. 

Calodendrum Thunb. Rutaceae (i). 2 S. and trop. Afr. 

Calogyne R. Br. Goodeniaceae. 3 China, Austr. 

Calolisianthus Gilg. Gentianaceae (i). 7 Brazil to W.I. 

Caloncoba Gilg (Oncoba p.p.). Flacourt. (2). 14 trop. Afr. 

Calonyction Choisy (Ipomoea L. p.p. BH.}. Convolvulaceae (i). 5 trop. 
Am. Cult. orn. fl. 

Calophaca Fisch. Leguminosae (in. 6). ro S. Russia to Burma. 

Calophanes Don (Dyschoriste EP.). Acanth. (iv. A). 40 trop. 

Calophyllum L. Guttiferae (iv). 60 trop. chiefly Old World. C. 
tacamaliaca Willd. and other sp. yield resins known as Tacamahac. 
(See Populus.) The young 1. are usu. prettily coloured. 

Calophysa DC. (Mate/a Aubl. EP.}. Melastom. (i). to trop. Am. 

Calopogon R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 7). ,5 U.S. 

Calopogonium Desv. Leguminosae (in. 10). 5 C. and S. Am., 

Calopsis Beauv. ex Juss. = Leptocarpus R. Br. (Rest.). 

Calopyxis Tul. (Conibretum p.p. fit/.). Combret. 10 Madag. 

Calorchis Barb. Rodr. (Pontkieva R. Br.). Orch. (n. 2). i Brazil. 

Calorhabdos Benth. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). 4 E. As. 

Caloroplius Labill.= Hypolac-na R. Br (Rest.). 

Calosacme Wall. = Chirita Bucli. -Ham. = Didymocarpus Wall. p.p. 

Calosanthes Blume = Oroxylum Vent. (Bignon.). 

Caloscilla Jord. et Fourr. = Scilla L. p.p. (Lili.). 

Calostemma R. Br. Amaryllidaceae (i). 3 sp. E. Austr. There is 
no embryo, but bulbils are .said to be formed in the embryo sac. 

Calostephane Benth. Compositae (4). 3 E. warm Afr. 

Calostigma Decne. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 8 Brazil. 

Calothamnus Labill. Myrtaceae (n. i). 25 W. Austr. Theaxisgoes 
on bearing 1. beyond the fls. (cf. Callistemon). Sta. in bundles before 
the petals, the common axis of the bundle very large. 

Calotheca Desv. = Briza L.; do. Spreng. = Aeluropus Trin. 

Calotis R. Br. Compositae (3). 20 Austr, 

Calotropis R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 3 trop. As., Afr. C.&gantea 
Ait. (madar, mudar, wara) yields a fibre from the bark, and a floss, 
used like kapok (Eriodendron), from the seeils. 

Calpidia Thou. (Pisoma p.p. EP.}. Nyctagin. 20 Malaya, New 


Calpigyne Blume. Euphorb. (A. IT. 2). i Celebes, Borneo. 

Calpocalyx Harms. Leguminosae (i. 4). 3 W. trop. Afr. 

Calpurnia E. Mey. Leguminosae (in. i). 10 Afr. 

Caltha (Rupp.) L. Ranunculaceae (2). 20 temp. C. palusl iis L. in 
Brit, (marsh-marigold, king-cup). Honey is secreted by thecpls., and 
the fls. have no "honey-leaves," the K being coloured. 

Caltrops, Tribulus. 

Calumba root, fateorhiza Coluinba Miers ; false- - (Ceylon), Coscinium 
fmestratum Colebr. 

Calvaria Comm. Sapotaceae. 3 Madag. 

Calvoa Hook. f. Melastomaceae (i). 8 trop. Afr. 

Calyc- (Gr. pref.), cup; -authemy, a monstrosity of the K imitating a 
C ; -iflorae (BH.), the 3rd series of Polypetalae ; -ine, belonging to 
K ; -old, like a K ; -ulus, Lorantkaceae, Tufieldia. 

Calycacanthus K. Schum. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i New Guinea. 

Calycadenia DC.= Hemizonia DC p.p. (Compos.). 

Calycantnaceae (EP., BH.}. Uicots. (Archichl. Ranales EP., BH.). 
Only genus Calycanthus, q.v. 

Calycanthus L. (incl Chiwonanthus Lindl.). Calycanthaceae. 3 N. 
Am., China, Japan. C. ftoridiis L. (Carolina allspice) cult. orn. 
shrub. Shrubs, usu. aromatic, with opp., simple 1. and term, acyclic 
fls. on short shoots. P oo , perig., spiral, showing gradual transition 
from sepaloid to petaloid 1. Sta. 5 30. Cpls. oo , in hollowed axis; 
2 anatr. ov. in each. Achenes enclosed in axis. Embryo large with 
spirally wound cotyledons, in slight endosp. 

Calycera Cav. Calyceraceae. 10 S. Am. 

Calyceraceae (EP., BH.). Dicotyledons (Synipet. Campanulatae ; 
Asterales BH.). 3 gen., 25 sp., S. Am. Close to Compositae. Herbs 
with alt. exstip. 1. Fls. in heads with invol. of bracts, $ or <? ? , 
epig., 4 6-merous. C leafy. Filaments of sta. united, anthers free 
or slightly coherent at base. Ov. i-loc. ; ovule i, pend., anatr.; 
stigma capitate. Embryo straight in slight endosp. Genera: Boopis, 
Calycera, Acicarpha. 

Calyciflorae (BH.). The 3rd series of Polypetalae. 

Calycinae (BH). The 4th series of Monocotyledons. 

CalycoDolus Willd. = Breweria R. Br. (BH.)- Prevostia Choisy. 

Calycocarpum Nutt. Menispermaceae. i Atl. N. Am. 

Calycog-onium DC. Melastomaceae (i). 24 W. Ind. 

Calycolpus Berg. Myrtaceae (i. i). 10 W. Ind., S. Am. 

Calycopeplus Planch. Euphorbiaceae (A. 11. 8). 3 Austr. 

Calycophyllum DC. Rubiacerie (i. 5). 3 W.I., S. Am. 

Calycophysum Karst et Triana. Cucurb'itaceae (3). 2 Colombia. 

Calycopteris Lam. Combretaceae. i India. 

Calycorectes Berg. Myrtaceae (i. i). 12 S. Am. 

Calycoseris A. Gray. Compositae (13). 2 Calif, to Mexico. 

Calycosia A. Gray (Psychotria p.p. EP ). Rubi. (n. 5). 5 Polyn. 

Calycothrix Meissn. (talythrix). Myrt. (n. 2). 4*0 Austr. Cult, 

Calycotome Link. Leguminosae (in. 5). 4 Medit. 

Calycotropis Turcz. Caryophyllaceae (inc. sed.). i Mex. 

Calyctenium Greene (Rubus p.p.). Rosac. (in. 2). i Japan, 


Calydermos Lag. = Calea L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Calydorea Herb. Iridaceae (n). 6 Texas to S. Am. 

Calymenia Pers. = Oxybaphus Vahl (##.) = Mirabilis L. p.p. 

Calymmanthera Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 3 New Guinea. 

Calypso Salisb. Orchidaceae (n. 4). j cold N. temp. 

Calypso Thou. = Salacia L. (Hippocrat.). 

Calypsogyne Neraud. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Caiypteris Zipp. Inc. sed. i, habitat? 

Calyptocarpus Less. Compositae (5). i Texas, Mex. 

Calyptranthes S\v. Myrtaceae (i). * 80 trop. Am., W.I. Ed. fr. 

Calyptrate, capped. 

Calyptrella Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 5 trop. Am. 

Calyptridium Nutt. Portulacaceae. 5 California. 

CalyptiiDn ding. (Corynostylis Mart.). Viol, i trop. S. Am. 

Calyptrocalyx Blume. Palmae (iv. i). 6 Austr., Moluccas. 

Calyptrocarpus Less. Compositae (5). i Texas, Mex. 

Calyptrocarya Nees. Cyperaceae (u). 5 Guiana, Brazil. 

Calyptrochilum Krzl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). i Cameroons. 

Calyptrogyne H. Wendl. Palmae (iv. i). 3 Centr. Am. 

Calyptronoma Griseb. ( = last, BH.}. Palmae (iv. j). 4 trop. Am. 

Calyptrostegia C. A. Mey=Pimclea Banks p.p. (Thymel.). 

Calyptrotheca Gilg. Capparidaceae (n). 3 trop. Afr. 

Calystegia R. Br. Convolvulaceae(i). 10 temp, and sub-trop. 2 Brit., 

C. Soldanella R. Br. on the coasts, and C. septum R. Br. in hedges. 

The fert. of this sp. depends largely on the visits of a hawk-moth 

(Sphinx convolvuli) and the distr. areas of the two correspond to some 

extent (if. Aconitum). Often united to Convolvulus (q.v.). 
Calythrix Labill. (Calycothrix). Myrt. (n. 2). 40 Austr. Cult. 

Calyx, the outer protective portion of the perianth, usu. of green 1. 

(sepals). For descriptive terms, &c. see Perianth; -tube, the lower 

continuous portion of a gamosepalous calyx ; water-holding-, Par- 

mentiera, Spathodea. 

Camarea St. Hil. Malpighiaceae (i). ro E. S.Am. 
Camaridium Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 18). 15 trop. S. Am., W.I. 
Camarotea Eiliot. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i Madag. 
Camarotis Lindl. (Sarcockiltis BH.). Orchid, (n. 20). 2 E. Indies 
Camassia Lindl. Liliaceae (v). 2 N. Am. The bulbs (quamash) form 

a food for the Indians of N.A. 

Cambessedesia DC. Melastomaceae (i). 15 S. Brazil. 
Cambium, the actually growing layer in a stem, &c. 
Cainbogia L. = Garcinia L. p.p. (Guttif.). 
Camel-thorn, Alhagi mattrorum Medic. 
Camelina Crantz. Cruciferae ( 4 ). 8 Eur., Medit. C. sativa Cr. 

(gold of pleasure, Brit.) is used as a source of fibre in S. Eur. 
Camelinus (Lat.), tawny. 

Camellia L.(T/ieaL. p.p.). Theaceae. 8 Ind., China, Japan. C.ja- 
ponica L. and others cult. orn. fls. C. 77iea Link., C.'viridis Link., 

and C. Bohea Lindl. =T. sinensis. 

Camelostalix Pfitzer (Pholidota p.p.). Orchid, (n. 3). i Java. 
Cameraria (Plum.) L. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 2 W. Iiid. 


Camilleugenia Frappier (Cynorchis p.p.)- Orchid. (li. i). i Madag. 

Camnium (Cl.), a succession due to cultivation. 

Camoensia Welw. ex B. and H. Leguminosae (in. i). 3 W. trop. 
Afr. C. maxima Welw. is a magnificent flowering creeper. 

Camomile, Anthemis. 

Campanales (BH.). The 3rd cohort of Gamopetalae. 

Campanea Decne. Gesneriaceae (n). 6 C. Am. 

Campanocalyx Valeton. Kubiaceae (I. 7). i Borneo. 

Campanolea Gilg et Schellenberg. Oleaceae. i Cameroons. 

Campanula (Tourn.) L. Campanulaceae (i. i). 300 N. temp, and 
trop. Mts., esp. Meclit. ; 8 Brit. incl. C. rottmdifolia L. (harebell, 
blue-bell of Scotland). The pollen is shed in the bud, the sta. 
standing closely round the style and depositing their pollen upon the 
hairs. As the fl. opens the sta. wither, exc. the triangular bases that 
protect the honey, and the style presents the pollen to insects. After 
a time the stigmas separate and the fl. is 9 ; finally the stigmas curl 
right back on themselves and effect self-pollin. (See fam. and cf. 
Phyteuma, Jasione.) Seeds light and contained in a caps., which if 
erect dehisces at the apex, if pend. at the base, so that the seeds 
(cf. Aconitum) can only escape when the plant is shaken, e.g. in 
strong winds. Several are cult. (Canterbury bells, &c.). 

Campanulaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Symp. Campanulatae). 60 gen. 
1000 sp., temp, and sub-trop., mostly perennial herbs (a few trees 
and shrubs), with alt., exstip. 1., and usu. with latex. The infl. may 
term, the primary axis, or one of the second order. It is generally 
racemose, ending with a term. fl. in Campanuloideae. In some 
cases, instead of single fls. in the axils of the bracts of the raceme, 
small dich. occur [cf. Labiatae). Others have the whole infl. cymose 
(Canarina, Pentaphragma, &c.). 

Fl. usu. 5 , reg. or -|- , epig., generally 5-merous, the odd sepal post, 
in Campanuloideae, but anterior in the other groups. In these, how- 
ever, a twisting of the axis through 180 takes place before the fl. 
opens [cf. Orchid*), so that the odd sepal is finally post. K 5, open ; 

C (5) valvate ; A 5 epig. ; anthers intr., sometimes united ; G (5), (3) 
or (i), multi-loc. with axile plac. bearing oo anatr. ov. Style simple ; 
stigmas as many as cpls. Caps, dehisc. in various ways in different 
gen. , or berry. Fleshy endosp. 

The nat. history of the fl. is of interest, both in itself and as exhibit- 
ing transitions to the Composite type. Honey is secreted by a disc at 
base of style and covered in most cases by the triangular bases of the 
sta., which fit closely together and only allow of the insertion of a 
proboscis between them. This, taken together with the size of the 
fls., their frequently blue colour and pendulous position, points to their 
being best adapted to the visit of bees, as is the case, but there are 
also many other visitors of various insect classes, so that this fam. 
cannot be placed in the fl. class H but must go into B. A few 
exceptions occur; the bulk of the fam. has large fls., conspicuous 
by themselves, but Phyteuma and Jasione have small fls. massed in 
heads, and come into class B' along with the Compositae. 

The general principle of the fl. mech. is the same throughout, and 
agrees with that of Compositae. The fl. is very protandr., and the 



Floral diagram of Campanula 
after Eichler. 

style (with the stigmas closed up against one another) has the pollen 

shed upon it by the anthers, either in 

the bud or later. Usu. there is a bunch 

of hairs upon the style to hold the 

pollen. For some time the style acts 

as pollen-presenter to insects ; after a 

time the stigmas separate and the ? 

stage sets in, and finally, in many cases, 

the stigmas curl back so far that they 

touch the pollen still clinging to their 

own style, and thus effect self-pollin. 

See genera, esp. Campanula, Phy- 

teuma, Jasione, Lobelia, and cf. Com- 


Classification and chief genera (after 
Schonland) : 

actinomorphic, rarely slightly zygomorphic; anthers usu. free): 

1. Campattuleae (cor. valvate; fl. symmetrical): Campanula, 
Phyteuma, Wahlenbergia, Platycodon, Jasione. 

2. Pentaphragmeae (cor. valvate; fls. as) mmetric, in cincinni) : 
Pentaphragma (only genus). 

3. Sph-nocleae (cor. imbricate) : Sphenoclea (only genus). 

II. CYPHJOJDEAE (fl. zygomorphic; sta. sometimes united; 
anthers free) : Cyphia, Nemacladus. 

III. LOBELIOIDEAE (fl zygomorphic, rarely almost act'no- 
morphic; anthers united) : Centropogon, Siphocampylus, Lobelia. 

Campanulastrum Small (Campanula p.p.). Cam pan. (i). i N. Am. 

Campanulatae. The loth order of Dicotyledons (Sympet. ). 

Campanulate, bell-shaped. 

Campanulopsis Zoll. et Morr. Campanul. (inc. sed.). i Malaya. 

Campanulinae (Warming). The gth cohort of Sympetalae. 

Campanumoea Blume. Campanulaceae (i. i). 5 Indomal. 

Campbellia Wight = Christisonia Gardn. (Orobanch.). 

Campderia Benth. (Coccoloba p.p. EP.}. Polygon, (in. i). 4 trop. Am. 

Campe Uulac = Barbarea R. Br. (Crucif.). 

Campeachy wood (W.I.), Haematoxylon campechianum L. 

Campelia Rich. Commelinaceae. i trop. Am., VV.I. Ed. fr. 

Campereia Griff. Santalaceae. i Malaya. 

Campestris (, growing in fields. 

Camphor, an aromatic crystalline body, obtained by distillation from 
the wood or 1. of Cinnamomum Camphora Nees et Eberm.; ai-, 
Blumea balsamifera DC. ; Barus or Borneo, Dryobalanops aroniatica 
Gaertn.; ngai-, =ai; Sumatra-, = Borneo. 

Camphora (Bauh.) L. = Cinnamomum Tourn. (Laur.). 

Camphorosma L. Chenopodinceae (A). 8 E. Medit., Cent. As. 

Campimia Ridl. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Malaya. 

Campion, Lychnis, Silene; bladder, 6". infla/a ; moss, S. acaulis. 

Campnosperma Thvv. Anacardiaceae (3). 10 trop. 

Campomanesia Ruiz et Pav. Myrtaceae (i. i). 80 S. Am. Ed. fr. 

Campsiandra Benth. Leguminosae (u, 8). 3 trop. Am. 


Campsidium Seem. (Tecoma BH.}. Bignon. (2). i Chili. 
Campsis Lour. (Tecoma Bff.}. Bignon. (2). 2 E. U.S., Japan. 
Camptandra Kidl. Zingib -raceae (i). 4 Malaya. 
Campteria Pr. = Pteris L. (Kilic.). 

Camptocarpus Decne. Asclepiadaceae (i). 5 Mauritius, Madag. 
Camptolepis Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i E. trop. Afr. 
Camptoloma Benth. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). 2 trop. Afr. 
Cainptosema Hook, et Am Legumiuosae (in. 10). 12 S. Am. 
Camptosorus Link, Polypodiaceae. 2 N. Am., N. As. A xero. fern, 

whose prothalli can stand drought. 

Camptostemon Mast Bombacaceae. 2 N. Austr., Phil. Is. 
Camptostylus Gilg. Flacourtiaceae (i). i E. trop. Afr. 
Camptotheca Decne. Nyssaceae. i China, Tibet. 
Campuloclinium DC. = Eupatorium Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 
Campylandra Baker ( Tupistra p.p. BH.}. Lili. (vn). i Bhutan. 
Campylanthus Roth. Scrophulanaceae (in. i). $ Afr., Arabia, &c. 
Campylia Lindl. ex Sweet = Pelargo ihim L'Herit. p.p. (Geran.). 
Campylobo rys Lem. = lloffmannia Sw. (Rubiaciae). 
Campylocentron Benth. Orchid, ill. 20). 25 trop. Am., W.I. 
CampylocMcon Welw. ex Hiern. (Combretitin pp. EP}. Comb. 

i irop. Afr. 
Campylogyne Welw. ex Hemsl. (Combretum p.p. EP.}. Comb. 

i trop. Afr. 

Campyloneurum Presl. = Polypodium L. (Filic.). 
Campylosiplion Benih. Burmann. i trop. S. Am. Saprophytic. 
Camp/iosparnum Van fieghem -O iratea Aubl. (Ochn.). 
Campylos achys Kunth. Veruenaceae (2). i S. Afr. 
Campylostemon Welw. Hippocraieaceae. 5 trop. W. Afr. 
Campylotropous (ovule), curved int> a U shape. 
CampyliS Lour. Inc. sed i China. 

Campynema La 'ill. AmaryllMactrae (iv). Austr. Tasm. See fam. 
Campyneman tie Baill. Amaryllidaceae (iv). i New C.ded. 
Camwood, ttaplua nitida Afzel. 
Canada Dalsam, Abies balsaniea Mill. ; -pitch, Tsuga canadensis Carr. ; 

-rice, Ziz mia a^uatica L. 
Cinaigre, Rnnux hvmenosepalus Torr. 
Cauanga Rumph. ex Hook. f. et Thorns. Anonaceae (i). 3 trop. 

E. As to Austr. C. odorata Hook. f. is cult, for its rls., which yield 

the perfume known as yiang-ylang or Macassar oil. 
Canariastrum Engl. Burseraceae. i trop Afr. (?= Uapacd). 
Canariellum Engl. Burscrareae. i New Caled"nia. 
Canarina L. Campanulaceae (I. i). 3 Canary Is., trop. Afr. Like 

Campmula but usu. 6-merou>, and with ed. berry fr. 
Canarium (Rumph.) L. Barseraceae. 80 trop. As., Afr. C. commune 

L. (Java aim.ind; ed. see.!) furnishes the resin Manila Elemi (see 

Bur^era). C. strictum Roxb. (Malabar) and other sp. furnish some 

of the black dammar of commerce (ci. Agathis). 
Can iry creeper. T> opaeolum pere^rinum L. (cananen.tifH.ori ); -grass, 

-seed. Ptialaris canariensis L. ; -wMtewood, Liriodendron tulipi- 

Jera L. 
Canavalia DC. Leguminosae (in. 10). 12 trop. C. ensiformis DC. 

w. 8 


(sword or sabre bean, overlook) cult. ed. pods. C. obhisifolia DC. 
is a common trop. shore plant. 

Canbya Parry. Papaveraceae (11). 2 California, Mex. 
Cancellate, latticed. 

Cancrinia Kar. et Kir. Compositae (7). i Centr. As. 
Candidus (Lat.), pure white. 
Candle-nut, Aleurites ; -plant, Dictammts ; -tree, Parmentiera ; -wood 

(W. I.), Sciadophyllitm, Ainyris. 
Candollea Labill. in Ann. Mus. Par. 1805 (Stylidium Sw., q.v.}. 

Stylidiaceae. 85 Austr., N. Z., E. As. 
Candollea Labill. i8o6-Hibbertia Andr. p.p. (Dillen.). 
Candolleaceae = Stylidiaceae. 
Candy-tuft, Iberis amani, L. 
Cane, a commercial term for stems of grasses (esp. bamboos), 

climbing palms, &c. ; bamboo-, cf. bamboos ; -brake, Ariindinaria ; 

dumb-, Dieffenbachia; Malacca-, Calamus; rattan-, Calamus, and 

cf. Rattan; sugar-, Saccharum ojficinarum L. Tobago, Bactns 

minor Jacq. ; Whangee-, Phyllostachys. 
Canella P. Br. (Winterana L.). 2 W. Ind., trop. Am. C. alba Murr. 

yields Canella bark, used as a tonic and stimulant. 
Canella bark, see last. 
Canellaceae = Winteranaceae. 
Canephora Juss. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Madagascar. Fls. in clusters 

at the top of a phyllodineous stalk with a 2-lobed calyculus. 
Canescent, grey or hoary. 

Canistrum Morren (Aechmea p.p. ff.). Bromel. (4). 4 Brazil. 
Canker-berry (W. L), Solatium bahamense L. 
Canna L. Cannaceae. 40 trop. and subtrop. Am., C. indica L. 

cosmop. trop. Many sp. , vars. and hybrids, cult. C. indica (Indian 

shot) is the basis of most of these. Habit like Zingiberaceae or 

Marantaceae, but C. can be distinguished even when not in fl. by 

possessing neither the ligule of the former nor 

the pulvinus of the latter. Infl. term. usu. 

composed of 2-fl. cincinni. The two fls. are 

homodromous, but the bracteole is to the right 

in one and to the left in the other (behind 

one or other of the two lat. sepals in the 

diagram). Fl. $> , asymmetric, epig. K 3, 

C (3). The A is the most conspicuous part. 

There is a leafy sta. bearing half an anther on 

one edge, and a number of paaloid structures 

round it, usu. 3 but sometimes i or 4. One of 

these is the labellum (not = that of Zingibera- 
ceae), and is rolled back on itself outwards. 

The other two are often termed the wings (a /3 

in diagram). When a fourth std. (7, cf. 

Marantaceae) is present it stands behind the 

fertile sta. Other sp. have only the labellum. 

style, 3-loc.; ov. in 2 rows in each loc., anatr. 

Seed with perisperm and straight embryo. 

As to the morphological explanation of the A, there are two views 

Floral diagram of 
Canna indica (after 
Eichler). The bracteole 
i* omitted. S = petaloid 
style; L = labellum; a/3 
= staminodes. 

G (3) with petaloid 
Caps., usu. warty. 


Kichler (Btiitcndiag. \. p. 174) regards the labellum as a lat. sta. of 
the inner whorl, and the fertile sta. together with all the stds. as the 
post. sta. of the same whorl; the other sta. of the inner, and all the 
sta. of the outer, whorl are wanting. The older view looks upon 
/3, 7, as the 2 post. sta. of the outer whorl, and the labellum, a, and 
the fertile sta. as the 3 sta. of the inner whorl. (Cf. this fl. with 
those of Musaceae, Zingiberaceae and Marantaceae.) 

The pollen is shed upon the style in the bud ; insects alight on 
the labellum. touch first the term, stigma and then the pollen. The 
rhiz. of C. edulis Ker-Gawl. is ed., containing much starch. 

Cannabaceae (Warm ing) = iv. of Moraceae (q-v.). 

Cannabis (Tourn. ) L. Moraceae (iv). i Cent. As., C. saliva L., 
the hemp. Infl. like Humulus c? , dioec. Hemp is largely cult, 
both in temp, and trop. regions, in the former for the fibre, in the 
latter for the drug. A valuable fibre, used for ropes and other 
purposes, is obtained from the inner bark of the stem, much as flax 
is prepared from Linum, and for this purpose the plant is cult, in 
S. Eur., the eastern U.S., and other countries. In the trop., and 
esp. in India, the pi. is cult, for the sake of the narcotic resin which 
exudes from it, and which is used much like opium, both as a 
drug and as a stimulant. The drug occurs in three common forms, 
ganja, charas, and bhang. The first is the ? flg. tops with resin on 
them, packed together, the second, which comes from rather cooler 
climates, is the resin knocked off the twigs, bark, &c. , and the third, 
which is largely obtained from the wild plants, is the mature L, with 
their resinous deposit, packed together. Asiatics are much addicted 
to the use of hemp as a narcotic. It is smoked, with or without 
tobacco, and an intoxicating liquor, hashish, is made from it. The 
resin has an intoxicating stimulating effect. In small quantities it 
produces pleasant excitement, passing into delirium and catalepsy 
if the quantity be increased. The names given to the plant among 
them indicate this use of it, e.g. leaf of delusion, increaser of pleasure, 
cementer of friendship. The sale of ganja and charas is kept in check 
in India by a stringent licensing system, but that of bhang, which is 
collected from the wild plants, is not so easy to control. 

Cannaceae (EP.; Scitamineae p.p. BH.}. Monocotyledons (Scitami- 
neae). Only genus Canna (q.v.}. 

Cannomois Beauv. Restiaceae. 8 S. Afr. 

Cannon-ball tree, Couroitpita gnianensis Aubl. 

Canotia Torr. i Calif., New Mexico, doubtfully placed in Rutaceae, 
but perhaps belonging to Celastraceae. 

Canscora Lam. Gentianaceae (l). 18 palaeotrop. 

Cansjera Juss. Opiliaceae. 4 trop. As., Austr. 

Cantaloupe, melon, Cucumis Melo L. 

Canterbury bell, Campanula. 

Cantharospermum Wi^ht et Arn. (AtylosiaBH.). Leguminosae (in. ro). 
20 Madag. , trop. As. and Austr. 

Canthium Lam. = Plectronia L. (Rubiaceae). 

Canthopsis Miq. (A'am/ia p.p. EP.). Rubiaceae (l. 8). i Timor. 

Cantua Juss. Polemoniaceae. 8 Peru, Bolivia. 

Cantuffa Gmel. (Pterolobium R. Br.). Legum. (n. 7). 5 palaeotrop. 



Canus (Lat.), grey-white. 

Caopia Adans. = Vismia Vand. (Guttif.). 

Caoutchouc, see Rubber. 

Capanemia Barb. Rodr. (Quekettia EP.). Orch. (il. 19). 2 Brazil. 

Caparrosa, Neea t keif era Oerst. 

Cape aster, Felicia; -chestnut, Calodendron; -cowslip, LachenaHa; 
-crocus, Gethyllis; -figwort, Phygelms ; -forget-me-not, Anchusa; 
gooseberry, Physalis; -honeysuckle, Tecoma; -jasmine, Gardenia; 
-lily, Crhium; -pondweed, Aponogeton; -primrose, Streptocarpus ; 
-tulip, Hiicinanthns. 

Caper, Capparis spinosa, L. 

Caperonia St Hil. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 33 trop. Am., Afr. 

Capet tree (W.I.), Capparis verrucosa Jacq. 

Capillary, hair-like. 

Capirona Spruce. Rubiaceae (i. 4). i S. Am. K like Mussaenda. 

Capitania Schweinf. Labiatae (vn). i E. Afr. 

Capitate, head -like. 

Capitularia J . V. Suringar. Cyper. (in), i New Guinea. 

Capitulum, a head of fl., Compositae, Comae., Dipsac., &c. 

Capnites Dum. = Corydalis Vent. (Papav.). 

Capnoides Tourn. ex Adans. = Corydalis Vent. (Papav.). 

Capnophyllum Gaertn. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 4 Medit., S. Afr. 

Capnorea Rafin.= Hesperochiron S. Wats. (Hydrophyll.). 

Capparidaceae (EP. , BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Rhot-adales ; Parietales 
BH.). 40 gen., 450 sp., trop. and warm temp., many xero., with 
reduced, often inrolled, 1. (cf. Empetrum). Herbs or shrubs, with 
alt. simple or palmate 1., often with stips. (frequently repres. by 
thorns or glands). Fls. $ , reg., usu. in racemes, bracteate but with- 
out bracteoles- The P resembles that of Cruciferae (K.2 + 2, 4 
diagonal), but great var. occurs in the A. In some sp. of Cleome 
there are 4 sta. in two whorls, but elsewhere there are more. Some 
sp. of Cleome, c. show ictradynamous sta. In others, still further 
branching of the median sta. occurs and usu. the post. sta. is more 
branched than the ant. Staminody of some of the branches is 
frequent. Cpls. typically (i), transv. as in Cruciferae, wi'h parietal 
plac. In many sp. of sub-order II the number rises to 10 or 12 by 
the addition of a second whorl of cpls. and by decloublement. 
Ovules oo , campylotropous. 

A further complication is the presence of axial effigurations, &c. 
in the fls. A disc may occur between P and sta. (usually thicker 
at the post, sic'e), or a gynophore between sta. and ov., or both. Or 
the disc may grow up in the centre to form an androphore on which 
the sta. are borne and above them there may be a gynophore also. 
From the disc there often grow out structures of various shapes and 
sizes; these may be scales quite free from one another, or, as in 
Cadaba, &c., may be united into a tube. Or the scales may, as in 
Steriphoma, &c., alt. with and he joined to the sepals. 

Fr. a siliqua (with repluin), nut, berry or drupe. Seed exalb. 
with rmbryo folded in various ways as in Cruciferae. Few are useful : 
see Capparis, &c. 


Classification and chief genera (after Pax): 

A. Mostly shrubs, with hairs or scales, rarely glandu'ar. No replum. 
I. DIPTERYGIOIDEAE (samara): Dipterygium (only 


II. CAPPARIDOIDEAE (berry): Capparis, Cadaba, 

III. ROYDS101DEAE (drupe): Roydsia. 

IV. EMBLINGIOIDEAE. Prostrate undershrubs. Calyx 

tube present. Petals (2). Nut. Emblmgia (only genus). 

B. Glandular annuals. Siliqua with replum. 

V. CLEOMOIDEAE : Cleome, Polanisia. 

Capparis (Tourn.) L. Capparidaceae (n). 150 trop. and sub-trop. 
(exc. N. Am.). Many climb by recurved stip. thorns. The rl.-buds 
of C. spinosa L. (Medit.) are known as capers (cf. Eugenia). 

Capraria (Tourn.) L. Scrophulanaceae (in. i). 4 warm Am. 

Capreolatus (Lat.), tendrilled. 

Caprification. cf. Ficns. 

Capriflcus Gasp. = Ficus Tourn. p.p. (Morac.). 

Caprifoliaceae (EP. ; BH. incl. Adoxaceae). Dicots. (Sympet. Rubi- 
ales EP., BH.). ir gen., 230 sp temp, (chiefly N.) and on trop. 
Mts. Mostly trees and shrubs with decussate usually exstip. leaves 
(see Sambucus). Fls. 9 , reg., or in cymes, usually -,-merous with 
the odd sepal post. Sta. in one whorl, epipet. G (2 5), multi- 
loc. with i oo pend. ov. in each loc. Fr. usu. berry or drupe 
(caps, in Diervilla). Embryo small in fleshy endosp. [BH. chars. 
include herb with rad. 1. and small head of fl. ; P homochlam. ; 
G semi-inf.] Chief genera: Sambucus, Viburnum, Symphoricarpus, 
Linnaea, Lonicera, Diervilla. 

Caprifolium Tourn. ex L. = Lonicera L. p p. (Caprifol.). 

Capsella Medic. Cruciferae (4). 4 N. temp. C. Bursa-pastorts 
Medic, (shepherd's purse) in Brit, and a cosmop. weed, self-polli- 
nated. In early spring and lale autumn the sta. are often aborted. 
The 1. vary in shape and degree of division in various situations. 
Solms (Bat. Zeit. 1900, p. 167) describes C. Heegen. a new form 
which has an elongated ir., which has arisen from the shepherd's 
purse, and is almost generically distinct. 

Capsicum (Tourn. i L. Solanaceae (2). 30 C. and S. Am., i Japan. 
C. annunm L. cult.; its fr. are chillies or red peppers; dried and 
ground the v form Cayenne pepper. Other sp. are used, (^ee Irish 
in Rep. Miss. Rot Gdn., 1898, for revision of cult, forms.) 

Capsule, a dry dehiscent fruit of > i carpel. 

Capura Blanco (O/opko'-a Blume, EP}. Sapind. (i). r Phil. Is. 

Capura L. Wikstrormia Endl. (Thymel.). 

Caracasia Szysz. Marcgraviaceae. 2 Venezuela. 

Caragana Lam. Leguminosae (in. 6). 40 Cent. As., China. 

Caraguata (Plum.) Lindl. (Gitzmania Ruiz et Pav.). Bromel. (i). 
20 S. Am. Cult. orn. infl. 

Caraguata fibre, Bnwielw, Eryngium, Furcrea, &c. 

Caraipa Aubl. Guttifer <e (i). (Ternstroem, BH.) 12 trop. S. Am. 
They yield a useful hard timber (tamacoari), and a medicinal 


Carallia Roxb. ex R. Br. Rhizophoraceae. 10 palaeotrop., exc. 

Afr. Disc. usu. double- 

Caralluma R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (li. 3). 60 Medit. to E. Ind. 
Caramba, Carambola, Averrhoa Caratnbola L. 
Caranda Gaertn. Inc. sed. i Ceylon. 

Carapa Aubl. Meliaceae (in). 10 trop. C. procera DC. and C. itian- 
ensif Aubl. seeds yield a good oil (carapa, touloucouna, andiroba, 
coondi). C. mohiccensis Lam. among the mangroves (q-v.). 
Carapichea Aubl. = Cephaelis Sw. (Rubiac.). 
Carat, Ceratonia Siliqna L. 
Caraway seed, Carnin Carvi L. 

Carbenia Adans. (Cnictts p.p. EP.). Compos, (n). i Medit. 
Carbohydrates, bodies containing C, H, and O, in the proportions 

C.,, H 2v , GV; cellulose, starch, sugar, &c. 
Carcerulus, fruit of Labiatae. 
Carda Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Cardamine (Tourn.) L. (BH. incl. Dentaria L.). Cruciferae (2). 
100 cosmop., chiefly temp. C. pratensis L. (cuckoo-flower) and 
others in Brit. C. impatiens L. has an explosive fruit like that of 
Eschscholtzia. C. chenopodiifolia Pers. (S. Am.) possesses two kinds 
of fr Those formed on the upper part of the plant are normal 
siliquae; at the base, in the axils of the 1. of the rosette cleist. fls. 
form which burrow into the soil and produce fr. there (cf Arachis, 
Trifolium, &c.). In C. pratensis there is extensive veg. repr. 
by adv. buds on the radical 1. and in C. (D.) bulbifera R. Br. by 
means of axillary bulbils. See Schulz, Monograph in Engl.Jb. 32, 
p. 280. 

Cardaminopsis Hayek. Cruciferae (2). 4 *. 
Cardamoms, Elettaria Cardamomiim Maton, Amomum. 
Cardamomum Noronha= Elettaria Maton (Zingib.). 
Cardanthera Buch.-Ham. (Synnema EP.}. Acanth. (iv. A). 10 


Cardia Dulac^ "Veronica Tourn. (Scroph.). 
Cardiaca (Tourn.) L. = Leonurus L. p.p. (Comp.). 
Cardiacanthus Schau. (Jacobinia p.p BH.}. Acanth. (iv. B). i Mex. 
Cardiandra Sieb. et Zucc. Saxifr. (ill), i China, Japan. 
Cardinal flower, Lobelia cardinalis L. 

Cardiobatus Greene (Kitbus p.p.). Rosac. (in. 2). i N. Am. 
Cardiocarpus Reinw. = Soulamia Lam. (Simarub.). 
Cardiochlamys Oliv. Convolvulaceae (i). i Madag. 
Cardiogyne Bur. (Plecosperwin/i BH.). Morac. (i). i trop. Afr. 

The wood yields a dye. 

Cardiopetalum Schlechtd. (Stormia Moore). Anon. (i). i Braz. 
Cardiopteris Wall. Icacinaceae (Olacineae BH.). 3 Indomal. 
Cardiospermum L. Sapindaceae (i), 15 trop., esp. Am. 
Cardoon, Cynara Cardunculiis L. 

Cardopatium Juss. (Broteroa EP.). Compositae (11). 2 Medit. 
Carduncellus Adans. Compositae (n). 2 Medit. 
Carduus (Tourn.) L. This gen., Cnicus and Cirsium are nearly allied, 
and scarcely any floras agree in the sp. assigned to them. See Index 


Compositae (11). 20 Eur., N. Afr., As. (thistles). C. nutans 
L. and others in Brit. 

Cardwellia F. Muell. Proteaceae (il). i Queensland. 

Carelia Less. Compositae (2). i S. Brazil. 

Carex(DilL) L. Cyperaceae (u). 800 N. and S. temp , in marshes, &c. 
About 60 Brit, (sedges). Grass-like pi. Pseudo-spikelets i-fld., in 
long spikes, which are sometimes unisex., sometimes with both 3 
and ? fls. The ? fl. has a second glume (see fam.). The fls. are 
protog. and \vind-fert. There is considerable veg. repr. by offshoots. 
Many Brit. sp. are alpine ; others, e.g. C. arenaria L., grow on sand- 
dunes and have the habit of Ammophila. 

Careya Roxb. Lecythidaceae (Myrtaceae, BH.}. 4 Indomal., Austr. 
C. arborea Roxb. (patana oak) is almost the only tree on the great 
grassy expanses known as patanas in Ceylon. 

Carica L. Caricaceae. 35 sp. warm Am. C. Papaya L. (papaw), 
universally cult, in the trop. for its fr. The 1. and the unripe fr. 
contain a milky juice in which is the proteid-ferment papain, and in 
Ceylon, &c. it is collected for use in digestive salts. Meat wrapped 
in the 1. and buried becomes tender through a partial digestion of 
the fibres (Umney in Knv Bull. 1897). C. candamarcensis Hook, 
f. is also cult, in trop. mountains for its ed. fr. 

Caricaceae (EP.; Passifloraceae p.p. BH.}. Dicot. (Archichl. Parie- 
tales). 2 gen., 40 sp. trop. Am. Small trees, branched or not, with 
a term, crown of 1 , and milky juice. Fls. in loose infls., unisex. 
5-merous, C twisted in bud ; i with long C tube and 2 whorls intr. 
epipet. sta. ; ? with short tube, i- or 5-loc. ov. , short style, and 
C S stigmas : ov. cc anatr. on parietal plac. Berry. Endosp. 

Caricature pi. (Ceylon), Graptophyllum hortense Nees. 

Caries, decay. 

Carina, a keel, Leguminosae. 

Cariniana Casar. (Couralari Aubl. BH.}. Lecythidaceae. 7 trop. Am. 
Wood (jiquitiba) valuable. 

Carionia Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Phil. Is. 

Carissa L. (Anhiina Mill.). Apocynaceae (i. i). 20 sp. W. Afr. 
to Austr. Shrubs with branch thorns. C. Caraniias L. has 
ed. fr. 

Carlemannia Benth. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 3 Himal. 

Carlesia Dunn. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i China. 

Carlina L. Compositae (n). 20 Eur., Medit. C. vulgaris L. (carline- 
thistle) Brit. C. acauh's L. is the weather-thistle of the Alps, &c. 
The outer bracts of the involucre are prickly, the inner membranous 
and shining. They spread out like a star in dry air, but in damp 
weather bend inwards. 

Carline thistle, Carlina vulgaris L. 

Carlotea Arrucla. Inc. sed. 2 Brazil. 

Carlowrightia A. Gray. Acanth. (iv. B). 15 S.W. U.S., Mex., 

Carludovica Ruiz et Pav. Cyclanthaceae. 40 trop. Am. Habit that 
of a small palm (a few climbers) with short stem and fan 1., in whose 
axils arise the infls. Each is a cylindrical spadix, enclosed at first in 
a number of br., which fall off and leave it naked. Its surface is 


covered with fls. arranged as in the diagram (after Drude in Nat. Ffl. ; 
F= 9 , m= J , fl.J. The 

<? fl. has a rudimentary P, m m 

and oo sta., united below. m m F m m 

The 9 is sunk in and united m m m 

wiih the tissue of the spadix. F m m F 

It has 4 very long .-tds. and m m m 

4 stigmas corresponding to m m F m m 

the 4 plac. in the i-loc. ov. m m 

When the spadix opens the 

? fls. are ripe and the long stds. give a tangled appearance to the 
whole After a few days the stigmas cease to he receptive and the 
anthers open. Alterwanls the fls. drop and a multiple Ir. is formed, 
compo>ed of berries. 

The 1. of C. paltnata R. and P., gathered young, cut into thin 
strips and bleached, lorni the material of Panama l.ats. 

Carmenocania Wernham. Rubiaceae (i. 7). i trop. Am. 

Carmenta Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Carmichaelia R. Br. Legum. (in. 6). 20 N.Z., Lord Howe's I. 
X.. ro. with flat green stems (uhylloclades) and no green 1. (cf. 

Carminatia Mo9- Compositae (2). i Mex. 

Carnarvonia F. Muell. Proieaceae (n). i Queensland. 

Carnation, Dinnthus Caayophyllus L. 

Carna-uba, Cope mid a cerifera Mart 

Carnegiea Britton rt Rose (Lercus p.p.). Cactaceae (ill. i). i Texas 
( Cereus gk antetis, q.v.). 

Carnegiea Perkins Moniiniaceae. i New Caled. 

Carneus ( ), fi< sh-c<>louied. 

Carnivorous plants, see Insectivorous. 

Carnosus (I- at.), Heshy. 

Carob-tree, Ceratoma Siliqna L. 

Carolina allspice, Calycanthus ; -jasmine, Gelsenrium. 

Carolinea L. t. =Pachira Aubl. (BH.}= Bombax L. p.p. 

Carolinella Hemsl. Primulaceae. 3 China. 

CarolofritscMa Engl. Gesneriaceae (i). i trop. A^r. 

Caropodium Mapf. et \\ ettst. Umbel, (in. 5). i Persia. 

Caroxylon Thunb, Salsola L (Chenopod. ). 

Carp- (Gr. pref.), iruit ; -el, the megasporophyll of the fl., hearing the 
ovuU s. In ( .ymnospermae the ovule is exposed, but in Angiospermae 
the cpl. is infolded, and ihe uvules borne on thickened placentae. 
Cp s. may be free (apocarpous} or united (syncarpous}, in the latter 
case the ovary beinj^ uni- or multi-locular. 'I he tip nt the cpl. is the 
style, ending in the stigma ; -id diminutive of cpl. ; -ophore, Rosaceae, 
Umbel lijtrue ; -ophyll, carpel ; -OStrote (CL), pi. migrating by means 
of fr. ; -Otropic, cf. Movements. 

Carpacoce Sond Rubiaceae (n. 7*. 4 S. Afr. 

Carpentaria Becc. (Kmtia p.p. /'). Palmae (iv. i). i New Guin. 

Carpenteria 1 <>rr. Saxifragaceae (in), i sp. Calif. Like Philadelphus, 
but ov. sup. ; sta. oo , cpls. 5 7. 

Carpesium L. Compositae (4). 16 S. Eur., As. 


Carpet plant, lonopsidium acaule ; -weed (Am.), Mollugo. 

Carpha Banks et Soland. Cyperaceae (i). 48. temp. 

Carphalea Ju>s. Kubiaceae (i. 2). i Madag. 

Carphephorus Cass. Composi'ae (2). 5 E. U.S. 

Carphobolus Sch-itt= Piptocarpha K. Br. (Comp.) 

Carpnochaete A. Gray. Compositae (2). 4 S.W. U. S., Mex. 

Carpinus L. Betulaceae (i). 21 N. temp., chiefly E. As. C. Betitlus 
L. Brit, (hornbeam). The young 1. hang downwards as the shoot 
expands. The ? catkins are term, on long shoots, the cT are them- 
selves short shoots. In the axil of each scale of the latter are 4 12 
sta each split almost to the base. No bracteoles are present, so that 
it is doubtlul huw many rls. of the possible 3 (see fam.) are repies. 
In the there arc the 2 lat. fls. with all 6 biacieoles. On the top 
of the 2-loc. ovary is a small P. Fi. a i -seeded nut with a 3-lobed 
leafy wing on one side, whose centre lobe corresponds to the nract a 
or /3, the lat. lobes to the bra< teoles a', /3'; these unite and grow large 
after fert. The timber is little used. 

Carpoceras Link. = Thlaspi Tourn. (Crucif.). 

Carp^detus Foist. Saxiiragai eae (v). i New Zealand. 

Carpodinus R. Br. ex Sabine. Ap<>cyn. (i. i). 50 trop. Afr. Rubber 
is obtained by grating and boiling from the rhiz. of C. lanceolatus K. 
Sch. &c. (cf. Clitandra; Bot. Centr. 72, p. 116). 

Carpodiptera Griseb. Til aceae. 6 E Afr , Cuba. 

Carpolobia G. Don. Polygalaceae. 6 trop. W. Air. 

Carpolyza Salisb. (Hessea B^rg.). Amaryllidaceae (i). 4 S. Afr. 

Carponema Eckl. et Zeyh. Cruciferae (i). 4 S. Afr. 

Carpopogon Rox >. = Muruna Adans. (Legum.). 

Carpotroche Endl. Flacourtiaceae (2). 6 trop. Am. 

Carpoxylon H. Wendl. et Diude. 1'almae (iv. i). i New Hebrides. 

Carrichtera Adans. Cruciferae (2). i Medit. 

Carrierea Franch. Flacourtiaceae (4). i China. 

Carrion-flower (Am.), Smilax herbacea L, ; -flowers, fls. with a smell of 
carrion, visited esp. by carrion-loving flies, Amorphophallus, Araceae, 
Stapelia, &c. 

Carronia F. Muell. Menispermaceae. i New S. Wales. 

Carrot, Daucns Carola L. 

Carruthersia Seem. Apocynaceae (n. i). 4 Polynes a. 

Carsonia Greene (Cleomn p. p.). Cappaiid. (v). i N. Am. 

Cartagena bark, Cinchona cordifulia Mutis. 

Carteria Small. Orchidaceae (n. 2) i Florida, Bahamas. 

Cartnamus (Tourn.) L. Compositae (u). 25 Medit., Afr., As. C. 
tinctoruis L. (safflouer) cult, in Asia, &c. ; iis fls. are used in dyeing ; 
powdered and mixed with talc they form rouge. 

Cartiera Greene (St replant hits p.p.). Cru if (i). 6 N. Am. 

Cartilaginous, firm and tough ; endosp. of Liliaceac. 

Cartonema R. Br. Comm Imaceae. 6 irop. Austr. 

Carum Ru,jp. ex L (Btl. incl. Buniutn L.. f'eti-oseliniini Hoffm.). 
Umbelliferae (in. 5). 20 sp. ump. and sub-trop. 3 Brit., of which 
C. Larvi L. is ult. lor its fr. (caraway seeds). 

Caruncle, a small hard aril, Buxact'ae, Euphorbiaceae. 

Carvalhoa K. Schum. Apocynaceae (n. i). 2 E. trop. Afr. 

I 22 


Carya Nutt. Juglandaceae. losp. N. Am., the hickory trees, cultivated 
for their wood, which is very tough and elastic, and for the edible 
fruit (pecans, like walnuts). 

Caryocar Linn. Caryocaraceae. 10 sp. trop. Am. The wood is very 
durable and is used in ship-building. The fruit is a large 4-seeded 
drupe ; the seeds are the Souari- or Butter-nuts of commerce. 

Caryocaraceae (Rhizoboleae)(EP.; Temstroemiaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. 
(Archichl. Parietales). i gen., 15 sp. trop. Am. Trees and shrubs 
with ternate opp. or alt. 1. with deciduous slips. Fls. $ in racemes. 
K (5 6), C (5 6), A oo , united into a ring or in 5 bundles. G 4- 
or 8 2O-loc. with as many styles, i ov. in each loc. Usu. drupe 
with oily mesocarp, and woody endocarp which splits into 4 meri- 
carps ; sometimes a leathery schizocarp. Little or no endosp. Genera : 
Anthodiscus, Caryocar. 

Caryodendron Karst. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 2 trop. S. Am. 

Caryophyllaceae (EP. ; BH. excl. Illecebraceae or Paronychiaceae, and 
Scleranthaceae]. Dicots. (Archichl. Centrospermae). 60 gen., isoosp. 
cosmop. (many Brit.), mostly herbs, a few undershrubs, with opp. 
simple usu. entire 1., often stip. ; the stem often swollen at the nodes, 
the branching dich. The infl. usu. term, the main axis and is typically 
a dich. cyme, but both in the veg. region and in the infl., of the two 
branches arising at any node, one (that in the axil of /3) tends to out- 
grow the other and after two or three branchings the weaker one 
often does not develope at all, so that a cincinnus arises. The whole 
infi. is very char., and such an one is often called a caryophyllaceous 

Fls. 5 and reg., but often not isomerous. As a type, the formula 
of Lychnis may serve : K (5), C 5, A 5 + 5, G (5), with free central 
plac., uniloc. Ov. usu. ao , in double rows corresponding to the 

Floral diagrams of (i) Silene in_flata and (2) Paronychia sfi. (after Eichler), 
showing the ordinary type of fl. in Silenoideae and the most reduced type of 
Alsinoideae; a, |3 = bracteoles. 

cpls. , rarely few or i (Paronychieae), usu. campylotropous. In most 
cases the fl. is obdiplost. as may be recognised by the cpls. (when 5) 
being opp. the petals. Frequently, reduction of the number of parts 
occurs, e.g. G (3) or (2) or rarely (4); A 4 + 4, or 5, 3, 2, or i, and 
in other cases the C may abort (Sagina sp., Herniaria, &c.). The 
ovary, sta., and corolla are sometimes borne on an androphore 


(e.g. Lychnis), an elongation of the axis between K and C. The 
petals sometimes have a ligule (e.g. Lychnis), and are often bifid. 
At the base of the ovary are often seen traces of the septa, which 
in the upper part do not develope ; in some cases the plac. is 

Biologically, as well as morphologically, the fam. forms two 
distinct groups, a higher type, the Silenoideae, and a lower, the Alst- 
noideae. All secrete honey at the base of the sta., but while in the A. 
the fl. is wide open, so that short-tongued insects can reach the honey, 
in the S. a tube is formed by the gamosepalous K ; in this stand the 
claws of the petals and the sta., partly filling it up, and rendering 
the honey inaccessible to any but long-tongued insects, esp. bees and 
Lepidoptera. The latter class, esp. in the Alps (see Miiller's Alpen- 
btumen), are the chief visitors, and many of the S. are adapted to them 
by length of tube, red and white colours, night-flowering in many 
sp., or emission of scent only at night, &c. The fls. are commonly 
protandr. Many A. are gynodioec. (cf. Labiatae). 

Fr. usu. a caps, containing several or oo seeds. It opens in nearly 
all cases by splitting from the apex into teeth which bend outwards, 
leaving an opening." The splitting may take place in as many, or in 
twice as many, lines as cpls. The seeds cannot escape from the capsule 
unless it be shaken, e.g. by wind or animals, and being small and 
light have a good chance of distr. Embryo usu. curved round the 
perisperm (in a few cases nearly straight). 
Classification and chief genera (after Pax) : 

I. ALSINOIDEAE (flr. polysepalous ; sta. often perig.). 

a. Fruit a capsule opening by teeth. 

1. Alsineae (styles free to base ; 1. exstip.) : Stellaria, Ceras- 

tium, Sagina, Arenaria. 

2. Spergiileae (do., but 1. stip.) : Spergula, Spergularia. 

3. Polycarpeae (styles joined at base) : Drymaria, Polycarpon. 

b. Fruit an achene or nut. 

4. Paronychieae (fls. all alike ; stipules) : Corrigiola, Paro- 

nychia, Illecebrum, Herniaria. 

5. Dysphanieac (do., but 1. exstip. alt.) : Dysphania. 

6. Scleranthcae (do., exstip. opp.) : Scleranthus. 

7. Pterantheae (fls. in 3's, the 2 lat. abortive) : Pteranthus. 

II. SILENOIDEAE (fl. gamosepalous, hypog.) : 

1. Lychnideae (calyx with commissural ribs) : Silene, Lychnis. 

2. Diantheae (no commissural ribs) : Gypsophila, Dianthus. 
BH. separate off groups I, 4 7 as an independent fam. Illecebra- 

ceae (Monochlam. Curvembryae), retaining the rest (Caryophylleae) in 
Polypetalae Caryophyllinae. This is an unnatural separation of closely 
allied groups. See discussion of relationships of these tarns, in Nat. Pft. 
(Cary"phyllaceae, p. 68). 

Caryophyllata Tourn. = Geum Tourn. (Rosac.). 

Caryophyllatus (Lat.), with long claw. 

Caryophylleae (J3H.}. See above. 

Caryophyllinae (BH.}. The 41)1 cohort of Polypetalae. 

Caryophyllus L. = Eugenia L. (//ZT.)=Jambosa DC. p.p. (Myrt.). 

Caryopitys Small (Pinus p.p.). Pinaceae. 2 N. Am. 


Caryopsis, achene with pericarp and testa united, Gramineae. 

Caryopteris Bungi . Verbenaceae (5). 5 Himal. to Japan. 

Caryospermum Blume (PerrotMia p.p. EP.). Celas't. 3 Indomal. 

Caryota L. Palmae (iv. i). 10 Indomal. Stem columnar; 1. bi- 
piunate. Infl. of a number of equal branches hanging down like a 
brush. They appear in descending order, the oldest in the ciown, 
the younger lower down in the axils of the old leaf-sheaths. Fls. in 
groups of 3, one between two <? . Sta. 9 oo . Cpl- i. Berry. 
C. urens L. (toddy palm) cult.; it yields palm sugar (see Arenga), 
sago (-ee Metroxylon), Kitul libre, wood, &c. 

Casasia A. Rich. Kubiaceae (i. 8). 5 W.I. 

Cascara sagrada, Rhannius Purshiana DC. 

Cascarilla \\edd. (Ladenbtrgia p.p. h.P.]. Rubiaceaefi. 4). 208. Am. 
The bark of some resembles that of Cinchi na (see also Croion), UU 
the amount of alkaloid is small. 

Cascarilla bark. Croton Camarilla Benn., Cascarillu. 

Cascaronia Grisek Leguminosae (m. 6). i Argentina. 

Casearia Jacq. Flacouniaceae (7) (Samydaceae BH.}. 150 trop. 
C. pnn-cojc Grisel). (Cuba, trop. S. Am.), W.I. box (useful wood). 

Caseola Xor Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Cashaw (W.I.), Prosopts. 

Cashew nut Anacardium occidentale L. 

Casimirella Has*ler. Icacinaceae. i Paraguay. 

Casimiroa La Llave. Rutaceae (iv). 5 Cent. Am. Ed. fr. 

Casparya Klotzsch = Begonia L. p.p. (Begon.). 

Cassandra D. Don (Lyonia p.p. EP.). Erica . (n. i). i N. temp. 

Cassireep, Mam hot. 

Cassava, Manihot. 

Cassebeera Kaull. =Cheilanthes, Pellaea, &c. (Polypod.). 

Cassebeeria Dennst. (Soneriia Roxb.). Melast. (i). 60 warm As. 

Casselia Nees et Mart. Verbenaceae (i). 6 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Cassia I'oum. ex L. Lrguminosae (n. 5). 4 oo trop. and warm temp, 
(exc. Eur.). Trees, shrubs and herbs with paripinnale 1. and slips. 
of various types. El. -|-, but \\iih petals almost equal in size. The 
sta. may be 10, but the .{ upper ones are usu. reduced to stds. or 
absent. The anthers usu. open by pores. The 5 upper sta. are 
generally short, the 2 lower are long and project outwards In many 
two forms of fl. occur, one in which the lower sta. project to the leit, 
the other in wh ch they project to the light. It was once thought 
that \\\\senan(iostyly\va.-, a kind of lieteroMyli->rn, but Loth types oi fl. 
occur on one plant. It ould appear to be simply a case ol variation 
in symmetry (cf. Exacum, Saintpaulia). In many sp. a division of 
labour takes place among the sta. (cf. Heeria); the insect visitors 
eat the pollen of the short sta. and carry away on their bodies that 
ot the long. I here is no honey. Fr. often chambered up by -false' 
sepia rum i g across it outgrowths from the placenta. 

Many cult, for the 1.. which when dried form the drug senna. 
Alexandrian senna from C. aciitilotia Delile, Italian C. obovata 
Collad., Arabian C. anguslifolia Vahl. C. Fistula L. (purg ng Cassia, 
pudding pipe tree) has its setds embedded in laxative pulp. 

Cassia bark, Cinnaniotnum Cassia Blume ; -broom, Cassia. 


Cassida Tourn. ex Adans. = Scutellaria Riv. (Labial.). 

Cassidispermum Hemsl. Sapotaceae. i Solomon Is. 

Cassie flowers, Acacia Farnesiana Willd. 

Cassine L. Ceiastraceae. 40 S. Afr., Madag. C. crocea Presl yields 

Cassinia R. Br. Compositae (4). 20 S. Afr , Austr., N.Z. 

Cassinopsis Sond. Icacinaceae (Olacin. Bff.}. 4 S. Afr., Madag. 

Cassiope D. Don. Eric. (11. i). 7 boreal. L. much rolled back (see 
fam ; cf. Empetrum); in C'. Redo%vskii G. Don it is hollow. 

Cassipourea Aulil. Rh zophoraceae. 10 trop. Am. 

Cassupa Humb. et Bonpl. Rubi<ceae (I. 7). 2 N.W. S. Am. 

Cassytha L. Lauraceae (n). 15 palaeotr. p. Parasites with the habit 
01 Cuscuta. 

Castalia Salisb. = Nymphaea L. p.p. (C. speciosa Salisb. = N. alba). 

Castanea Tourn. ex L. (incl. Castanopsis Spach). Fagacene. 

C. vulgaris Lam. {saliva Mill.) is the chestnut. The- S fls. are in 
dich. of 3 7, the ? in groups of 3, yie ding $ nuts, enclosed in tr<e 
prickly cupule (cf. others of fam. and Aesculus). Fr ed.; useful 
wood and bark (used in tanning). See fam. for fl. diagram. 

Castanella Spruce (Paullinia p.p. EP.}. Sapind. (i). i Brazil. 

Castaneous, chestnut-coloured. 

Castanopsis Spach (Cas/anea p.p. EP.). Fagaceae. 25 trop. As. 

Castanospermum A. Cunn. Leguminosae(in. i). i sub-trop. Austr., 
C. australe A. Cunn. (Australian ches'nut), has ed. seeds. 

Castanospora F. Muell. Sapindaceae (i). i warm E. Au*tr. 

Castela Turp. Simarubaceae. 12 C. and S. Am., W.I. 

Castelaria Small. Simarubaceae. 8 W.I. to California. 

Castelnavia Tul. et Wedd. Podostemice e. 7 Brazil. 

Castilleja Muiis. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). 31 N. Am., As , S. Am. 
(painted lady, paint-brush) The upper 1., or .sometimes only their 
outer ends, are brightly coloured, adding to the conspicuousness of 
the fls. (cf. Cornus, Poinsettia, &c.). 

Castilloa Cervant. Moraceae (n). 3 trop. Am., Cuba. The latex of 
C. elastica G.TV yields caoutchouc (C. American or Panama rubber, 
Caucho, Ule; cf Hevea, &c.). 

Castor oil. Ricinus communis L. 

Castratella Naud. Meiastomaceae (i). i Colombia. 

Casual, an occasional weed of cultivation, not naturalised. 
Casuarina Linn. Casuarinaceae. 35 Austr., Polynes.. &c. Trees, 
often of weeping habit, with long slender green b anches, cylindrical 
and deeplygrocved. At the nodes are borne whorls of scale 1. like those 
of Equisetum. The stomata and green tissue are at the bases of the 
grooves, whilst the ridges are formed of sclerenchyma, so that the 
plant is markedly xero. Fls. unisex. The <f are borne in term, 
spikes on short lat. branches. The internodes are short and at every 
node is a cup (formed of the combined bracts) with several sta. 
hanging out over the edge. Each repres. a rf fl. and has a 2-lenved 
P and 2 bracteoles. The ? rls. are borne in dense spherical heads. 
Each is naked in the axil of a bract, has i bracteoKs, and consists 
of 2 cpls., syncp., the post. loc. empty, the ant. containing 2 or more 
ov. The long styles hang out beyond the bracts and wind-fert 


occurs. Afterwards the whole head becomes woody (bracts as well) 
enclosing the ripening seeds. The seed is winged and is enclosed in 
the woody bracteoles. The wood (beef- wood) is valued for its hard- 
ness; several sp. are used, known in Austr. as she-oak, forest-oak, 
&c. The green shoots are used as fodder for catlle. 

Casuarinaceae (EP., BH.}. Uicots. (Archichl. Verticil.; Unisexuales 
BH.}. Only genus Casuarina (e/.v.). The place to be assigned to 
this fam. in the natural Astern has been much disputed. Its nearest 
allies seem to be Betulaceae. In 1891 Treub discovered the chalazp- 
gamic fert. (cf. Ckalazogamae) and proposed to remove it from its 
place near the B. Later discoveries however show that these pi. too 
are chalazogamic, as also Juglans, and thus C. may still be kept beside 

Casuarineae (BH. ) = preceding. 

Casuariniflorae (Warming). The 2nd cohort of Choripetalae. 

Cat-brier (Am.), Smilax; -claw (W.I.), Bignonia Unguis-cati L. ; 
-mint, -nip, Nepeta Cataria L.; -'s ear, Hypochaeris\ -'s foot, 
Antennaria ; -'s tail, Typha. 

Catabrosa Beauv. Giamineae (10). 7 temp, (i Brit.). 

Catalpa Scop. Bignoniaceae (2). 10 Am., E. As. C. bignonioiJes 
Walt. (cult. orn. tree) yields a durable timber. 

Catamixis Thorns. Compositae (12). i Himal. 

Catananche L. Compositae (13). 5 Medit. 

Catanthera F. Muell. Ericaceae (in. i). i New Guinea. 

Cataphyllary leaves, scales. 

Catapodium Link. (Feslttca p.p. BH.}. Gramin. (to). 2 Medit. 

Catappa Gaertn. = Terminalia L. p.p. (Combret.). 

CatasetumRich. Orchidaceae (n. r i). 40 trop. Am. Epiph. 3 widely 
different forms occur on different (or sometimes on the same) stocks. 
Long regarded as separate gen., it is now known that they are all 
forms of C. The old genus C. is the g form, Myanthus Lindl. the 
$ and Monachanthus Lindl. the ? . The label 1 urn is uppermost in 
the fl. The pollinia are ejected with violence when one of the horns 
of the column is touched. (Darwin's Orchids, p. 178 ; Rolfe in Linn. 
Soc. Journ., 27, 1890.) 

Catch-fly, Lychnis, Silene. 

Catechu, Acacia Catechu Willd. 

Catesbaea L. Ruhiaceae (i. 8). 10 W. Ind. 

Catha Forsk. Celastraceae. i Arabia, Afr., C. edulis Forsk. The 1. 
are used by Arabs like tea, under the name Khat or Cafta. 

Catha G. Don = Celastrus L. (Celastr.). 

Cathartolinum Reichb. (Lininn p.p.). Linaceae. 50 N. Am. 

Cathastrum Turcz. (Plenrostylia hP.). Celastr. i S. Afr. 

Cathcartia Hook. f. Papaveraceae (n). 2 Himal., China. 

Cathedra Miers. Olacaceae. 5 Brazil. 

Cathestecum J. Prt-sl. Gramineae (10). 2 Mex., Texas. 

Catis O. F. Cook (Euterpe p.p. EP.). Palmae (iv. i). i Brazil. 

Catjang, dhal, Cajanus indicus Spreng. 

Catkin, a pendulous spike, Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Salicaceae. 

Catoblastus H. Wendl. Palmae (iv. i). 3 trop. S. Am. 

Catocoryne Hook. f. Melastomaceae (i). i Peru. 


Catonia I'. Br. Inc. sed. i Jamaica. 

Catonia Raf. Inc. sed. i habitat ? 

Catonia Veil. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Catopheria Benth. Labiatae (vni). 3 trop. Am. 

Catophractes D. Don. Bignoniaceae (2). i trop. Afr. 

Catopsis Griseb. Bromeliaceae (i). 15 W.I. , Mex., Andes. 

Catosperma Benth. Goodeniaceae. i trop. Austr. 

Catostemrna Benth. Bombacaceae. i Guiana. 

Cattleya Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 30 trop. Am., largely cult.; 
showy fls. The label luin encloses the column but is not united to it. 
From its base a nectary runs down into the ovary. The action of the 
parts of the fl. is like that of Epipactis (Darwin, Orchids, p. 143). 

Cattleyopsis Lem. (Laelia p.p. EP.}. Orchid, (n. 6). 2 W.I. 

Catutsjeron Adans. (Holigania Buch.-Ham.). Anacardiaceae (4). 
5 Indomal. 

Caucalis L. (incl. Torilis Adans.). Umbelliferae (in. 2). 8 N. temp., 
5 Brit, (hedge-parsley, &c. ). 

Caucanthus Forsk. Malpighiaceae (i). 3 E. Afr., Arabia. 

Cauda, a tail-like appendage ; -tus (Lat), tailed. 

Caudex, a trunk or stock. 

Caudicle, cf. Orchidaceae. 

Caul- (Lat. pref.), stem; -escens (Lat.), with obvious stem; -icle, 
a diminutive stalk ; -iflory, production of fl. from old stems, Arto- 
carpus, Averrhoa, Clavija, Crescentia, Cynometra, Fzcns, Goethea, 
R'igelia, TJteobroma, Theophrasta; -ine, on the stem; -caulis (Lat. 
suff.), -stemmed; -ocarpic, fruiting repeatedly; -ome, organ of stem 

Caulanthus S. Wats. Cruciferae (i). 8 W. U.S. C. procerus Wats, 
(wild cabbage) ed. 

Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea L. var. 

Caulinia DC.- Posidonia Koen. p.p.; do. Willd. = Naias L. p.p. 

Caulophyllum Michx. (Leontice p.p. EP.). Berb. 2 N.E. As., N. Am. 

Caustis R. Br. Cyperaceae (n). 7 Austr. 

Cautleya Royle (Roscoea p.p. BH.). Zingib. (i). 3 Himal. 

Cavaleriea Leveille. Hamamelidaceae. i China. 

Cavanillesia Ruiz et Pav. Bombacaceae. 2 S. Am. 

CavendisMa Lindl. Ericaceae (in. 2). 30 trop. Am. 

Cayaponia Silva Vlanso. Cucurbitaceae (3). 70 warm Am., Afr. 

Cayenne pepper, Capsicum annuinn L. 

Caylusea A. St Hil. Resedaceae. 2 E. Afr. to India. 

Ceanothus L. Rhamnaceae. 40 Am., often cult. orn. shrubs. 

Ceara rubber, Manihot Glaziovii Muell.-Arg. 

Cebu hemp, Manila hemp, Musa textilis Nee. 

Cecropia L. Moraceae (in). 45 trop. Am. Trees of rapid growth, 
with very light wood, used for floats, &c. Infl. a very complex cyme 
(see Bot. Centr. 57, p. 6). C. pultata L. is the trumpet tree, so called 
from the use made of iis hollow stems by the Uaupes Indians (Wallace, 
Amaz. ch. XII). The hollows are often inhabited by fierce ants 
(Azteca sp.) which rush out if the tree be shaken, and attack the 
intruder. Schimper has made an investigation of this symbiosis (or 


living together for mutual benefit) of plant and animal, showing that 
there is here a true case of myrmec' >phily as in Acacia sphaerocephala 
(q.v.}. These ants protect the C. from the leaf-cutter ants. The 
internodes are hollow but do not communicate directly with the air. 
Near the top of each however is a thin place in the wall. A gravid 
? ant burrows through this and brings up her brood inside the stem. 
The base of the leaf-stalk is swollen and hears lood bodies (cf. Acacia) 
on the lower side, upon which the ants feed. New ones form as the 
old are eaten. Several other sp. show similar features. An interesting 
point, that goes to show the adaptive nature of these phenomena, is 
that in one sp. the stem is covered with wax which prevents the leaf- 
cutters fn m climbing up, and there are neither food-bodies nor the 
thin places in the internodes. 

Cedar, < ed> ela, Ceitnts, 7'oona, &c. ; Atlantic, Cednts atlnntica 
Manetti; Australian red-, Toona; bastard-, Chicki-assia (W. I.), 
Giiazunia tomentosa H. B. K. ; '&erm\id.&-,JiinJfeinsbeinid'ana\ J .; 
Japanese-, Cr\ptonieria\ of Lebanon, Cfdrns; Oregon-, Cttpressiis 
Lawson/anah.. Murr. ; pencil-, Ju >n ferns; r^-.Junipei us: Siberian-, 
Pimti Ceinbra L. ; W. ndian-, Cedrela; white-, Chamaecyparis, 
Chtckrassia, l.ibocedms', yellow-, Chainaecyfaris; -wood, I oona. 

Cedrela P. Bi. (BH. incl Toona, q.v.}. Meliaceae. 100 trop. Am. 
Many yield valuable timber, e.g. C. odorata L. , the West Indian 
Cedar, used in cigar-boxes. 

Cedrelopsis Baill. Meliaceae (i). i Madng. 

Cedronella Riv. Labiatae (vi). i Canaries. Madeira. 

Cedrus ( I our '.) Mill, i on i ferae (Pinaceae; see C. for gen char.). 3, 
C. I ibani Barrel. (Cedar 01 Lebanon), C. a lantica Manetti (Atlantic 
Cedar; Algeria) and C. Deo^ara Loud. (Deodar; Him.d., gre- 
garious, and reaching to 40 ft in girth) ; all probably vars. of one sp. 
Handsome evergreen tret-s (often planted for orn.) with needle 1 and 
long and short shoots ; the latter m;iy grow for several years and even 
dtvelope into long shoots. Fls. sol , in the position of short shoots. 
The cone ripens in 2 3 years. Wood durable and valued for 
building, &c. 

Ceiba Gaertn. (Bomhax L. p.p.; Eriolendron DC. EP ). Bombac. 
10 trop. Am. C. penlandra Gaertn. is the silk-cotton (cf. Erio- 
d end ion). 

Celandine. Ranunculus Ficaria L. ; greater-, Chelidoninm majiis L. ; 
W. Indian, Bouonia. 

Celastraceae (/'., A'//.). Dicots. (Archichl. Sapindales; Celastrales 
BH.}. 38 gen. with 280 sp., trop. and temp. Trees or shrubs with 
simple, often lenthery, 1. and cymose (rarely racemose) infl. Kl. 
small, reg., usu. ? . K 4 5, free or united, C4 -5. There is usu. 
a well marked disc, on the upper side or edge of which are borne 4 
5 strt. G (2 5), usu. with as many loculi, sometimes partly sunk in 
the disc. Ovules generally i in each loc., usu. erect, anatr. or apoir. 
Fr. a loculic. caps., samara, drupe, berry or indehi. caps. Seed usu. 
with brightly Coloured aril. Endosp. usu. present. C hi ej genera: 
Euonymus, Celastrus. Cassine. 

Celastrales (BH.}. The Qth cohort of Polypetalae. 

Celastrineae (BH.} = Celastraceae. 


Celastrus L. Celastraceae. 30 trop. and suhtrop. Climbing shrubs 
with fruit like Eiionymus. 

Celebnia Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Celeriac, A pi it in g'-avtolens L. var. rapacfiini. 

Celery, Af>ium graveolens L. ; -pine, Phyltocladus. 

Cellulose, the carbohydrate of which cell walls are composed. 

Celmisia Cass. Compositae (3). 27 N.Z., Austr., &c. 

Celome Greene (Cleome L. p.p.). Capparid. (v). i N. Am. 

Celosia L. Amarantaceae (i). 35 trop. and temp., most interesting 
C. cristata L., the cock's-comb, a cult, (but now hereditary) mon- 
strosity, in which fasciation of the fls. of the infl. occurs. 

Celsa Veil. Zygophyllaceae. i Brazil. 

Celsia L. Scrophulariaceae (i. i). 40 Medit, Afr., As. 

Celtidaceae = Ulmaceae p.p. 

Celtis Tourn. Ulmaceae. 75 *. Like Ulmus, but with intr. anthers, 
drupe, and curved embryo. Fr. of nettle-tree (C. australis L.) ed.; 
wood useful for turning ; tree used as (odder in India. 

Cenarrlienes Labill. Proteaceae (i). i Tasmania. 

Cenchropsis Nash (Cenchnts p.p.). Gram. (5). i N. Am. 

Cenchrus L. Gramineae (5). 15 trop. and warm temp. Spikelet sur- 
rounded by invol. of sterile spikelets, which in some sp. become hard 
and prickly, surrounding the fr. and acting as a means of distribution 
by animals (cf. Tribulus, &c.). C. tribuloitles L. is a very troublesome 
pest in the wool-growing districts of N. Am. 

Cenia Comm. ex Juss. (CotiiLi p.p. EP.). Compositae (7). 9 S. Afr. 

Cenocentrum Gagnep. Malvaceae, i Indochina. 

Cenolophium Koch (Sdinuin p.p. BH.}. Umbel, (in. 5). i Eur., As. 

Cenostigma Tul. Leguminosae (n. 8). 3 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Censer-mechanism, Aconititm, and cf. Seed-dispersal. 

Centaurea L. Compositae (n). 600 cosmop., chiefly Medit. ; several 
Brit. e.g. C. nigra L. (knapweed), C. Scabiosa L., C. Cyanus L. 
(blue-bottle or cornflower). In the last two the outer fls. are neuter 
with enlarged C (cf. Hydrangea). C. Calritrapa L. (star-thistle) has 
long spiny invol. br. The fl. of C. shows the usual construction but 
the sta. are sensitive to contact and when touched (e.g. by insects 
probing) contract, thus forcing out the pollen at the top of tube. In 
C. montana L. and others there is a nectary on each br. of the invol. 
Numbers of ants are thus attracted. 

Centaurium Gilib. (Erythraea Borkh.). Gent. (i). 30 N. Am. 

Centaurodendron Johow. Compositae (n). i Juan Fernandez. 

Centauropsis Boj. Compositae (t). 3 Madagascar. 

Centaury, Erythraea Centaurium Pers. 

Centella L. (Hydrocotyle p.p. BH.}. Umbel, (i. i). 20 S. Afr. to As. 

Centema Hook. f. Amarantaceae (2). 5 trop. Afr. 

Centemopsis Schinz. Amarantaceae (2). 3 S. and trop. Afr. 

Centipeda Lour. Compositae (7). 5 Chili, Madag. , trop. As., Austr. 

Centotheca Desv. Gramineae (jo). 3 trop. As., Afr. 

Centradenia G. Don. Melastomaceae (i). 4 Mexico, Cent. Am. 
C. rosea Lindl. shows habitual anisophylly. 

Centradeniastrum Cogn. Melastomaceae (i). i Peru. 

Centranthera R. Br. Scrophular. (in. 2). 5 trop. As., China, Austr. 

w. y 


Centrantheropsis Boniti. Scrophular. (in. 2). i China. 

Centranthus DC. Valerianaceae. 12 Medit., Eur. C. rub>r DC. 
(red spur-valerian) cult. orn. C spurred at the base ; at the end of 
the spur honey is secre'ed. The tube of the C has a partition dividing 
it into two, one containing the style, the other, lined with downward- 
pointing hairs, leading to the spur. Fl. protandr. ; only long-tongued 
insects can obtain honey. 

Centratherum Cass. Compositae (i). 15 trop. 

Centric (1.), circular in section, with tissues distr. evenly all round, 
Alii tun, Bobartia, Eleocharis,Juncus, Littorella. 

Centrifugal, away from centre; -petal, towards centre. 

Gen'rilla Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Cuba. 

Centrocarpha D. Don = Rudbeckia L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Centroglossa Barb. Rodr. (Zygostates Lindl. EP.). Orchidaceae (n. 
19) 5 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Centrolepidaceae (EP., BH.). Monocotyledons (Farinosae; Glumaceae 
BH.). 6 gen. ,32 sp. Austr., N.Z., S. Am., Polynes., S.E. As. Small 
grass-like herbs with spikes of small fls. , $ or unisex., naked or with 
i 3 hair-structures round them. A i 2, G i oo , each with one 
pend. orthotr. ov. Chief genus: Centrolepis. 

Centrolepis Lahill. Centrolepidaceae. 20 Austr., E. As. 

Centrolobium Mart. Leguminosae (ill. 7). 3 trop. Am. Pod winged. 
C. robiistum Mart, yields good timber (zebra wood). 

Centromadia Greene (Hemizonia p-p.). Compos. (5). 5 Calif. 

Centronia D. Don. Melastomaceae (i). 15 trop. Am. 

Centropetalum Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 4 Andes. 

Centroplacus Pierre. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i trop. Afr. 

Centropogon Presl. Campanulaceae (in). 90 trop. Am., W.I. 

Centrosema Benth. (Bradbnrya EP.}. Legum. (ill. 10). 30 Am. 

Centrospennae. The ijth order of Dicots. (Archichl.). 

Cen'rostegia A. Gray. Polygonaceae (i. i). 2 California. 

Centrostigma Schlechter. Orchid, (n. i). 3 Nyassaland. 

Cen'unculus Dill, ex L. Primul. 3 temp, and subtrop., i Brit. 

Century, set of 100 dried plants. 

Century plant, Agave americana L. 

Cepa (Tourn.) L. = Allium Tourn. (Lili.). 

Cephaelis Sw. (Uragoga L. EP.). Rubiaceae (n. 5). 130 trop., esp. 
Brazil. For ipecacuanha cf. Uragoga. 

Cephal- (Gr. pref. ), head. 

Cephalacantnus I indau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Peru. 

Cephalandra Schrad. = Coccinia Wight et Arn. (Cucurb.). 

Cephalanthera Rich Orchidaceae (n. 2). 10 N. temp., 3 Brit. No 
rostellum ; the pollen germinates in situ, fertilising its own stigma 
(Darwin, Orchids, p. 80). The lat. stds (see fam.) are easily seen. 
Darwin regards C. as a degraded Epipactis (cf. Cephalopipactis). 

Cephalanthus L. Rubiaceae (I. 6). 8 warm countries. 

Cephalaralia Harms. Araliaceae (2). i Austr. 

Cephalaria Schrad. Dipsacaceae. 35 Medit., Afr. 

Cephalipterum A. Gray. Compositae (4). i S. and W. Austr. 

Cephalobembix Rydberg. Compositae (6). i Mexico. 

Cephalocarpus Nees. Cyper. (n). i Brazil. Habit of Dracaena. 


Cephalocereus Pfeiff. (em. K. Schum.; Cereus Mill. p.p. BH,}. 
Cactaceae (in. i). 24 Brazil, Mexico. 

Cephalocroton Hochst. Euphorh. (A. n. 4). 6 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Cephalocrotonopsis Pax (preceding, pp.). Euph. (A. n. 4). i Socotra. 

Cephalomappa Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). i Borneo. 

Cephalomedinilla Merrill. Melastomaceae (i). i Phil. Is. 

Cephalonema K. Schum. Tiliaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Cephalopappus Nees et Mart. Compositae (12). i Bahia. 

Cephalophilum Bonier (Polygoniini p.p.)- Polyg. (n. 2). i N. Am., 
N. As. 

Cephalophora Cav. (Helenium p.p. EP.}. Compos. (6). 12 temp. 
S. Am. 

Cephalopipactis x Aschers. et Graebn. Orchid. Hybrid between 
Cephalanthera and Epipactis. 

Cephalosphaera Warb. (Brochoneura p.p.). Myristic. i trop. Afr. 

Cephalostachyum Munro. Gramineae (13). 8 Indomal., Madag. 

Cephalostemon K. Schomb. Rapateaceae. i Brazil, Guiana. 

Cephalostigma A. DC. Campanulaceae (i). 7 trop. 

Cephalotaceae (EP.\ Saxifragaceae p.p. BH.}. Uicots. (Archichl. 
Kosales). Only genus Cephalotus (q-v.}~ 

Cephalotaxus Sieb. et Zucc. Coniferae (Taxaceae ; see C. for gen. 
char.). C. Fortunei Hook. cult. orn. shrub. All shoots of unlimited 
growth. Fls. dioec., the <J in heads in the axils of the 1. of the pre- 
ceding year, the ? stalked, of several pairs of 1. each with a short 
axillary shoot bearing two ov. Seeds i 2, with fleshy aril. 

Cephalotomandra Karst. et Triana (Pisonia L. p.p. EP.}. Nycta- 
ginaceae. i Colombia. 

Cephalotus La bill. Cephalot. i in marshes at King George's Sound, 
W. Austr. C.follicularis Labill. An interesting pi. with pitchers 
like Nepenthes or Sarracenia, though not nearly related to either. 
The lower 1. of the rosette form pitchers, the upper are flat and green 
(cf. this division of labour with that in N. and S-), the rhiz. annually 
producing both. The pitcher has much the structure of N. and catches 
insects in the same way. Fl. $ , apetalous, reg. ; P 6, valvate ; A 6 + 6 ; 
G 6, or united, each with i (rarely 2) basal erect anatr. ov. with 
dorsal raphe. Follicle with i seed ; embryo small in fleshy endosp. 

Ceramanthus Malme (Sarcostemma p.p.). Ascl. (u. i). 2 S. Am. 

Ceranthera Ellis. Labiatae (vi). 2 S.E. U.S. 

Ceraria Pearson et E. L. Stephens. Portulac. 3 S. Afr. 

Cerasee (W.I.), Momordica. 

Cerasin, an insoluble constituent of gums, merely swelling in water; 

Cerasiocarpum Hook. f. Cucurbit. (2). i Malay Arch., Ceylon. 

Cerastium (Dill.) L. (incl. Moenchia Ehrh.). Caryophyllaceae (i. i). 
100 N. temp., 5 or more Brit, (mouse-ear chickweed). 

Cerasus (Tourn. ) L. Prunus L. C. Avium Moench., Laurocerasus 
Loisel., lusitanicus Loisel., Padus Delarb. = P. Avium, &c. ; C. vul- 
garis Mill. = P. Cerasus. 
Cerat- (Gr. pref. ), horn. 

Ceratandra Eckl. Orchidaceae (n. i). 9 S. Afr. 
Ceratandropsis Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. i). i S.W. Cape Col. 



Ceratiola Michx. Empetraceae. i All. N. Am. 

Ceratiosicyos Nees. Achariaceae. i S. Afr. 

Ceratites Soland. ex Miers. Apocyn. (i. 3). i Rio de Janeiro. 

Ceratocarpus Buxh. ex L. Chenopod. (A), i Persia, Alghan. 

Ceratocaryum Nees (Willdenowia EP.). Restiaceae. 10 S. Afr. 

Ceratoceprialus Moench. = Ranunculus L. p.p. (Ranunc.). 

Ceratochaete Lunell (Zizania p.p.). Gramin. (6). i N. Am. 

CeratocMlus Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 4 Indomal. 

Ceratochloa Beauv. = Bromus Dill. p.p. (Gram.). 

Ceratocnemum Coss. et Balansa (Rapistrum p.p. EP.). Cruciferae (2). 
i Morocco. 

Ceratodiscus Batalin (Corallodiscus p.p. EP.). Gesn. (i). i Chi. 

Ceratogyne Turcz. Compositae (7). i W. temp. Austr. 

Ceratolacis Wedd. Podostemaceae. i Brazil. 

Ceratolobus Blume. Palmae (in. 2). 2 Malay Arch. 

Ceratominthe Briq. Labiatae (vi). 2 Andes. 

Ceratonia L. Leguininosae (n. 5). i Medit., C. Siliqiia L. (carob- 
tree). The pods (Algaroba, St John's bread) are full of juicy pulp 
containing sugar and gum, and are used for fodder. The seeds are 
said to have been the original of the carats of jewellers. 

Ceratopetalum Smith Cunon. 2 E. Austr. Light timber. 

Ceratophyllaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Ranales; Mono- 
chlam. BH.). Only genus Ceratophyllum (q.v.). As usu. with water- 
plants it is difficult to decide upon a position for the C. in the classi- 
fication. The one free cpl. and several P leaves seem to place them 
in Ranales, and they are distinguished from Nymphaeaceae by the 
orthotr. ov. , whorled 1., &c. Eichler placed them in Urticinae". 

Ceratophylleae (BH. ) = preceding. 

Ceratophyllum L. Ceratophyllaceae. 3 cosmop. ; C. demersum L. and 
C. submerstini L. Brit, (hornworts). Water-pi., rootless, with thin 
stems and whorls of much-divided submerged 1. The pi. decays 
behind as it grows in front, so that veg. repr. occurs by the setting 
free of the branches. The old 1. are translucent and horny, whence 
the name. Winter buds are not formed, the pi. merely sinking in 
autumn and rising in spring. 

Fls. monoec., axillary, sessile, with sepaloid P. In the <? , P 
about (12), hypog. ; A 12 16 on convex recept., with oval non- 
cutinised pollen. In the ?, P (9 10), hypog.; G i, the midrib 
anterior; ovule i, orthotr., pend. Achene crowned by the persistent 
style, which in C. demersum is hooked. Endosp. Fl. water-pollin. ; 
the anthers break off and float up through the water (each has a sort 
of float at top of theca) ; the pollen is of the same specific gravity as 
water (cf. Zostera) and drifts about till it reaches a stigma. 

Ceratopsis Lindl. = Epipogum S. G. Gmel. (.5//.) = Galera Blume. 

Ceratopteris Brongn. Parkeriaceae. 2 trop., subtrop. C. thalictroides 
Brongn. is aquatic. Its fronds are ed. 

Ceratopyxis Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. 3). i Cuba. 

Ceratosanthes Burin, ex. Adans. Cucurb. (2). 10 Braz. to W.I. 

Ceratosanthus Schur. = Delphinium Tourn. p. p. (Ranunc.). 

Ceratosepalum Oliv. Tiliaceae. i E. trop. Afr. 

Ceratostema Juss. ( Tkibaudia p. p. EP.). Eric. (in. 2). 25 S. Am. 


Ceratostigma Bunge. Plumbaginaceae. 10 trop. Afr. to China. The 
total infl. is racemose, the partials dichasial. 

Ceratostylis Blume. Orchidaceae (n. a in). 30 Indomal., Polyn. 

Ceratotheca Endl. Pedaliaceae. 5 trop. and S. Afr. 

Ceratozamia Brongn. Cycadaceae. 6 Mexico. 

Ceraunia Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Certaera L. (excl. Tanghinia Thou.). Apocyn. (i. 3). 6 Indomal., 
Madag. The floating fr. are familiar on the coast. 

Cerberlopsis Vieill. Apocyn. (inc. sed.). i New Caled. 

Cercanthemum Van Tiegh. Ouratea Aubl. (Ochnac. ). 

Cercestis Schott. Araceae (iv). 9 W. Afr. 

Cercidiphyllaceae (EP. \ Magnoliaceae p.p. BH.}. See Supplement. 

Cercidipliyllum Sieb. et Zucc. Cercidiph. 2 Japan. Useful wood. 

Cercidium Tul. Leguminosae (ll. 7). 8 warm Am. 

Cercis L. Legum. (11. 4). 5 N. temp. C. Siliqiiastnim L. (Judas- 
tree; Judas is said to have hanged himself on one), cult. orn. tree in 
Brit. The fls. appear before the 1., in bunches on the older twigs, 
and have a very papilionaceous look, the two lower pets, enclosing 
the essential organs. Serial buds in the axils. Good wood. 

Cercocarpus II. B. et K. Rosaceae (in. 3). 10 Mex. to Oregon. 

Cercopetalum Gilg. Capparid. (11). i Cameroons. 

Cercophora Miers. Lecythidaceae. i Amazon valley. 

Cerdia Mo9- et Sesse. Caryophyllaceae (i. 3). 2 Mex. 

Cereals, the grasses (Gramineae) yielding food to man, wheat, rice, 
maize, oats, barley, rye, millet, &c. 

Cereus Mill. (BH. inch Ccphalocerens Pfeiff., Echinocereus Engehn., 
Echinopsis Zucc., Pilocereus Lem.). Cactaceae (ill. i). 220 Am., 
W. Ind. Most are erect cylindrical forms, rarely branched, with ribs 
or less often mammillae (see fam.). C. giganteiis Engelm. (Texas) is 
the largest of the cacti; it grows to 70 ft. high and 2 ft. thick with 
candelabra-like branching. C.grandiflorus Mill, is the night-flowering 
cactus, whose sweetly-scented fls. open in the evening and wither 
before morning. Others, e.g. C. triaugularis Mill., behave in the 
same way. These sp. are mostly trailing forms with adv. r. upon 
the stems. A number of cases of close resemblance may be found be- 
tween sp. of C. and sp. of Euphorbia. Fr. of most ed., often preserved. 

Ceriferous, wax-producing. 

Cerinthe (Tourn.) L. Boraginaceae (iv. 4). 7 Eur., Meclit. 

Ceriops Am. Rhizophoraceae. 2 palaeotrop. coast. 

Cerium Lour. Inc. sed. i China. 

Cernuus (Lat. ), nodding. 

Cerolepis Pierre (Cainptostylus EP.}. Flac. (i). None described. 

Ceropegia L. Asclepiadaceae (ll. 3). 120 Afr., As., Austr. Erect 
or twining herbs or undershrubs, xero. Many have tuberous root- 
stocks, others are leafless and sometimes have fleshy Stapelia-like 
stems. The fls. form a trap like Arhtolochia Clematitis. The C-tube 
widens at the base and at the top the teeth spread out, but in some 
they hold together at the tips, making a sort of umbrella. The tube 
is lined with downward pointing hairs, and small flies, attracted by 
the colour and smell, creep into the fl. and cannot escape till the hairs 
wither, when they emerge with pollinia on their proboscides. 


Ceropteris Link. Polypodiaceae. 7 trop. Am., Afr., Borneo. 

Cerothamnus Tidestrom. Myricaceae. None described. 

Ceroxylon Ilumb et Bonpl. Palmae (iv. i). 5 N. Andes. C. aitdi- 

colum H. and B. and others yield wax (secreted on the stems), used 

for gramophone discs, candles, &c. 
Ceruana Forsk. Compositae (3). r Egypt, trop. Afr. 
Cervantesia Ruiz et Pav. Santalaceae. 4 Andes. 
Cervia Rodr. Convolvulaceae (inc. sed.). i Spain. 
Cespedesia Goudot. Ochnaceae. 6 trop. S. Am. 
Cestichis Thou. (Liparis Bff., Stichorchis EP.}. Orchidaceae (ll. 4). 

40 Masc. to Japan and Polynesia. 
Oestrum L. (Habrothanmus Endl. ). Solanaceae (4). 150 trop. and 

sub-trop. Am. Some cult. orn. 
Ceteracli Lam. et DC. Polypodiaceae. 5 I*. 
Cetra Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Cevallia Lag. Loasaceae. i Mex., Texas. 
Ceylon oak, Schleichera trijiiga Willd. 
Chaboisseae Fourn. Gramineae (10). i Mex. 
Chabraea DC. = Leuceria Lag. p.p. (Compos.). 
Chadsia Boj. Leguminosae (ill. 6). 12 Madagascar. 
Chaenactis DC. Compositae (6). 20 W. U.S. 
Chaenanthe Lindl. (Diadenitim BH.}. Orchid, (n. 19). i Peru. 
Chaenocephalus Griseb. Compositae (5). 12 W.I., S. Am. 
Chaenomeles Lindl. =Pyrus L. (Rosac."). 
Chaenopleura Rich, ex DC. = Miqonia Ruiz et Pav. p.p. 
ChaenorrMnum Lange (Linaria p.v.BH.}. Scroph. (n. ?). 20 Medit., 

W. As. 

Chaenostoma Benth. Scrophulariaceae (n. 5). 120 Afr. 
Chaerefolium Haller (Anthriscus p.p.). Umbel, (in. 2). 3 Eur. , 

N. As. 

Chaerophyllopsis Boissieu. Umbellif. (in. 2). i China. 
ChaerophyUum L. Umbelliferae (ill. 2). 36 N. temp. C. temnlum 

L. Brit, (chervil). 
Chaet- (Gr. pref.), hair. 

Chaetacanthus Nees (Cellophanes BH.}. Acanth. (iv. A). 4 Afr. 
Chaetachne Planch. Ulmaceae. 2 warm Afr. 
Chaetadelpha A. Gray. Compositae (13). i S.W. U.S. 
Chaetanthera Ruiz et Pav. Compositae (12). 30 Chili, Peru. 
Chaetanthus R. Br. Restionaceae. i S.W. Austr. 
Chaetaria Beauv. = Aristida L. p.p. (Gramin.). 
Chaetium Nees. Gramineae (5). 2 trop. Am. 
Chaetocalyx DC. Leguminosae (in. 7). 12 warm Am. 
Chaetocarpus Thw. Euphorb. (A. II. 6). 5 trop. 
Chaetochlamys Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 4 trop. S. Am. 
Chaetocliloa Scribn. =Setaria Beauv. (Gramin). 
Chaetocyperus Nees = Eleocharis R. Br. p.p. (Cyper.). 
Chaetogastra DC. =Tibouchina Aubl. (Melast.). 
Chaetolepis Miq. Melastomaceae (i). 12 trop. Am., W.I. 
Chaetopappa DC. Compositae (3). 3 Mex., Texas. 
Chaetosciadium Boiss. Umbelliferae (in. 2). i E. Medit. 
Chaetospermum Swingle (Limonia p.p.)- Rutac. (v). i Phil. Is. 


Chaetospora R. Br. = Schoenus L. (Cyper.). 

Chaetostachys Valeton. Rubiaceae (n. 5). i New Guinea. 

Chaetostoma DC. Melastomaceae (I). 18 mid. and S. Brazil. 

Chaetosus Benth. Apocynaceae (i. i). i New Guinea. 

Chae othylax Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 7 S. and C. Am. 

Chaetotropis Kunth. Gramineae (S). 2 Chili. 

Chaeturus Link. Gramineae (8). 2 Spanish Peninsula. 

Chaff-weed, Centitncutus minimus L. 

Chailletia DC. (Dichapetalum Thou.) Dichapet. 1 20 trop. Several 
have epiphyllousinfl. \cf. Erythrochiton), probably arising by develop- 
ment like that in infl. of Solanaceae, or cushions of Cactaceae. 

Chailletiaceae = Dichapetalaceae. 

Chain-fern (Am.), IVood-wardia. 

Chalarothyrsus Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). r Mex. 

Chalaza, the base of the ovule; -ogainic, see Chalazogamae. 

Chalazocarpus fliern. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Angola. 

Chalazogamae. A division of Angiospermae, proposed by Treub as 
the outcome of his work upon Casuarina {Ann. Buitenzorg, X. 1891). 
The ovules are developed in a peculiar way, and in each a number of 
embryo-sacs (macrospores) form, many of which elongate downwards 
right into the base (chalaza) of the ovule. Usually omy one is fertile. 
The p. dleii tube passes through the style and the ovarial tissues, never 
emerging from them, to the stalk of the ovule, which it enters from 
the chalazal end. It passes upwards inside a sterile macrospore and 
finally enters the fertile one and fertilises the ovum. The endosp. is 
formed by the free nuclei in the embryo-sac, in the usual manner. 

Both in the development of the macrospores and in the process 
of fert., the difference between Casuarina and all other known Angio- 
sperms (except to some degree the Loranthaceae) was so marked, and 
seemed to place Casuarina so much nearer to the Gymnospermae (q.v.), 
that Treub proposed to rearrange the Angiosperms thus : 

f Dicotyledones. 

j Porogamae Monocotyledons. 

Angiospermae ( 

( Chalazogamae 

This proposition has not met with general acceptance. The 
phenomenon has since been observed in various plants of the allied 
orders Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Ulmus, Alchemilla, &c., 
and cannot be regarded as of classificatory value. [See Nawaschin, 
Bull. Ac. St Petarsb. 1899, Bot. Zeit. 1900, p. 38; Murbeck, Lnnds 
Univ. Arsskr. 36, Bot. Centr. 86, p. 121.] 

Chalcanthus Boiss. (Hesperis L. BH.). Crucif. (4). i Persia. 

Chalcoelytrum Lunell. Gramineae (2). i S.E. U.S. 

Chalepophyllum Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 3). 2 Guiana. 

Chalicium (Cl.), a gravel-slide formation. 

Chalk-glands, Plumbaginaceae, Saxifraga\ -plant, Gypsophila, 

Chamabainia Wight. Urticaceae (3). i Indomal. 

Chamae- (Gr. pref.), ground-. 

Chamaealoe Berger. Liliaceae (in), i S. Afr. 

Chamaeangis Schlechter (Angraecum, &c. p.p.). Orchidaceae (n. 20). 
5 Madagascar, Comoros. 


Chamaeantbus Schlechter. Orchidaceae (ll. 20). \ Java, Borneo. 

Chamaeanthus Ule. Commelinaceae. i Amazon valley. 

Chamaebatia Benth. Rosaceae (in. 3). 2 California. 

Cbamaebuxus (Tourn.) Spach = Pol) gala L. p.p. (Polygal.). 

Cbamaecbaenactis Rydberg (Chaenactis p p ). Comp (6). i U.S. 

Chamaecladon Miq. (Homalonenia p.p. El\) Arac. (v). 40 Malaya. 

Chamaecrista Moench. = Cassia Tourn. p.p. (Legum.). 

Cbamaecyparis Spach. Coniferae (Pinaceae; see C. for gen. char.). 
8 N. Am., Japan. C. mitkacnsis Spach (Thuya excelsa Bong.) is 
the Sitka cypress or yellow cedar; C. sphaeroidea Spach (Thuya 
sphaeroidalis Rich.) the white cedar of N. Am.; C. (Cuprcsstis) 
Lawsoniana Parl., C. (T/i.} pi si f era Sieb. et Zucc. and C. (Th) olilnsa 
Sieb. et Zucc. are Japanese. All yield useful timber, especially the 
first two. The genus is much confused with Thuya and Cupressus 
(in nomenclature). 

Cbamaedapbne Moench. (Lyonia p.p. EP. ; Cassandra BH.). Eric, 
(n. i). i N. temp. 

Chamaedorea Willd. Palmae (iv. i). 60 trop. and subtrop. Am. Small 
reedy palms, often forming suckers. Dioecious. 

Cbamaedrys Moench. = Teucrium Tourn. p.p. (Labiat.). 

Cbamaegeron Schrenk (Aster p.p. EP.}. Comp. (3). i C. As. 

Cbamaelaucium Desf. Myrtaceae (n. 2). nW. Austr. Heath-like. 

Cbamaele Miq. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 3 Japan. 

Cbamaelea (Toui n. ) Adans. (Cnconuti p.p. ). Cneor. r Canaries. 

Chamaelirium Willd. Liliaceae (i). 2 All. N. Am. 

Cbamaemeles Lindl. Rosaceae (n). i Madeira. 

Cbamaemelum Vis. = Matricaria Tourn. (Compos.). 

Cbamaenerion (Tourr.) Adans. (Epilobium BH.}. Onagraceae (2). 
4 temp, and subtrop., exc. Austr. 

Chamaeorchis Koch (HerminiumW\\\A. BH.}. Orchid, (n. i). i Mts. 
of Eur., C. alpina Rich. See Miiller's Alpenbliniifn, p. 73. 

Chamaepericlimenum Ascliers. et GraeLn. (Com its Tourn. p.p. BH.). 
Cornaceae. 2 N. temp. 

Cbamaepeuce DC. -Cnicus Tourn. ( J 5A r .) = Cirsium Adans. p.p. 

Cbamaepitys Tourn. ex Rupp. = Ajuga Tourn. p.p. (Lab.). 

Cbamaeranthemum Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 trop. Am. 

ChamaerapMs R. Br. Gramineae (5). ^ trop., exc. Afr. 

Chamaerbodos Bunge. Rosaceae (in. 2). 6 Siberia, N.W. Am. 

Chamaerops L. Palmae (I. 2). 2 Mcdit. C. hnmilis L. is the only 
sp. of palm found in Eur. Decorative. 

Cbamaesaracba A. Gray. Solanaceae (2). 6 N. Am., Japan. 

Cbamaesciadium C. A. Mey. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i W. As. 

Cbamaescilla F. Muell. Liliaceae (in). 2 W. Austr. 

Cbamaespbacos Schrenk. Labiatae (vi). 3 C. As. 

Chamaexeros Benth. (Acanthocarpus Lehm. EP.). Liliaceae (in). 
(Juncaceae BH.}. 2 Austr. 

Chamagrostis Borkh. = Mibora Adans. (Gramin.). 

Cbambeyronia Vieill. Palmaceae (inc. sed.). 3 New Caled. 

Cbamelum I'hil. Iridaceae (n). 3 Chili. 

Chamira Thunb. Cruciferae (i). '2 S. Afr. 

Cbamisal. cf. Chaparral. 


Chamise, Adenostomafasciculatum Hook, et Am. 

Chamisme Ratin. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 5 N. Am. 

Chamissoa H. B. et K. Amarantaceae (2). 5 warm Am. 

Chamissonia Endl. ((^enothsra p.p. BH.}. Onagr. (2). 15 warm Am. 

Chamomile, Anthemis; wild-, Mairicaria. 

Champak, Mididia Champaca L. 

Champereia Griff. Opiliac. (Santal. BH.). 4 Indomal. 

Championia Garcln. Gesneriaceae (i). i Ceylon. 

Chamula Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Change Of colour in flowers, Arnebta, Bntiifelsia, Cobaca, Diervilla, 

FH HI aria, Lonicera, Ribes. 
Chaparral, the xero. scrub of the hills of Calif., incl. Adenostoma, 

Arctostaphylos, Bacdiaris, Ceanothns, Eriodictyoit, Garrya, Rhns, 

dwarf oaks, currants, buckeye, roses, &c. 
Chapeliera A. Rich. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 Madagascar. 
Chapmannia Torr. et Gray. Leguminosae (in. 7). i Florida. 
Chapmanolirion Dinter. Amaryllidaceae. i S.W. Afr. 
Chaptalia Vent. Compositae (12). 35 warm Am., W.I. 
Charachera Forsk. Acanthaceae (inc. sed.). i Arabia. 
Charadrophila Marloth. Gesneriaceae (inc. sed.). i S. Afr. 
Charas, Cannabis. 

Charcoal, Aar, Bdula, Eiionyiiius, Rhamnus, &c. 
Chardinia, Desf. Compositae (n). i W. As. 
Chards, the late summer blanched 1. of artichokes. 
Charia C. DC. Meliaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 
Charianthus D. Don. Melastomaceae (i). 8 W.I., Guiana. 
Charidion Bong. Ochnaceae. 2 Brazil. 
Charieis Cass. Compositae (3). i S. Afr. 

Chariessa Miq. (Villaresia BH.}. Icacinaceae. 4 E. Austr., Samoa. 
Chariomma Miers (Echites EP. BH.). Apocyn. (n. i). 7 trop. 

Am., W.I. 

Charlock, Brassica Sinapis Vis. 

Charpentiera Gaud. Amarantaceae (2). i Sandwich Is. 
Chartaceous, of papery texture. 

Chartacalyx Maingay ex Mast. Tiliaceae. i Malaya. 
Chartocalyx Regel (Otostegia Benth.). Labi. (vi). i W. As. 
Chartolepis Cass. = Centaurea L. p.p. (Compos.). 
Chartoloma Bunge (Isatis p.p. BH.}. Crucif. (2). i Turkestan. 
Chasalia Comm. ex DC. Rubiaceae (n. 5). 15 palaeotrop. 
Chascotheca Urb. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 2 W.I. 
Chasea Nieuwland (Panicuni p.p.). Gramineae (5). 10 N. Am. 
Chasmanthera Hochst. Menispermaceae. 5 trop. Afr. 
Chasmogamic, open, not cleistogamic. 

Chasmone E Mey. = Argyrolobium Eckl. et Zeyh. (Legum.). 
Chastenaea DC.^Axinaea Ruiz et Pav. (Melast.). 
Chaubardia Reichb. (. (Zygopetalum BH.). Orch (n. 14). i S. Am. 
Chaulmoogra, Gynocantia, Taraktogenos. 
Chaunochiton Benth. Olacaceae. i Brazil. 
Chaunostoma J. D. Smith (Satureia p.p.). Lab. (vi). L C. Am. 
Chavica Miq. (Piper L. p.p. BH.). Piperaceae. 5 Indomal. 
Chawstick ( W.I.), Gonania. 


Chaydaia Pilarch. Rhamnaceae. i Tonquin. 

Chayote, Sechinm edulc Su . 

Chayotilla, Hanburia. 

Caay-root, Oldenlandia umbellnta L. 

Cheatgrass (Am.), Browns. 

Checker-berry (Am.), Gaultheria procumbens L. 

Cheilanthes Sw. Polypodiaceae. 120 trop. and temp, mostly xero. ; 
pinnae often incurved and stomata protected by hairs (rf. Empetrutn). 

Cheilanthos St. Lag. Labiatae (inc. sed.). Nomen. 

Cheiloclinium Miers (Salafia p.p. EP.}. Hippocrat. i Brazil. 

Cheilosa Blume. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 6). i W. Java. 

Cheilotheca Hook. f. Pyrolaceae. i E. Indomal. 

Cheiradenia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. /3. n). i Guiana. 

Cheiranthera Brongn. Pittosporaceae. 4 Austr. 

Cheiranthus L. Cruciferae (4). 20 Medit. and N. temp. C. Cheiri'L. 
(wall-flower) Brit. Cult. orn. perf. fl. 

Cheirodendron Nutt. (Panax L. BH.). Araliac. (r). 2 Hawaii. 

Cheirolaena Benth. Sterculiaceae. i Mauritius. 

Cneiropleuria Presl. Polypodiaceae. i E. As. 

Cheiropterocephalus Barb. Rodr. (Microstylis EP.). Orchidaceae (II. 4). 
i Brazil. 

Cheirostemon Humb. et Bonpl. (Chiranthodendron Cerv. ). Stercu- 
liaceae. i Mexico. Fls. large; petals o; sta. 5, united below. 

Cheirostylis Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 12 trop. Afr. and As. 

Chelidoniuin L. Papaveraceae (n). i Brit, to E. As., C. ma/us L., 
the greater celandine. 

Chelidurus Willd. Inc. sed. i, habitat? 

Chelonanthus Gilg (Lisianthus L.). Gentian, (i). 10 trop. S. Am. 

Chelone L. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). 4 N. Am. 

Chelonecarya Pierre. Menispermaceae. i Gaboon. 

Chelonespermum Hemsl. Sapotaceae. 4 Solomon Is., Fiji. 

Chelonistele Pfitzer (Coelogyne, &c. p.p.). Orchid, (n. 3). 5 Indomal. 

Chelonopsis Miq. Labiatae (vi). 2 Japan, China. 

Chemotropism. sensitiveness to chemical stimulus. 

Cliena. burning of forest for a couple of crops. 

Chenolea Thunb. (BH. inch Bassia All.). Chenopodiaceae (A). 
3 Medit., S. Afr. 

Chenopodiaceae (EP.; BH. incl. Basdlaceae). Dicots. (Archichl. 
Centrospermae ; Curvembryae BH.). 75 gen., 500 sp. with an 
interesting geographical distr., determined by the fact that they are 
nearly all halophytic. The 10 chief districts char, by their presence 
are (according to Bunge), (i) Austr., (2) the Pampas, (3) the Prairies, 
(4) and (5) the Medit. coasts, (6) the Karroo (S. Afr.), (7) the Red 
Sea shores, (8) the S.W. Caspian coast, (9) Centr. As. (Caspian to 
Himalayas deserts), (10) the salt steppes of E As. The presence 
of large quantities of salt in the soil necessitates the reduction of the 
transpiration, so that the pi. which grow in such situations exhibit 
xero. characters. They are mostly herbs (a few shrubs or small 
trees), with roots which penetrate deeply into the soil, and with 1. 
of various types, usu. not large, often fleshy, and often covered with 
hairs, which frequently give n curious and very char, mealy feeling 

CHI BAG A 139 

to the pi. In some halophytes of this fam. the 1. are altogether 
suppressed, and the pi. has curious jointed succulent stems like a 
miniature cactus (e.g. Salicornia). Each 'limb' embraces the next 
succeeding one by a sort of cup at its apex. Even more than in 
their external form, the C. show xero. structure in their internal 

Infl. often primarily racemose, but the partial infls. are always 
cymose, at first often dich., but with a tendency to the cincinnus 
form, by preference of the /3-bracteole. The fls. are reg., small and 
inconspic., $ or unisex. P simple, rarely absent, persistent after 
flowering, 5, 3, 2 (rarely i or 4) united, imbr., sepaloid ; A as 
many as or fewer than P segments, opp. to them, hypog. or on 
a disc; anthers bent inwards in bud; G (semi-inf. in Beta), i-loc. 
with 2 (rarely more) stigmas; ov. i, basal, campylotropous. Fr. 
usu. a small round nut or achene ; embryo usu. surrounding the 
endosp., either simply bent or spirally twisted. Few are useful ; 
see Beta, Spinacia, Chenopodium, &c. 

Classification and chief genera (after Volkens). 

A. CYCLOLOBEAE. Embryo ring-shaped, horseshoe-like, 
conduplicate or semicircular, wholly or partially enclosing endosp.; 
Polycnemum, Beta, Chenopodium, Spinacia, Atriplex, Camphorosma, 
Kochia, Corispermum, Salicornia. 

B. SPIROLOBEAE. Embryo spirally twisted; endosp. want- 
ing or divided into two masses by embryo ; Sarcobatus, Suaeda, 
Salsola, Haloxylon, Halimocnemis. 

Chenopodium (Tourn.) L. Chenopodiaceae (A). 60 temp., 9 Brit, 
(goosefoot, lamb's-quarters, Good King Henry, &c.). Fr. in many- 
dimorphic ; some have horiz. seeds, some vertical (esp. on the term, 
twigs of the cymes). C. anthelminticum (atnbrosioiacs} L. (worm-seed 
or Mexican tea) essential oil is used as a vermifuge in the U.S. 
C. Qtiinoa Willd. is a food plant in S. Am. ; its seeds are boiled*like 
rice. It and other spp. are used as spinach. 

Cherimolia, cherimoyer, Anona Cherimolia Mill. 

Cherleria Hall. = Arenaria L. (/?//. )=Alsine Scop. (Caryophyll.). 

Cherry, Prnnus Cerasus L. ; Barbados-, Malpighia; bastard- (W.I.), 
Ekretia; -bean, Vigna; broad-leaved- (W.I. ), Cordia macrophylla L.; 
clammy- (W.I.), Cordia Collococca L. ; Cornelian-, Cornns mas L. ; 
Jamaica- (W.I.), Ficus pedunculata Ait.; -laurel, Prnnus Lauro- 
cerasus L. ; -pie, Heliotropitim ; W. Indian-, Malpighia, Bitiuhosia ; 
winter-, Physalis Alkekengi L. 

Chersium (Cl.), a dry waste formation. 

Chervil, Anthriscns sylvestris Hoffm., Chaerophyllum tcnuthim L. 

Chess (Am.), Bromits. 

Chestnut, Castanea viilgaris Lam. ; Australian or Moreton Bay, Cas- 
tanospertnum australe A. Cunn.; horse-, Aescnlns Hippocastannm L. ; 
wild-, Brabejum. 

Chevalieria Gaudich. (Aechmea p.p. BH.}. Bromel. (4). 5 S. Am. 

Chevreulia Cass. Compositae (4). 8 S. Am. 

Chewing gum, Achras Sapota L. 

Chian turpentine, Pistacia Terebinthus L. 

Chibaca Bertol. f. Lauraceae (inc. sed.). r S. Afr. 

1 40 CHI SOU 

Chibou, Bursera gum-it rif era L. 

Chick-pea, Cicer ariftinum L., Cajanus indicus Spr. 

Chickrassia (Chnkrasia] A. Juss. Meliaceae (ll). i India, Ceylon, 

C. tabulates A. Juss. Timber valuable (Indian red wood, Chittagong 

wood, white cedar). 
Chickweed, Stellaria media Cyrill. ; (W.I.), Drymaria cordata Willd. ; 

African (W.I.), Mollttgo; mouse-ear-, Cerastinm ; -wintergreen, 


Chicle gum, Achras Sapota L. 
Chicory, Cichorium Intybus L. 

Chileranthemum Oerst. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Mexico. 
Chilianthus Burchell. Loganiaceae. 3 S. Afr. 
Chiliocephalum Benth. Compositae (4). i Abyssinia. 
Chiliophyllum Phil. Compositae (3). 2 Chili, Andes. 
Chiliotrichum Cass. Compositae (3). 5 temp. S. Am. 
Chillies, Capsicum atnrituin L. 

Chilocalyx Klotzsch (Cleome p.p. BH.}. Capparid. (v). 2 E. Afr. 
Chilocarpus Blume. Apocynaceae (i. i ). 10 Indomal. 
Chilochloa Beauv. = Phleum L. p.p. (Gramin.). 
Chiloglottis R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 6 Austr., N.Z. 
Chilopogon Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. a. in). 3 New Guinea. 
Chilopsis D. Don. Bignoniaceae (2). i Mexico. 

Chiloschista Limll. (Sarcochilus p.p. BH.}. Orch. (n. 20). 2 Indomal. 
Chimaphila Pursh. Pyrolaceae. 4 N. temp. 
Chimarrhis Jacq. Rubiaceae (i. i). 2 W.I. , Andes. 
Chimonanthus Lindl. (Calycanthus p.p. EP.}. Calycanthaceae. 

2 China, C. fragrans Lindl., cult, shrub with very fragrant fls. 

which come out early in the year before the 1. and show marked 

protogyny with movement of sta., and C. nitciis Oliv. (Hooker, 

Ic. PI. t. 1600). 

Chimonobambusa Makino (Ba/ufnisa p.p.). Gramin. (13). 2 Japan. 
Chin, if. Orchidaceae. 
China aster, Callislfphits Iiortensis Cass. ; -grass, Boehmeria nivea 

Gaudich. ; -jute, Abuiilon; -root (W.I.), Vilis sicyoidcs Mig. ; 

-wythe (W.I.), Sniilax Ballnsiana Kunth. And next. 
Chinese date-plum, Diospyros Kaki L. f. ; -grass-cloth, Boehmeria 

nivea Gaudich.; -green indigo, Rhanmits chlorophora Decne. ; -ivy, 

-jasmine, Trachelospermum ; -sacred lily, Narcissus. 
Chinquapin (Am.), Castanea pumila Michx. 
Chiococca P. Br. ex L. Rubiaceae in. 3). 7 trop. Am., W.I. 
Chiogenes Salisb. Eric. (11.2). i E. N. Am , i Japan (cf. Epigaea). 
Chionachne R. Br. Gramineae (i). 5 Indomal., E. As., Austr. C. cya- 

thopoda F. von Muell , valuable fodder-grass. 

Chionanthula Borner (Carex p.p.). Cyper. (in), i N. palaeotemp. 
Chionanthus Gaertn. = Linociera Sw. (Mayepea Aubl.) (Oleaceae). 
Chionanthus Royen ex L. Oleaceae. 2 N. Am., China. C. virginica L. 

(snowdrop tree) cult. orn. fig. shrub. 
Chione DC. Rubiaceae (n. 3). 5 W. Ind. 
Chionium (Cl.), a snow formation. 
Chiouodoxa Boiss. Liliaceae (v). 4 Crete and As. Minor. C. luciliae 

Boiss. (glory of the snow) cult. orn. fl. 


Chionographis Maxim. Liliaceae (l). 2 Japan. 

CMonolaena DC. Compositae (4). 8 Mexico, S. Am. Shrubs with 

the 1. rolled back. 

Chionopappus Benth. Compositae ( 1-2). i Peru. 
Chionophila Benth. Scrophulariaceae (ll. 4). 2 Rocky Mts. 
Chionoptera DC. (Pachylaena Don). Comp. (12). i Andes. 
Chionothrix Hook. f. Amarantaceae (2). i Somaliland. 
Chiquito, Combretnm. 

Chiranthodendron Cerv. (Cheirostemoft). Stercul. i Mexico. 
Cliiretta, Swertia Chirata Ham. 
Chirimoya, Anona Cherimolia Mill. 
CMrita Buch.-Ham. (Didymocarpus or Roettlera p.p.). Gesneraceae (i). 

50 Indomal., some with epiphyllous infl. (tf. B. Centr. 74, p. 128). 
Chironia L. Gentianaceae (i). 30 Afr., Madag. 
Chiropetalum A. Juss. (Argithamnia Sw. BH.}. Euphorbiaceae 

(A. ii. 2). 15 S. Am. to Mexico. 
Chisocheton Blume. Meliaceae (in). 30 Indomal. 
Chitonanthera Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 15). 3 New Guinea. 
CMtonia Moc et Sesse. Zygophyllaceae. i Mexico. 
CMtonochilus Schlechter. Orchid, (n. a. in), r New Guinea. 
Chittagong wood, Chickrassia tabularis A. Juss. 
Chive, A Ilium Schoenoprasum L. 
Chlaenaceae (P., Bfl.). Dicots. (Archichl. Parietales ; Guttiferales 

BH.). 7 gen., 25 sp. Madagascar. Trees with alt. entire stip. 1. ; 

fl. sol. or 2 in an invol., in racemose infl , $ , reg. K 5, C 5 6, 

A 10 GO, G (3), each with 2 ov. Caps. 3 or t-loc. Endosp. 

Chief genus 

Chlaenandra Miq. Menispermaceae. i New Guinea. 
Chlainanthus Briq. Labiatae (vi). i Asia. 
Chlamydacanthus Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Madag. 
Chlamydeous, with perianth. 

Chlamydites J. K. Drumm. Compositae (8). i Tibet. 
Chlamydoboea Stapf. Gesneraceae (l). i China, Burma. 
Cblamydocardia Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 W. Afr. 
Chlamydocarya Baill. Icacinaceae. 8 trop. W. Afr. 
Chlamydojatropha Pax et K. Hoffm. Euphorb. (A. 11. 3). i Came- 


Chlamydostylus Baker = Nemastylis Nutt. p.p. (Irid.). 
Chlamyphorus Klatt (Gomphrena p.p.). Amarant. (3). i Brazil. 
Chledium (CL), a ruderal formation. 
Chlidanthus Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 4 S. Am. Sta. with lat. 

appendages (see fam.). 

CMoantlies R. Br. Verbenaceae (3). 10 Austr. 
Chlora Ren. ex Adans. (Blackstonia Huds.). Gentianaceae (i). 3 Eur., 

Medit. C. perfoliata L. (yellow- wort) on chalk in Brit. 
Chloradenia Baill. (Adenogynwn EP.}. Euph. (A. n. i). i Malaya. 
Chloraea Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 100 S. Am. 
Chloranthaceae. Dicots. (Archichl. Piperales ; Micrembryae BH.). 

3 g en -> 35 "sp., trop. and subtrop. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with 

opp. stip. 1. Fls. small, in spikes or cymes, 5 or unisex , sometimes 

with sepaloid P; A i 3, united to one another and to ovary; 


G i ; ov. few, pend., orthotr. Endosp. oily; no perispenn ; embryo 

minute. Chief genera : Chloranthus, Hedyo.smum. 
Chloranthus Sw. Chlorantli. ro E. As., E. Ind. P i, anterior; the 

centre sta. has a complete anther, the lat. each half (cf. Fumaria). 
Chloridion Stapf. Gramineae (5). i trop. Afr. 
Chloris Svv. Gramineae (iij. 40 trop. and warm temp. Several are 

useful pasture-grasses in Austr., &c. 
Chloro- (Gr. pref.), green, yellow; -phyll, the green colouring matter 

of 1. ; -in the fl. Deherainia ; -plastids, carriers of. 
Chlorocodon Hook. f. Asclepiadaceae (i). 2 E. and S.E. Afr. 
CMorocrambe Rydberg (Canlanthus p.p.). Cruc. (i). i N. Am. 
Chlorocyathus Oliv. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Delagoa Bay. 
Chlorocyperus Rikli = Cyperus L. (Cyperac.). 
Chlorogalum Kunth. Liliaceae(m). 3 Calif. C. poineridianum Kunth 

has a large bulb whose inner parts are used as a substitute for soap 

(cf. Saponaria). The outer layers yield a quantity of fibre. 
Chloromyrtus Pierre (Ettgema p.p. EP}. Myrt. (i). i trop. Afr. 
Chloropatane Engl. Mommiaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 
Chlorophora Gaudich. Moraceae (i). 3 W. Afr., trop. Am. The 

wood of the latter (C. tinctoria Gaudich.) forms the yellow dye fustic. 
Chlorophytum Ker-Gawl. Liliaceae (in). 50 trop. In C. comosum 

Baker infl. often replaced by veg. repr. ; long shoots develope in the 

axils of the br., weigh the stem down to the soil and take root. Cult. 


Chloropyron Behr. = Cordylanthus Nutt. (Scroph.). 
Clilorosa Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 2). t Java. 
Chlorospatha Engl. Araceae (vi). i Colombia. 
Chloroxylon Rumph. Rutaceae (in) (Meliaceae, BH.}. i E. Ind., 

C. S-wietenia DC. (satinwood). Timber very lasting, largely used in 

veneering. The tree also yields a gum. 
Chloroxylum P. Br. Inc. sed. Quid? 

Chloryllis E. Mey. (Dolichos p.p. BH.}. Legum. (in. jo), i S. Afr. 
Choananthus Rendle. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 Ruwenzori. 
Chocho, Sechium edule Sw. 
Chocolate, Theobroina. 

Chodanthus Hassler (Adenocalymma p.p.). Bign. (i). j Braz. 
Choisya H. B. et K. Rutaceae (i). i Mexico. Cult. orn. shrub. 
Choke-berry (Am.), Pyrus arbutifolia L. 
Chomelia Jacq., non L. (Anisorneris Presl EP.}. Rubiaceae (u. 2). 

30 trop. S. Am., Afr. 
Chomelia L., non Jacq. ( Tare/tnaGaertn. BH.}. Rubi. (i. 8). 30 trop. 

As., Afr. 
Chondilophyllum Panch. ex Guillaumin (Meryta Forst. p.p.). Arali- 

aceae. i New Cale> Ionia. 
Chondodendron Ruiz et Pav. Menispermaceae. 10 Brazil, Peru, trop. 

Afr. C. tomentosum R. P. furnishes Radix Pareirae bravae. 
Chondrilla (Tourn.) L. Compositae (13). 20 N. temp. 
Chondrobollea x Hort. Orchidaceae. Hybrid of Chondrorhyncha 

and Bollea. Also Chondropetalum x Hort. Hybrid with Zygo- 

Chondrophylla A. Nelson (Gentiana p.p.). Gentian, (i). 2 N. Am. 


Chondrorrhyncha Lindl. Orchid, (n. ft. n). 2 Colombia. Cult. 
Ciiondrosea Haw. Saxifraga Tourn. p.p. (Saxitr.). 
Chondrostylis Boerlage. Euphorb. (A. II. 2). i Malaya. 
Chondrosum Desv. = Bouteloua Lag. p.p. (Gramin.). 
Chonemorpha G. Don. Apocynaceae (n. i). 2 Indomal. 
Chordospartium Cheesem. Leguminosae (in. 6). i N.Z. 
Choretrum R. Br. Santalaceae. 5 Austr. 
Chorilaena Endl. Rutaceae (I). 3 W. Austr. 
Chorilepis Van Tiegh. (Loranthus p.p.). Lorantli. (i). 3 Malaya, 

Phil. Is. 

Chorioluma Baill. (Sideroxylon p.p. EP.). Sapot. (i). i New Caled. 
Choriophyllum Benth. Euphorb. (A. I. r). 2 Malay Arch. 
Choripetalae (Warming) = Archichlamydeae. 
Choripetalous, polypetalous. 
Chorisia H. B. et K. Bombacaceae. 5 S. Am. C. speciosa St Hil. 

(paina de seda) gives a useful silky cotton from the pods. 
Chorisis, branching in floral organs. 

Chorispora R. Br. Cruciferae (4). 12 E. Medit., Centr. As. 
Choristega Van Tiegh. (Loranthus p.p.). Loranth. (i). 2 Celebes. 
Choristegeres Van Tiegh. (ditto). Loranth. (i). i Borneo. 
Choristigma F. Kurtz. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Argentina. 
Choristylis Harv. Saxifragaceae (v). i S. Afr. 
Cboritaenia Benth. (Pappea Sond. et Harv. EP.}. Umbelliferae (in. 

6). i S. Afr. 

Chorizandra R. Br. Cyperaceae (n). 4 Austr. 
Chorizanthe R. Br. Polygon, (i. i). 35 Am. Some have an ochrea, 

usu. absent in this group. .Els. usu. single inside the invol. (cf. 


Cborizema Labill. Leguminosae (ill. 2). 15 Austr. 
Chortolirion Berger (Haworthia p p.). Lili. (in). 4 Afr. 
Chowlee (India), Vigna Catjang \Va\p. 
Christ's thorn, Paliurus aculeatus Lam. 
Christensenia Maxon. Marattiaceae. i Phil. Is. 
Christiana DC. Tiliaceae. i Madag. to Guiana. 
Christisonia Gardn. Orobanchaceae. 10 trop. As. Roots parasitic 

on those of bamboos or Acanthaceae, united to a dense meshwork. 

The fig. shoots spring up, die, and decay, in a fortnight. 
Christmannia Dennst. Inc. sed. i E. Indies. 
Christmas gambol (W.I.), Ipomoea sidifolia Choisy; -pride (W.I.), 

Ruellia paniculata L ; -rose, Helleborus niger L. 
Christolea Cambess. Cruciferae (4). 2 W. and C. As. 
Christophine (W.I.), Sechium edule Sw. 
Christopteris Copeland. Polypodiaceae. 2 S.E. As. 
Chroilema Bernh. Compositae (3). i Chili. 
Chromanthus Phil. Portulacaceae. i Chili. 
Chromolepis Benth. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 
Chromoplastids, carriers of colouring matters. 
Chronopappus DC. Compositae (i). i Minas Geraes. 
Chrozophora Neck. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 10 Medit., W. As., 

N. Afr. C. tinctoria A. Juss. and C- verbascifolia Juss. are charac- 
teristic plants of the Medit. region. The former, once medicinal, is 


still sometimes used as the source of the dye turn-sole, tournesol, or 
bezetta rubra. 

Chrysactiuia A. Gray. Compositae (6). 3 Mex., S.W. U.S. 

Chrysalidocarpus H. Wendl. (Hvophorbe p.p. EP.). Palmae (iv. i). 
i Madag., C. lutescens H. Wendl. a favourite orn. palm, branching 
at the r. and forming tufts of stems. 

Chrysanthellum L C. Rich. Compositae (5). 4 trop. 

Chrysanthemum (Tourn ) L. (incl. Pyretkrum Hall.). Compositae (7). 
150 Kur., As., Afr., Am. C. segetuin L. (corn-marigold) and C. Leu- 
canthemum L. (ox-eye or dog daisy) Brit. The autumn-flowering C. 
are cult, forms of C. indicnm L. and C. sinense Sabine (China, Japan). 
As in Dahlia, all florets have become ligulate (Hemsley in Card. 
Chron. 1889, p. 521, &c. ; Henry in Card. Citron., 1902, p. 301, and 
discussion by Hooker in Curtis, Bot. M<ig. t. 7874). C. Parthenium 
Bernh. (feverfew, Eur.), a popular remedy against fevers ; C. cine- 
rariaefolium Vis. yields Dalmatian, and C. roseiun Adam. Persian, 
insect powder (the dried and powdered fls.), Kew Bull. 1898, p. 297. 

Chryseus (Lat.), chryso- (Gr. pref.), golden yellow. 

Chrysithrix L. Cyperaceae (n). i S. Afr., i W. Austr. 

Chrysobalanaceae ( Warming) = Rosaceae ( vi). 

Chrysobalanus L. Rosaceae (vi). 4 Afr., Am. Style basal, so that 
the flr. is slightly -|- . C. Icaco L. (coco plum), W. Ind. , fr. ed. 

Cbrysocephalum Walp. = Helichrysum Vaill. p.p. (Comp.). 

Chrysochamela Boiss. (Cochlearia p.p. BH.). Cruc. (4). 3 E. Medit. 

Chrysochlamys Poepp. et Endl. Guttiferae (v). 10 trop. Am. 

Chrysocoma L. Compositae (3). 10 S. and trop. Afr. C. Linosyris 
L. see Aster. 

Chrysocoptis Nutt. (Coptis p.p.). Ranunc. (2). i N.W. Am. 

Chrysocychnis Lindau et Reichb. f. Orch. (n. 13). 2 Colombia. 

Chrysoglossum Blume. Orchid, (n. a. n). 10 Indomal., Polynes. 

Chrysogonum L. (excl. Moonia Arn.). Compositae (5). i E. U.S. 

Chrysoliga Willd. = Nesaea Comm. (Lythrac.). 

Chrysoma Nutt. =Solidago Vaill. (Compos.). 

Chrysophthalmum Schulz-Bip. Compositae (4). 2 W. As. 

Chrysophyllum L. Sapotaceae (i). 80 trop. , esp. Am. Serial buds 
form in each leaf-axil in some sp. and the undeveloped ones subse- 
quently give rise to fls. borne on the old wood (cauliflory, q.v.}. C. 
Cainito L. (star-apple, W. Ind.), cult. ed. fr. 

Chrysopogon Trin. (Andropogon L. p.p. EP.). Gram. (2). 12 trop., 

Chrysopsis Ell. Compositae (3). 30 N. Am. 

Chrysosplenium Tourn. ex L. Saxifragaceae (i). 45 N.temp., temp. 
S- Am., 2 Brit, (golden saxifrage). Khiz. bears both veg. and fl. 
shoots. Infl. cymose. The small greenish fls. are perig. and apet., 
homogamous. Cf. Adoxa. 

Clirysotliamnus Nutt. (Bigelovia p.p.). Compos. (3). 50 Am. 

Chthamalia Decne. (Gonolobus BH). Asclep. (n. 4). 6 trop. Am. 

Chthonocephalus Steetz. Compositae (4). 3 temp. Austr. 

Chukrasia ( Chickrassia, q.v. ) A. Juss. Meli. (n). i Indomal. 

Chuncoa Pav. = Terminalia L. p.p. (Combret.). 

Chuquiraga Juss. Compos. (12). 50 S. Am. In each axil are thorns, 


probably repres. 1. of an undeveloped branch ; above is a normal 

Churrus, charas, Cannabts. 

Ctiusquea Kunth. Gramineae (13). 35 Am. Like Bambusa (q.v.}. 
Ciiar. of high plateau in S. Am. 

Chydenanthus Mier^ (Barnngtonia p.p. BH.}. Lecvth. i Java. 

Chylismia Nutt. (Oenothera p.p.)- Onagr. (2). 10 W. U.S. 

Chylocauly, stem succulence ; -phylly. leaf succulence. 

Chymococca Meissn. Thymelaeaceae. i S. Afr. 

Cnymsydia Alboff (Agasyllis EP.}. Umbell. (in. 6). I Cameroons. 

Chysis Lindl. Orchulaceae (n. 9). 6 trop. Am. Cult. 

Chytranthus Hook. f. Sapindaceae (i). 10 trop. W. Afr. 

Chytroglossa Reichb. f. Orchiclaceae (n. 19). 2 Brazil. 

Cibotium Kaulf. Cyatheaceae. 10 trop. Am., Polynesia, As. The 
famous Tartarian lamb of early travellers was the rhiz. of C. barometz 

Cicatrix, a scar. 

Cicca L. = rhyllanthus L. pp. (Euph.). 

Cicely, Mvrrhis odorata Scop. 

Cicendia Allans. Gentianaceae (i). i, C. pusilla Griseb., S.W. Eur. 
and Channel Is. (For C.filiformis Delarb. see Microcala.) 

Cicer (Tourn.) L. Legum. (in. y). 15 W. As. Accessory buds in 
axils in some. C.arietmwn L. (chick-pea, gram), cult, food S. Eur., 

Cichorium (Tourn.) L. Compos. (13). 8 Meclit., Eur., N. As. C. 
Intybui, i,. (chicory), Brit. The r., roasted and ground, are mixed 
with coffee. C. Endivia L. (endive), a pot-herb ; its 1. being blanched. 

Ciconium Sweet = Pelargonium L'Herit. pp. (Geran.). 

Cicuta (Tourn.) L. Umhelliferae (ill. 5). 6 N. temp. C.virosa'L. 
(cow-bane or water-hemlock) Brit. Highly poisonous. 

Cienfuegosia Cav. (Fugosia Juss.). Malv. (4). 30 Am., Afr., Austr. 

Cienkowskia Regel et Rach. Boragin. (?). i, habitat? 

Cilia, hair-like bodies ; -te. with fine projecting hairs. 

Cimicifuga L. (Actaea L. p.p. EP.). Ranunc. (2). 12 N. temp. C. 
foetida\^. (bugbane, Eur.), used as preventive against vermin. R. of 
C. racemosa Nutt. (black snake-root, N. Am.) emetic. 

Cinchona L. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 40 Andes. Trees. Fl. heterostyled 
in some. The source of Peruvian or Jesuit's bark, from which are 
extracted the valuable drugs ('alkaloids) quinine, cinchonidme, &c. 
The tree used to be cut down to obtain the bark and there was danger 
of extinction until cult, was started on a large scale. An expedition 
to the Andes in 1859 brought it to the east, where Ceylon took up its 
cult., and upon so large a >cale as to reduce the price of quinine from 
12s. to is. an ounce. Decrease in price, the lack of any improvement 
in 'he barks, and attacks of disease, made the cult, die out in Ceylon, 
and lava, where improvement was taken in hand, now almost mono- 
polises it. India grows a good deal for supply to natives through the 
post offices. Several sp. are used, e.g. C. Calisaya Wedd. (yellow, 
and some crown, bark), C. Ledgeriana Moens (yellow bark, the richest 
in alkaloid), C. cordifolia Mutis (Cartagena bark), C. officinalis L. 
(condamined H. & B. ) (Loxa, crown or brown bark), C. siucinibra 

W. 10 


Pav. (red bark). (Markham. Travels in Peru and India ; Reimers, 
Les quinquinas de culture, 1900.) 

Cinchonidin, Cinchona. 

Cincinnobotrys Gilg. Melastomaceae (i). 2 trop. Afr. 

Cincinnus, a monoch. cyme in which the successive lat. branches fall 
alt. on either side of the relatively main axis ; Bignomaceae, Boragi- 
naceae, Canna, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Commclinaceae, 
Crassulaceat, Geranium, HManthemum, Heliconia, Hydrophyllaceae, 
Hyoscyamtts, Linaceae, Solanaceae, Strelitzia, Tradescantia, Urtica, 

Cineraria L. p.p. Compositae (8). 35 Afr., Madag. Many sp. of 
Senecio are often included in this genus. Cult. orn. fl. 

Cinereus (Lat.), ash grey. 

Cinga Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Cinna L. Gramineae (8). 2 N. temp. 

Cinnagrostis Griseb. Gramineae (S). i Argentina. 

Cinnamodendron Endl. Winteranaceae. 3 Brazil, W. Ind. 

Cinnamomeous, light yellowish brown. 

Cinnamomum (Tourn.) L. Lauraceae (i). 60 Indomal. Young leaves 
often red. C. zeylatucnm Nees (Ceylon) is the cinnamon. The pi. 
is coppiced in cult., and the bark of the twigs peeled off and rolled 
up is the spice. C. Cassia Blume (China, Japan) yields Cassia bark, 
often used to adulterate cinnamon. Its fl. buds are used as a spice 
(cf. Eugenia). C. Cnmphora T. Nees & Eberm. (China, Japan, For- 
mosa) is the camphor. The old trees are felled, and the wood cut 
into chips and distilled with steam, but in cult, the camphor is distilled 
from young shoots. 

Cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, (Am.) Canella; wild- 
(Ceylon), Lilsea zeylanica Nees, (W.I.) Canella alba Murr., Pimcnta 
acris Kostel. 

Cinnamosma Baill. Winteranaceae. i Madag. 

Cinquefoil, Poteniilla reptans L. 

Cionosicyos Griseb. Cucurbit. (3). i Jamaica. 

Cipadessa Blume. Meliaceae (in). 4 Indomal., Madag. 

Cipre (W.I.), Cordia Gerascanthus L. 

Cipura Aubl. Iridaceae (n). 5 trop. Am. 

Cipuropsis Ule. Bromeliaceae (i). i Peru. 

Circaea Tourn. ex L. Ona.nraceae (2). 9 N. temp, and arctic; 2 Brit. 
(enchanter's nightshade). Fl. dimerous with one whorl sta. Fr. hooked. 

Circaeaster Maxim. Chloranthaceae. i Himal., China. K2 3, C o, 
A i 2, G i 4; fr. hooked. (Hooker, Icones PL, t. 2366.) 

Circinate (aestivation), 1. rolled up like watch-springs, Filicineae Lep- 
tospot., Marsileaceae, petals Q{ Hamamelidaceae. 

Circinus Med. (Hymenocarpits Savi). Legum. (ill. 5). i Medit. 
Circumscissile, opening by splitting off a lid, Anagallis. 
Cirrhaea Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 13). ? Brazil. 
Cirrhiferous, tendril-bearing : cirrhose, tendrilled. 
Cirrhopetalum Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 16). 70 Indomal., Masc. 
Cirsium (Tourn.) Adans. (Cnictts L. p.p. EP.}. Compositae (u). 

200 N. temp. 
Cissampelos L. Menispermaceae. 70 trop. and subtrop. f infl. 

CITRtfS 147 

cymose. ? fi. with peculiar zygomorphic structure; cpl. one, witli 
one sepal and two petals at one side of it. Petals often united. 

Cissus L. (FiVzV Tourn. BH.}. Vitaceae. 275 trop. 

Cistaceae (EP., Cistineae BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Parietales EP., 
BH.}. 4 gen., i6osp., in dry sunny places, esp. on chalky or sandy 
soil, a few in S. Am., the rest N. temp. (esp. Medit. ) Shrubs and 
herbs with opp. rarely alt. leaves, often inrolled (cf. Ericaceae), with 
or without stipules. Glandular hairs usu. present. Fls. sol. or in 
cymose infl., 5 , reg. K 5, the two outer usu. smaller than the inner 
(sometimes regarded as bracteoles, but these are found lower down) ; 
C 5 or 3 or o, conv. (the petals overlap to right or left according as 
the 3 inner sepals overlap to left or right) ; A QO on a sub-ovarial 
disc (sta. developed in descending order); G (5 10 or 3) i-loc. with 
parietal (often projecting) plac. ; ov. oo or 2 on each, ascending, 
orthotr. ; styles free. Caps, loculic. Endosp. ; curved embryo. 
Genera: Cistus (ovules oo , capsule j-valved), Helianthemum (do., 
3-valved), Hudsonia (ovules 2, pets. 5), Lechea (do., pets. 3 or o). 

Cistanche Hoffmgg. et Link. Orobanchaceae. 12 |^=. 

Cistanthera K. Schum. Tiliaceae. 3 trop. Afr. 

Cistiflorae (Warming). The loth cohort of Choripetalae. 

Cistineae (Bff.) = Cistaceae. 

Cistula Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Cistus (Tourn.) L. Cistaceae. 35 Medit. C. cretictts L. and C. 
ladanifems L. yield the resin ladanum (not laudanum), formerly offic. 
Many favourite cool-house shrubs (gum-cistus). 

Citharella Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Cithareloma Bunge. Cruciferae (4). 2 Turkestan. 

Citharexylum Mill. Verbenaceae (i). 35 warm Am. The common 
name fiddle-wood is a corruption of Bois-fidele. 

Citriobatus A. Cunn. Pittosporaceae. 2 S.W. Austr. 

Citriosma Ruiz et Pav. = Siparuna Aubl. (Monim.). 

Citron, Citrus medica L. 

Citronella oil, Cymbopogon Nardus Rendle, C. Winterianus Jowitt. 

Citropsis Swingle et Kellermann (Lt mania p.p.). Rutaceae (v). 
4 trop. Afr. 

Citrullus Forsk. Cucurbitaceae (3). 4 ;=&. C. vnlgaris Schrad. (water- 
melon), C. Colocynthis Schrad. (colocynth), fr. a drug. 

Citrus L. Rutaceae (v). 10 sp. trop. Old World. Shrubs and trees 
with usu. simple L, which show a joint at the meeting place of blade 
and stalk, indicating their derivation from cpd. 1. like those of most of 
the fam. (cf. Berberis). Axillary thorns in some ( = metamorphosed 
1. of the branch shoot). Fls. in corymbs, 5 . K and C 4 8 ; A oo 
in irreg. bundles, corresp. to an outer whorl only ; G (oo ) (6 or more). 
A second whorl sometimes appears. Fr. a berry with leathery epicarp, 
the flesh made up of large cells which grow out from the inner layer 
of the pericarp. 

Many cult, in warm countries, esp. California, the W. Indies, Brazil, 
the Medit. region, &c., for their fr. C. Medica L., the citron, is the 
parent sp. of several varieties, e.g. var. Liinonum the lemon, var acida 
the lime, var. Limefla the sweet lime. C. Aurantium L. is the orange, 
with its vars. Bergamia, the Bergamot orange (from which the 

IO 2 

i 4 8 CITRUS 

perfume is obtained), Bigaradia or a/nara the Seville or bitter orange, 
used in marmalade, C, decumana the shaddock, or pomelo, with its 
var. the grape-fruit, C. sinensis, the Malta or Portugal orange, C. 
suntara Engl., the suntara or kumquat, and others. C. nobilis Lour, 
is the true mandarin orange. Cf. De Candolle, Orig. oj Cult. Pits, 
p. 176; Engler in Nat. PJi.; Bonavia, Oranges... of India and Ceylon. 
Cladanthus Cass. Compositae (7). i S. Spain, Morocco. 
Claderia Hook. f. Orchidaceae (n. =,). i Perak. 
Cladium P. Br. Cyperaceae (n). 30 trop. and temp., esp. Austr. 

C. Mariscns R. Br. (gernianicuin Schrad.), Brit. 
Cladode, phylloclade of one. internode. 

Cladogynos Zipp. ex Span. Euphorb. (A. II. 2). i Malay Arch. 
Cladopus Moller. Podostemaceae. i Java. 
Cladostemon A. Br. et Vatke. Capparid. (ll). i Zanzibar. 
Cladostigma Radlk. Convolvul. (i). i Abyssinia. Ed. fr. 
Cladothamnus Brongn. Ericaceae (i. i). i N.W. N. Am. 
Cladothrix Nutt. Amarantaceae (3). 2 W. N.Am. 
Cladrastis Rafin. Leguminosae (in. i). i E.As., i E. N.Am. (cf. Epi- 
gaea) (C. tinctoria Kami., yellow-wood) ; its wood yields a yellow dye. 
Clambus Miers. Menispermaceae. i Mexico. 
Claoxylon A. Juss. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 60 palaeotrop. 
Clappia A. Gray. Compositae (6). 2 Texas, Mexico. 
Clarionea Lag. = Perez i a Lag. p.p. (Compos.). 
Clarisia Ruiz et Pav. Moraceae (n). 4 Peru, Brazil. 
Clarkeifedia Kuntze (Patrmia p.p.). Valer. i Himalaya. 
Clarkella Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 2). i Himalaya. 
Clarkia Pursh. Onagraceae (2). 8 W. N.Am. Cult. orn. fl. Mech. 

of fl. as in Epilobium. 

Clary, Salvia pratensis L. ; wild- (W. I.), Heliotr opium. 
Clastopus Bunge ex Boiss. (Vesicaria BH.). Cruc. (4). 3 Persia. 
Clathrate, latticed. 

Clathrospermum Planch. (Popo-wia EP.}. Anon. (i). 12 trop. Afr. 
Clathrotropis Harms (Diplotropis p.p.). Legum. (III. i). 2 Braz. 
Clausena Burm. f. Rutaceae (v). 20 palaeotrop. Some ed. fr. 
Clausia Trotzky (Hesperis BH.). Crucif. (4). 5 C. and N. As. 
Clavapetalum Pulle (Plalea p.p.). Icacinaceae. i Surinam. 
Clavate, club-shaped. 

Clavija Ruiz et Pav. Theophrastaceae. 40 trop. Am. Trees of palm- 
like habit, often with fls. on the old wood (cauliflory). 
Clavipodiurn Desv. ex Griming. Euphorb. (B. n). i Austr. 
Clavistylus J. J. Smith. Euphorb. (A. n. 2). i Java. 
Claw, a narrowed base of a petal, Cheiranihus, Caryopliyllac. 
Claytonia Gronov. ex L. Portulacaceae. 24 N. temp, and arctic ; 2 nat. 
in Brit. No slips. Fls. in sympodial cymes. Before pollin. the 
fl.-stalk is erect; fl. protandr., with outward movement of the sta. 
after dehisc. Honey, at base of each petal, accessible to short- 
tongued insects. After pollin., the stalk bends down through 180, 
to return once more to the erect position when fr. ripe. The caps, 
contains 3 seeds and splits into 3 valves, the seeds lying across the 
lines of splitting. The inner surfaces of the valves contract as they 
dry and shoot out the seeds (cf. Buxus, Viola). 


Cleanthe Salisb. Iridaceae (li). i Cape Colony. 

Cleanthes D. Don (Trixis BH.). Compos. (12). 3 S. Braz., Arg. 

Clearing-nut, Slrychnos potatorum L. f. 

Clearweed (Am.), Pi lea. 

Cleavers, Galium Aparine L. 

Cleft, cut halfway down. 

Cleghornia Wight (Baissea BH.}. Apocyn. (n. i). 4 Indomal. 

Cleidion Blume. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 18 trop. 

Cleisocratera Korth. (Psycholria p.p. EP.}. Rubi. (n. 5). i Borneo. 

Cleisostoma Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 20 Indomal. 

Cleistachne Benth. Gramineae (2). 2 trop. As., Afr. 

Cleistanthus Hook. f. ex Planch. Euphorb. (A. I. 2). 40 palaeotrop. 

Cleistes L. C. Rich. (Pogonia BH.}. Orchid, (n. 2). 12 S. Am. 

Cleistochlamys Oliv. Anonaceae (i). i Mozambique. 

Cleistogamy, the production of closed self-pollinating fl., Amphicarfaea, 
Carda/iniie, Comiitelina, Halcnia, Lanihtm, Leersia, Lespedeza, Mal- 
pig/n'a, Montia, Otwiris, Oxalis, Paroc/ietus, Viola, esp. the last. 

Cleistoloranthus Merrill. Loranth. (i). j Phil. Is. 

Cleistopholis Pierre. Anonaceae (i). 5 trop. Afr. 

Clematicissus Planch. (Vitis p.p.). Vitaceae. i W. Austr. 

Clematis Dill, ex L. (incl. Atragene L.). Ranunculaceae (3). 220 
cosmop. C. vitalba L. (traveller's joy) Brit. Mostly climbing 
shrubs with opp., usu. cpd., 1. Lower sides of petioles sensitive to 
contact. The petiole bends once round the support, thickens and 
lignifies. Fls. in cymes ; K coloured ; no pets, or honey secretion. 
The style often remains persistent upon the fr. and becomes hairy', 
thus forming a mech. for wind-distr. 

Clematoclethra Maxim. Dillen. (Ternstr. BH.}. 10 China. 

Clemensia Merrill. Meliaceae (n). i Phil. Is. 

Clementsia Rose (Sednm p.p.). Crassulaceae. i Rocky Mts. 

Cleobula Veil. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Cleobulia Mart. Leguminosae (in. 10). 3 Brazil. 

Cleome L. Cappariclaceae (v). 70 trop., subtrop. Disc usu. more 
developed on post, side ; may bear scales. Gynophore varies in 

Cleomella DC. Capparidaceae (v). 10 N. Am. 

Cleomodendron Pax. Capparidaceae (inc. sed.). i Somaliland. 

Cleonia L. Labiatae (vi). i W. Medit. 

Clermontia Gaudich. Campanulaceae (in). 12 Sandwich Is. The 
latex is used as bird lime. Some have ed. fr. 

Clerodendron L. Verbenaceae (4). 150 trop , subtrop. C. Thompsonae 
Balf., often cult. orn. fl., has red K and white C. The sta. project 
so as to form the landing place for insects, and when they are ripe 
the style is bent down. Afterwards the sta. roll up and the style 
takes their place. C. fistulosum Becc. has hollow internodes inhabited 
by ants (myrmecophily, ^.r'.). 

Clethra Gronov. Clethraceae. 12 trop., subtrop. Shrubs and trees 
with alt. 1.; fls. in racemes or panicles, without bracteoles, ?, reg. 
K 5, C 5, polypet. ; A 5 + 5, hypog. ; no disc ; anthers bent outwards 
in bud ; pollen in single grains ; ov. 3-loc. ; style with 3 stigmas. 
Caps. ; endosp. 


Clethraceae ( EP. ; Ericaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Ericales). 
Only grnus Clethra, q.v. 

Clevelandia Greene ex Brandegee. Scroph. (in. 3). i Calif. 

Cleyera DC. (Eurya Thunb. p.p. EP.}. Theac. 9 warm Am., As. 

Clianthus Banks et Soland. (Donia G. Don). Leguminosae (in. 6). 
2 Austr., N.Z. Cult. orn. fl. 

Clibadium L. Compositae (5). 1=, trop. Am., W.I. 

Clidemia D. Don (incl. Sagraea EP.}. Melastom. (i). 100 trop. Am. 
Ed. fr. 

Cliff-brake (Am.), Pellaea. 

Cliffortia L. Rosaceae (in. 5). 50 S. Afr. 

Cliftonia Banks et Gaertn. f. " Cyrillaceae. i S.E. U.S. 

Climacorachis Hemsl ,et Rose. Leguminosae (in 7). 2 Mex. 

Climbing fern (Am.), Lygodinm; -plants abound in trop. forests, 
where they usu. grow large and woody (lianes}, and are rarer else- 
where. Four chief groups: (i) twiners, whose tips nutate in search 
of support, Apios, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Basella, 
Bauhinia, Bignoniaceae, Bowiea, Calystegia, Camoensia, Ceropegia, 
Cassytha, Combretaceae, Connaraceae, Convolvulaceae, Cuscuta 
(sensitive stems, like tendrils), Cynanchum, Dipladenia, Freycinetia, 
Gnetum, Hoya, Ipomoea, Jasminum, Lardizabalaceae, Loasaceae, 
Lonicera, Lygodium, Malpighiaceae, Menispermaceae, Phaseolus, 
Phytocrene, Plumbago, Polygonum, Rhodochiton, Ruscus, Schi- 
zandra, Solanum, Tamus, Thunbergia, Wistaria; (2) climbers with 
sensitive organs, usu. tendrils > which may be modified stems, 
Antigonon, Landolphia, Passiflora, Vitis, leaves, Bignoniaceae, 
Cucurbitaceae, Cobaea, Corydalis, Leguminosae (Lathyrus, Vicia, 
&c.), Mutisia, sensitive hooks which clasp and become woody, 
Ancistrocladus, Artabotrys, Bauhinia, Gouania, Husjonia, Lan- 
dolphia, Paullinia, Strychno*, Uncaria, Unona, Uvaria ; sensitive I. 
occur in Gloriosa, Littonia, &c., petioles in Clematis, Dalbergia, 
Fumaria, Hablitzia, Maurandia, Rhodochiton, Tropaeolum, midrib 
in Nepenthes, /at, branches in Hippocratea, Macherium, Salacia, 
Securidaca, Uvaria ; (3) hook climbers, sprawling, and catching by 
hooks (cf. above), Caesalpinia, Calamus, Capparis, Combretaceae, 
Desmoncus, Dipladenia, Galium, Hugonia, Lycium, Pereskia, Plecto- 
comia, Smilax, Ventilago ; (4) root climbers with special negatively 
heliotropic adv. r. that adhere to the support, Araceae, Araliaceae, 
Begonia, Bignoniaceae, Clusia, Ficus, Hedera, Hoya, Kendrickia, 
Norantea, Piper, Rhus, Salacia, Sapindaceae, Tecoma 

Climbers are often of anatomical interest, presenting manyabnormal 
features, esp. the trop. lianes. For details, see Darwin, Climbing 
Plants; Schenk, Biologie und Anatomie der Lianen. 

Clinacanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Malaya. 

Clinandrium (orchids), anther-bed. 

Clinogyne Salisb. Marantaceae. 20 trop. As. Afr. 

Clinopodium L. = Calamintha Tourn. (/?/f.) = Satureia L. p.p. 

Clinostigma Wendl. Palmaceae (iv. i). 5 Samoa, New Hebrides, &c. 

Clintonia Dougl. = Downingia Torr. (Campanul.). 

Clintonia Rafin. Liliaceae (vn). 6 E. As., N. Am. 

Clistax Mart. . \canthaceae (iv. B). 2 Brazil. 


Clistoyucca Trel. (Yucca p.p.). Liliaceae (vi). i N. Am. 

Clitandra, Benth. Apocynaceae (i. i). 20 W. and C. trop. Afr. Rubber 

is obtained from the r. of C. Henriqueziana K. Sch. 
Clitoria L. Leguminosae (in. ro). 35 trop. and subtrop. Fls. inverted 

and the essential organs therefore touch an insect's back. 
Clivia Lindl. Amaryllidaceae (i). 5 Cape Col. Cult. orn. fl. 
Cloezia Brongn. et Gris. Myrtaceae (li. i). 6 New Caled. 
Cloiselia Sp. Moore. Compositae (12). i Madag. Tree. 
Clomenolepis Cass. Compositae (inc. sed.). Nomen. 
Clonodia Griseb. Malpighiaceae (n). i N. Brazil. 
Closia Remy. Compositae (6). 5 Chili. 
Closing of fl. in shade or cold, Aiiagallis, Bellis, Calandrinia, 

Eschscholtzia, Paeonia, Tragopogon. 
Clotbur (Am.), Xanthitim. 
Cloudberry, Rnbus Chainaeniorns L. 
Clove gilliflower, -pink, Diantlms Caryophyllns L., var. 
Clovenberry bush (W.I.), Sainvda serrulata L. 
Clover, Trifolium ; bush or Japanese-, LespeJeza. 
Cloves, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb., (W.I.) Pimenta acns Kostel.; 

Madagascar-, Ravensara aroniatica Sonn. 
Clozelia A. Chevalier (Antrocaryon ; Pierre). Anacardiaceae (2). i Ivory 


Clubmoss, Lycopodiiini ; -rush, Scirpus. 
Clusia L. Guttiferae (v). 85 warm Am., mostly climbing epiph., 

clasping the host by anastomosing aerial r., and frequently strangling 

it (cf. Ficus). Fr. fleshy probably carried by birds. 
Clusiaceae (Warming) = Guttiferae. 
Clusianthemum Vieill. (Garcinia p.p. BH. ). Guttif. (v). 2 New 


Clusiella Planch, et Triana. Guttiferae (v). i Colombia. 
Cluster bean. Cyaiopsis\ -pine, Pinns Pinaster Ait. 
Cluytia Hoerh. ex L. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). 50 Afi., Arabia. 
Cluytiandra Muell.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 5 trop. Afr. 
Clybatis Phil. (Leitceria p p. EP.}. Compos. (12). i Chili. 
Clypea Blume=Stephania Lour. (Menisp.). 
Clypeate, shield-shaped. 
Clypeola L. Cruciferae (4). 12 Medit. 
Clytos oma Miers (Pithtcocteniiim Mart. BH.). Bignoniaceae (i). 

2 temp. S. Am. Cult. orn. fl., often under name Bignonia. 
Cnemidiscus Pierre. Sapindaceae (i). i Cochinchina. 
Cnemidophacos Rydb. (Astragalus p.p. ). Legum. (in. 6). i N. Am. 
Cnemidostachys Mart. = Sebastiana Spreng. p.p. (Euph ). 
Cneoraceae (EP.; Simarubaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Gera- 

niales). Only genus Cneorum, q.v. Near to Zygophyllaceae, but 

separated because only one whorl of sta. with no ligules, and no 

stipules, but oil-glands in the I. 
Cneoridium Hook. f. Rutaceae (i). i S. Calif. 
Cneorum L. Cneoraceae. 12 Medit., Canaries. Shrubs with alt. 

leathery exstip. 1. with oil-glands ; fl. sol. or in racemes, 3 4-merous, 

$ , reg. with column or bolster-like disc. A 3 4, G (3 4), lobed, 

with i ov. in each; style i. Schizocarp. 


Cnesmone Blume. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). i Indomal. 

Cnestidium Planch. Connaraceae. i Panama. 

Cnestis Juss. Connaraceae. 20 trop. Afr., As. 

Cnicothamnus Griseh. Compositae (12). i Argentina. 

Cnicus L. p.p. \_BH- and others incl. Cirsium, making 120 j&]. Com- 
positae (i i). i Medit. (C, Benedictus L., offic.). The genus is much 
confused with Carduus and Cirsium. 

Cnidium Cusson (Selimim BH.}. Umbellif. (in. 5). 20 N. palaeo- 

Cnidoscolus Pohl.=Jatropha L. p.p. (Euphorb.). 

Coach. whip, Fouguieria splendens Engelm. 

Coadunate, adnate, connate. 

Coarctate, crowded together. 

Coaxana Coulter et Rose. Umbellif. (111.5). J Mexico. 

Cobaea Cav. Polemoniaceae. 9 trop. Am. C. scandens Cav. cult, 
orn. climber of very rapid growth. It climbs by aid of tendrils 
(leaf-structures) which are much branched, the branches ending in 
sharp hooks. The tendril nutates with great rapidity and is highly 
sensitive to contact (as maybe seen by rubbing one side and watching 
it for 5 min.); the hooks prevent the nutaton from dragging away 
a branch before it has had time to clasp its support (Darwin, Climbers, 
p. 106). The closed bud stands erect on an erect stalk, but when 
going to open, the tip of the stalk bends over. Fl. very protandr. 
with movement of sta. and styles. At first greenish with unpleasant 
smell (fly-fl.), it becomes purple with pleasant honey-like smell 
(bee-fl.). Afterwards the stalk goes through several contortions 
(cf. Linaria). 

Cobnut, Carylus, (W.I.) Omphalea triandra L. 

Cobresia Pers. (Kobresia Willd ). Cyper. (in). 5 N. palaeotemp. 

Coburgia Sweet = Stenomesson Herb. p.p. (Amaryll.). 

Coca, Ervthroxylum Coca Lam.; cocaine, ditto. 

Coccineus (Lat.), scarlet. 

Coccinia Wight et Arn. Cucurbitaceae (4). 20 trop. As. Afr. The fr. 
of C. itidica W. and A. is eaten as a veg. in India. 

Coccoceras Miq. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). 3 Indomal. 

Coccocypselum P. Br. Rubiac. (i. 7). 10 trop. Am. Heterostyled. 

Coccoderma Miers. Menispermaceae. Nomen. 

Coccoglochidion K. Schum. Euphorb. (A. i. i). i New Guinea. 

Coccoloba L. (Coccolobis P. Br. ). Polygonaceae (in. i). 125 trop. and 
subtrop. Am. C. uvifera L., and others, ed. fr. (seaside grape). 

Cocconerion Baill. Euphorb. (inc. sed.). 2 New Caled. 

Coccothrinax Sargent. Palmaceae (i. 2). 10 warm Am. 

Coccule, portion of a divided coccus. 

Cocculus DC. Menispermaceae. 30 trop. and subtrop. 

Cocculus indicus, Anamirta Cocculus Wight et Arn. 

Coccus, n mericarp. 

Cochineal, Nopalea, Ofuntia. 

Cochlanthera Choisy (Clusia BH.}, Guttif. (v). i Venezuela. 

Cochlanthus Half. f. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Socotra. 

Cochlea, a closely coiled legume. 

Cochlear, spoon-shaped. 

cocas 153 

Cochlearia Tourn. ex L. Cruciferae (2). 20 Eur., As. Minor. C. qffici- 
nalis L. (scurvy-grass) in Brit, with fleshy 1., chiefly at the seaside 
and on mts. (cf. Armeria). The thick root of C. Armoracia L. (horse- 
radish) is a condiment. 

Cochleate, coiled shell-shaped. 

Cochlianthus Benth. Leguminosae (in. 10). i Nepal. 

Cochlioda Lindl. Orchid, (n. 19). 5 trop. S. Am. Cult. 

Cochliostema Lem. Commelinaceae. i Ecuador, C. odoratissima Lem., 
cult. orn. perf. fl. The filaments of the fertile sta. develope both lat. 
and beyond the anthers into large wings. Anther-loculi spiral. 

Cochlospermaceae (EP.; Bixineae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Parietales). 3 gen., 18 sp. trop. Trees and shrubs usu. with lobed 
1. and racemose infl. of large $ , reg. or slightly [ fl. K 4 5, C 4 5, 
A oo , G (3 5) with oo ov. in each on axile or parietal plac. Caps. 
Oily endosp. 

Coclilospermuin Kunth. Cochlospermaceae. 12 trop., mostly xero. ; 
some have stout tuberous underground stems ; many drop their 1. and 
flower in the dry season. Some cult. orn. 

Cochranea Miers. Boraginaceae (in). 10 Chili. 

Cockburnia Half. f. Globulariaceae. i Socotra. 

Cockle (Am.), Lychnis; -bur (Am.), Xanthimn. 

Cock's comb, Celosia cristata L. ; -head. (W.I.), Desmodium tortuosum 
DC.; -foot grass, Dactylis glomerata L. ; -spur (W.I.), Pisonia 
aculeata L. ; -spur thorn (Ceylon), Acacia eburnea Willd. 

Coco, Colocasia antiquorum Schott ; -de-mer, Lodoicea Seychellarum 
Labill.; -nut, Cocos nucifera L., Lodoicea; -plum, Chrysobalanus 
Icaco L. ; water nut, Nipa f net icons Thunb. ; -wood (W.I.), Inga 
vera Willd. 

Cocoa, Theobrotna Cacao L., and other spp. 

Cocops O. F. Cook. Palmaceae (iv. i). \ W. Indies. 

Cocos L. Palmae (IV. 2). 60 trop., esp. C. mtcifera L. (coconut), cult, 
throughout trop. It grows esp. well near to the sea, and its fibrous 
and woody fr. is capable of floating long distances uninjured, hence 
it forms a char, feature of marine island veg., and indeed probably 
became widely distr. in early times. It is a tall palm with large 
pinnate 1. and a dense monoec. infl. The .stem rarely stands vertically, 
but makes a gradual curve; this would appear to be due to helio- 
tropism. Fr. large, one-seeded. The outer layer of the pericarp is 
fibrous, the inner very hard (the shell of the coconuts sold in shops). 
At the base are 3 marks, corresponding to the 3 loc. of the ovary, 
two of which have become obliterated. Under one of these is the 
embryo. The thin testa is lined with white endosp., enclosing a large 
cavity, partly filled with a milky fluid. This palm furnishes many 
of the necessaries of life to the inhabitants of the tropics, and its 
products are largely exported from Ceylon, the Philippines, &c. 
The large 1. are woven into cadjans for thatching, mats, baskets, &c. ; 
their stalks and midribs make fences, brooms, yokes, and many other 
articles ol furniture. The bud or " cabbage " at the apex of the stem 
makes an excellent v< getable and is made into pickles and preserves. 
When flowering the infl. -axis is tapped for toddy, a drink like the 
Mexican pulque (cf. Agave), containing sugar. Evap. .of toddy 

i54 CO COS 

furnishes a sugar known as jaggery ; its fermentation gives an 
alcoholic drink, from which distillation produces the strong spirit 
known as arrack, while further fermentation gives vinegar. The 
fr. while young contain a pint or more of a sweetish watery fluid, 
a refreshing drink ; it decreases as the nut ripens. The kernels are 
eaten raw, or in curries, milk is expressed from them for flavouring, 
and oil is extracted by boiling or by pressure, in the latter case the 
kernels being first dried into what is known as copra. The refuse 
cake or poonac, left after the expression of the oil, is a valuable 
fattening food for cattle. The great use of the 'oil is for soap-making 
and margarine. In recent years a large industry has sprung up in 
desiccated coconut, largely used in confectionery, the kernel being 
sliced and dried in special desiccators. The outer wood of the stem 
(porcupine wood) is used for rafters, orn. articles. &c. The thick 
outer husk, rarely seen in Europe upon the nut, contains a large 
number of long stout fibres running lengthwise. The nut is placed 
in water till the soft tissues between these fibres decay, and the fibre 
(coir) is then beaten out ; or sometimes the fibre is obtained by special 

Cocos or cocus wood, Brya Ebcmts DC. 

Codia Forst. Cunoniaceae. 9 New Caledonia. 

Codiaeum Rumph. ex A. Juss. Euphorb. (A. n. 5). 6 Indomal., 
Polynes., Austr. C. variegatum Blume cult., esp. in trop., for its 
coloured 1. ; usu. known as Crotons, and also used as hedges. Some 
have curious 1 , often twisted, or with two blades separated by a 
length of petiole. 

Codlins and cream, Epilobium hirsntum L. 

Codon L. Hydrophyllaceae. 3 S. Afr. 

Codonacanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 2 Khasias, China. 

Codonanthe Hanst. Gesneriaceae (i) 10 trop. Am. 

Codonocarpus A Cunn. ex Hook. \Gyrostemon Desf. f.). Phyto- 
laccaceae. 3 Austr. 

Codonocephalum Fenzl. Compositae (4). 2 W. As. 

Codonopsis Wall. Campanulaceae (i). 15 As. Cult. orn. fl. 

Codonorchis I.indl (Pogonia BH.}. On-hid, (n 2). 2 temp. Am. 

Codonosiplion Schlechter. Orchid, (n. 16). 2 New Guinea. 

Codonostigma Klotzsch (Scyphogyne JBH.). Eric (iv. 2). i S. Afr. 

Codonura K. Schum. Apocynaceae (n. i). i Cameroons. 

Coelachne R. Br Gramineae (9). 5 Indomal , China, Austr., Madag. 

Cortacnyrum Nees (Eragrostis p. p. BH.}. Gram. (n). 2 S.W. As. 

Coelanthum E. Mey. Aizoaceae (l). 2 S. Afr. 

Coelartnron Hook. f. (Amlropogon p.p. EP. ). Gramin. (2). i Indomal. 

Coelebogyne J. Sm . = Alchornea Sw. p.p. (Euphorb.). 

Coelia Lindl. Orchidaceae (11. 6). 5 trop. Am., W.I. 

Coelidium Vog. Leguminosae (ill. 3). 8 S. Afr. 

Coelina Nor. Inc. seel. Nomen. 

Coeliopsis Reichb. f. Orchid. (H. 13). i Panama. 

Coelocarpum Balf. f. Verbenaceae (i). 2 Socotra, Madag. 

Coelocaryon Warb. Myristicaceae. 5 trop. Afr. 

Coelococcua H. Wendl. (Metro.\ylou p.p.)- Palm. (in). 2 Polynes. 

Coelodepas Hassk. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). ? Indomal. 

CO IX 155 

Coelodiscus Bail). Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 5 Indomal. 

Coeloglossum Harttn. (Habenaria p.p. BH.). Orch. (II. i). 2 N. 

Coelogyne Lindl. (BH. incl. Pleione D. Don). Orchidaceae (it. 3). 
1 20 Indomal. 

Coelonema Maxim. Cruciferae (4). i China. 

Coeloneurum Radlk. Solanaceae (4). 2 San Domingo. 

Coelopleurum Ledeb. (Archan^elica BH.}. Umbel, (in. 5). 6 N. Am., 
E. As. 

Coelopyrum Jack. Inc. sed. i Malaya. 

Coelorachis Brongn. (Rottbodlia L.). Gram. (2). 7 N. Am. 

Coelospermous, with boat-shaped seeds. 

Coelospermum Blume. Rubiac. (n. 9). 12 Malaya, Austr., Polyn. 

Coelostegia Benth. Bombacaceae. 3 Malaya. 

Coelostelma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (II. 4). i Brazil. 

Coemansia March (Pentapanax p.p.). Araliac. (2). i Brazil. 

Coffea L. Rubiaceae (n. 4). 45 palaeotrop., esp. Afr. C. arabica L. 
(Arabian coffee) largely cult, in S. Brazil, Java, Jamaica, and else- 
where, often under the shade of large trees. C. liberica Hiern 
(Liberian coffee) cult. usu. at lower elevations; its produce is not 
so good. Other sp. nre also used. The fr. is a 2-seeded drupe, 
resembling a cherry. The pulp and the endocarp (which covers the 
two seeds like a layer of parchment) are mechanically removed. 
The seed, or coffee-bean, has a deep groove on the ventral side ; 
by soaking it in water the endosperm is softened and the embryo 
may be dissected out. The stimulating property depends on the 
presence of the alkaloid caffeine. Coffee cultivation was from 1850 
to 1880 the mainstay of Ceylon agriculture, but was killed out largely 
by the attacks of a fungus (Hemileia vaslatrix) and the green bug. 
By far the largest cult, is that of Brazil, which in 1912 exported 
^45 million worth of coffee. (Raoul, Culture du Cafeier, Paris.) 

Coffee, Coffea arabica L., &c. ; Kentucky-, Gymnodadus. 

Coffin nail, Anacardium occidentale L. 

Cogniauxia Baill. Cucurbitaceae (3). 4 trop. Afr. 

Cogswellia Spreng. (Peucedanum p.p.). Umbelliferae (in. 6). 70 
N. Am. 

Cogwood, Zizyphus chloroicylon Oliv. ; (W.I.), Ceanothus. 

Cohesion, union of mi mbers of same whorl, eg. petals. 

Cohnia Kunth (Confyline p.p. BH.}. Lili. (vi). 3 Masc., New Caled. 
do. Reichb. f. =Cohniella Pfitz. 

Cohniella Pfitz. (Cohnia Reichb. f.). Orchid, (n. 19). r C. Am. 

Cohort, a group of allied fams., now termed an order. 

Cohosh (Am.), Cimicifnga; blue-, Caidophyllinn. 

Cohune nut, Atta'ea cohiuif Mart. 

Coilochilus Schlecht. Orchid, (u. 2). i New Caled. 

Coincya Rouy (Rapliainis p.p. BH.}. Crucif. (2). i Spain. 

Coinochlamys T. Anders. Loganiaceae. 5 W. Afr. 

Coir, Cocos nticifera L. 

Coix L. Gramineae (i). 6 India, China, esp. C. Lachryma L. (Job's 
tears) with inverted pear-shaped body at base of infl., the sheath of 
the br. of the infl., hollowed out and containing the i-fld. ? spikelet ; 


the (f project beyond the mouth; cult, for food in Khasia Hills and 
Burma ; used in medicine in China. 

Cola Schott et Encll. Sterculiaceae. 50 Afr. C. vera K. Schumann 
and C. acuminata Schott et Endl. ( possibly identical) are the source 
of the kola nuts which form a principal article of trade in W. Africa. 
The nuts contain much caffein, and when chewed confer considerable 
power of sustaining fatigue ; they are consequently a staple in the 
diet of the negroes (cf. Erythroxylon). The tree is as yet rarely cult., 
but is very common in W. Afr. The nuts are skinned after keeping 
for a few days, and packed between 1. to keep them damp. 

Colax Lindl. (Lycasie Lindl. BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 14). 3 Brazil. Cult. 

Colchicaceae (Warming) Liliaceae (suborder i). 

ColcMcum L. Liliaceae (i). 45 Eur., W. As., N. Afr. C.autiimnale'L. 
(autumn crocus or meadow saffron), Brit. Below the soil is a large 
corm (fig. and description of corm &c. below). In autumn the fl. 
projects out of the soil. The P-tube is long, and the ovary remains 
below ground, protected from cold, &c. The protog. fl. is visited by 

A, pi. in fl. in autumn, xj. B, 1. and opening fr. in following summer, Xj. 
C, underground portion of fig. pi. cut lengthwise ; the thick outer line repres. the 
brown membrane enveloping the whole ; to the right is the corm formed from the 
base of last year's shoot, a withered portion remaining at the apex ; to the left is 
the fig. axis, a lat. shoot from the base of the corm ; from the base of the axis 
spring r. and above are the 1., sheathing and foliage; the fl. arises in the axil 
of one of the uppermost foliage 1., which will appear above ground with the fr. 
next spring, when the lower portion of the axis will swell to form a new corm. 
Reduced. D, section of upper part of fl. X J. E, ovary cut lengthwise. F, cross- 
section ovary. G, a single stigma. H, cross-section fr. I, ditto seed. BEGHI 
after Berg and Schmidt. E to G, and I enlarged, H x. 


bees. In spring the 1. appear and the capsule is brought above 
ground by the lengthening of its stalk. The seeds and corms are 
used in medicine, in gout. 

Coldenia L. Boiaginaceae (n). 15 trop., subtrop. 

Colea Boj. Bignoniaceae (4). 18 Madag., Masc. 

Coleantnera Stschegl. Epacridaceae (3). 3 W. Austr. 

Coleanthus Seidl. Gramineae (8). i N. temp. 

Colebrookea Sm. Labiatae (vi). i India. 

Coleocoma-F. Muell. Compositae (4). i trop. Austr. 

Coleogyne Torr. Rosaceae (in. 3). i California. 

Coleonema Bartl. et Wendl. Rutaceae (i). 5 S. Afr. 

Coleosanthus Cass. = Brickellia Ell. (Compos.). 

Coleospadix Becc. (Ptychosperma EP.). Palm. (iv. i). 2 New Guin. 

Coleostachys A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (n). i N. S. Am. 

Coleotrype C. B. Clarke. Commelin. 3 S.E. Afr., Madag. 

Coleus Lour. Labiatae (vn). 150 palaeotrop. Many forms and hybrids 
with varieg. and coloured leaves, cult. C. elongatus Triinen is a 
peculiar sp. found only on the top of one mountain in Ceylon, and 
must have arisen by mutation {Ann. Perad. IV. r). 

Colic-root (Am.), Aletris. 

Colignonia Endl. Nyctaginaceae. 7 Andes. 

Collabium Blume. Orchidaceae (n. a. n). 3 Malaya. 

Colladonia DC. = Prangos Lindl. p.p. (Umbellif.). 

Collaea DC. = Galactia P. Br. p.p. (Legum.). 

Collar, junction of root and shoot. 

Collards (Am.), a form of cabbage. 

Collateral branches, buds, cf. Buds. 

Collecting (notes for field botanists, travellers and collectors). 

OUTFIT. Any or all of the following may be needed, according to 

the places to be visited, and the kind of work to be done. All that is 

needed should be taken from the start, as it is usually difficult to get 

suitable things quickly elsewhere; extra supplies of paper, &c. may be 

sent to the " Poste restante " at places to be visited en route. 

Portfolios for pressing plants as collected, lightly made of two strong 

cloth-covered pasteboards (17 in. xu in.) with encircling straps and 

handle, and to contain 3050 sheets of paper. Specimens as collected 

are put at once into these, and time is thus saved in making large 

collections, e.g. on a journey in new country. 

Collecting tins or vasculums of various sizes for bringing plants home 

for further study. When slung on the back, the 

hinges should be on the lower side of the lid, 

and the bolt should slide downwards to fasten, 

otherwise it is liable to work loose. Small 

specimens are best carried in small round- 
cornered tobacco or tooth-powder tins, not among 

large ones in a general vasculum. 

Presses for drying pi.; each of two outer 

frames of \ inch iron rod 17^ x 1 1^ inches, filled 

in with stout wire netting soldered to the iron. 

The papers lie between these frames and the whole is strapped with two 

stout straps to obtain the pressure". 




Lattices, 1 7 x 1 1 indie*, for admitting air between the masses of plants 
in the press, made of two sets of parallel thin laths fastened together. 

Drving paper in sheets 17* 1 1 inches in ample quantity ; slout 
Manila is best, blotting paper is too fragile. Mounting paper in sheets 
i6i v. io.j inches (standard si^e of Kew herbarium) or sheets of news- 
paper or other common paper for preservation of dry specimens removed 
from the press. Unfolded envelopes of thin paper cut into the shape 
shown, for seeds, flowers, &c.; place the specimen on i and fold over 
the wings 2, 3, 4, 5 in order. 2 must be the same size as i. 

Waxcloth for tying up bundles of dried and mounted specimens ; 
waterproof canvas for covers for presses, &c. in case of rain. 

Corrosive sublimate (mercuric chloride) and alcohol for poisoning 
specimens ; made up as required in the proportion of i part to 50. 
Large dish for poisoning. Naphthalin for keeping away insects. 

Kerosine tins or other square tins with large lids for preserving 
specimens in alcohol (lids that push in airtight, as in many tobacco tins, 
are the best) ; soldering apparatus for fastening up when full. 

Bottles with stoppers for preserving delicate specimens ; neckless 
glass tubes, with corks, of various sizes. Bottles are easily packed in 
joints of bamboo, tubes in small tins. 

Aluslin for wrapping alcohol specimens. Each should be wrapped 
with its label (in Indian ink, or better on metal) in a piece of muslin 
and packed in the tin ; specimens cannot then become mixed together, 
and can be closely packed . 

Alcohol for preserving ; ordinary methylated spirit is best for most 
things, but some require 70 % alcohol, and some absolute alcohol. 

Formalin, picric acid, chromic acid, glycerin, or other preservatives. 

Butterfly-net, killing-bottle, insect boxes, entomological pins, if eco- 
logical work is to be done. 

Hunting-knife, cutlass, or kukri for lopping creepers, &c. ; pruning 
shears for cutting branches ; strong pocket knives ; strong narrow-bladed 
trowels; geological hammer; strong rope for climbing, &c. 

Travelling microscope and lenses ; dissecting microscope; pocket lenses; 
microscope slides, cover-slips in alcohol or oil; scalpels; dissecting 
needles ; scissors large and small and with fine points; razors for section- 
cutting ; forceps; dishes; watch-glasses; camel-hairbrushes. 

Reagents and mount ants for simple microscopic work, e.g. iodine, 
glycerine, haematoxylin, gold-size, Canada balsam in xylol, alcohol, oil 
of cloves. 

Compass (prismatic by preference) ; spirit-level ; aneroid barometer ; 
thermometers (ordinary, maximum and minimum, wet and dry bulb) ; 
field glass (very useful for studying cliffs, ravines, trees, &c.) ; maps 
(geographical, geological, outlines for marking distribution, &c.). 

Photographic camera and lenses; tripod; films or plates in soldered 
tins ; chemicals and dishes for developing, fixing, &c. 

Drawing pencils (hard, medium, soft) ; drawing cards ; sketch-block; 
colours; brushes; india-rubber; ink ; compasses ; ruler; scales in inches 
and centimetres; gum and brush; pins ; pens ; pencils; stylograph. 

Spirit-lamp; tape-measure; string, twine and thread; thin wire; 
sheet'/tv?;/ 1 or zinc for labels (if latter, also solution of platinic chloride 
for writing on it) ; ghte-pot and glue for mounting. 


Note-books with numbered detachable pages, so that the descr. ui" 
each specimen can be separated ; consecutively numbered and perforated 
labels for specimens, the numbers to correspond to those in note- book. 
The labels may be joined to the pages or in sheets like postage stamps. 
More than one of each number will usu. be needed. 

COLLECTING AND PRESERVING. The following hints will be found 

Decide the general object of the work in advance, and collect 
principally for the furtherance of that object. 

In collecting for subsequent distr., collect enough specimens to go 
round, but do not seriously diminish a plant in its native locality. 

Do not collect immediately on arrival ; first become familiar with 
the plants aii'1 their local features and distribution. Better results are 
obtained by choosing certain localities as headquarters and working 
these thoroughly, than by rushing through a large district. 

Do not collect herbarium material in wet weather. 

Collect specimens which are as typical as possible, but also take 
some illustrating the range of variation, the difference of habit and size 
on different soils or situations, &c. 

Collect entire pi. if possible, incl. r. In shrubs or trees, twigs with 1. 
in all stages, portions of stem-bark and anything else necessary for a com- 
plete descr. Do not forget rad. 1., buds, fl., ripe and unripe fr., seeds. 

If a large collection is being made, it is quicker to use the portfolio 
than the vasculum, and to press each specimen as soon as obtained. 

Large flowers or heads (e.g. thistles), fruits, roots, tubers, &c. may 
be sliced in half before pressing, or the surface only sliced off. Notes 
and sketches should be made of the original appearance. 

L. of Conifers, Heaths, Succulents, &c. fall when dried, unless 
previously immersed a few seconds in boiling water. Do not 
immerse fl. 

Thurny and prickly plants should first be placed between boards 
and pressed down with the feet ; the prickles would otherwise tear 
the papers. 

Delicate water plants should be arranged upon sheets of white paper 
under water, and always remain on these sheets while drying. 

It saves time in drying delicate specimens to keep each always in a 
folded sheet of very thin paper. 

Place extra fl., small fragments, seeds, &c., in small envelopes, 
numbered to correspond with the specimens; do not have any small 
parts loose, or confusion may result. 

Place all specimens in the press the day they are collected. Withered 
plants may be soaked in water; if the stem be cut 2 3 in. above the 
former cut and tinder water it will often revive quickly. 

Label every specimen with its consecutive number in such a way 
that the number cannot be lost. Punched labels are best, tied on with 
thread. See that all envelopes, &c. have the same number. 

Spread out the specimens naturally. It many 1. &c. overlap, place 
bits of drying paper between. If stems have to be cut, mark the corre- 
sponding ends by stars on the paper. Spread out some fl., leave others 
unspread, and divide some in the antero-post. plane. Divide some fr. 
lengthwise and crosswise. 


Arrange the specimens on the sheets so that they form a steady pile 
without lumps in the middle. Place a lattice upon every five inches of 
specimens. When all are ready place in the press and draw the straps 
as tight as possible, or better, place about 10 Ibs. weight upon it. 
Tighten the straps as the plants shrink. 

Change drying papers at least once daily: dry used paper in the 
sun or by the fire ; use warm driers where possiblr . See that petals, 
&c. do not stick to the paper: if necessary put slips of tissue paper 

In changing the papers, put the outer specimens inside, so that all 
shall dry evenly. Drying should be as rapid as possible to prevent loss 
of colour, blackening, &c. 

Fully dried plants no longer feel cold on the cheek, and are stiff and 

Dried specimens should be poisoned by a brief immersion in i % 
solution of mercuric chloride in alcohol. They should then be dried in 
the air, mounted (with glue) or laid between sheets of paper, and tied 
up in wax-cloth with a little naphthalin to keep out insects. 

Material for subsequent microscopic examination or for museums 
must usu. be preserved in alcohol. Cut into small portions, attach label 
(best of zinc written on with solution of platinic chloride, but paper and 
pencil or Indian ink will do temporarily) ; place in methylated spirit for 
a few days, wrapped in muslin, and finally preserve in large tin. A few 
inches of spirit at the bottom, enough to keep all specimen* moist when 
the tin is soldered, will suffice for most material. Specimens for embryo- 
logical, delicate histological, cytological, and other investigations, and 
delicate plants or organs, must be separately preserved from the fir t in 
absolute alcohol in bottles or tubes. Labels should be put inside these. 
Contents of bottles may be written on the ground surface of the stoppers, 
so as to be legible through the neck. 

Museum material may also be preserved in formalin (i part of ordinary 
solution to 10 or more of water). Some special preservatives, e.g. picric 
and chromic acids, are used in special cases. 

Specimens illustrative of economic uses of plants and their products 
should be collected in less known districts, e.g. samples of gums, resins, 
caoutchoucs, oils, fibres, timbers (portions of trunks, or slabs 8x4x4 
inches), food-products, drugs, dyes, tans, &c. In all cases the exact 
origin should be verified, and herbarium specimens taken, bearing 
numbers to correspond with those placed on the products. 

From less known countries, endeavour to bring back living seeds 
(ripe, well dried, dry in canvas bags, or packed in charcoal in tins if to 
be long kept), bulbs and tubers (gathered when dry and with withered 
leaves), succulent plants (gathered dry and loosely packed), living 
plants (planted in earth in Wardian cases or sometimes in bamboo pots, 
if possible some weeks before moving). Cuttings may sometimes be 
brought in oiled silk wrappers; pseudobulbs in boxes with air-holes; 
tree lerns with the fronds removed, and a ball of earth round the root. 

RECORDING. The following hints are worth noting. 

Make all notes immediately upon observation of the facts ; never 
trust to memory, nor delay recording. 

Make all notes about individual specimens upon detachable sheets, 


numbered to correspond with the specimens ; never describe two or 
more on the same sheet ; never use the same number twice. 

Make no record till satisfied of its truth and accuracy. 

Accompany all notes with maps, drawings, sketches, or photographs 
as far as possible. 

Sketch and photograph all peculiarities of habit, characteristic forms 
of vegetation, and other features of interest. Mark all plants in such 
pictures with numbers corresponding to their numbers in your collection, 
and write a full description of each picture before leaving the spot. If 
a photograph is taken, make a rough sketch (from the picture on the 
focussing screen or finder) of the scene and put numbers to the plants. 

Label all specimens as collected with consecutive numbers, and 
subsequently with permanent labels (about 3x2 inches) giving name 
of herbarium, collection, tour or district in which they were collected, 
date, locality, and collector, as well as the number. 

As each specimen is gathered, record date, exact locality, elevation 
above sea, habit, colour of fl. and fr., scent, presence or absence of 
honey, floral mechanism, insect visits, and any other features and facts 
that cannot be ascertained from the specimens preserved. 

Note the comparative frequency of each species, the kind of situation 
and soil it affects, and the species with which it is found in association. 

Endeavour to note the chief general forms of vegetation and the 
local grouping of pi. in districts studied. Pay special attention to 
ecological and geographical questions. 

Record native names (question several different persons before 
deciding), economic uses, and points of general or ethnological interest. 

Further details of the subjects treated in this section may be found 
in Hints for Collectors (Kew Bulletin, 1914, p. 97), the Admiralty 
Manual of Scientific Enquiry, Dammer's Handbuch ftir Pflanzen- 
sam>nkr, Stuttgart, 1891, Asa Gray's Structural Botany, &c. 
Collective (fr.), resulting from several fl., Ficus, Morns, Platanns. 
Collet, collar. 
Colleters, glandular hairs. 

Colletia Comm. ex Juss. Rhamnaceae. 15 S. Am. Habit peculiar; 
in each axil are 2 serial buds ; the upper gives a triangular thorn, the 
lower fls. or a branch of unlimited growth. 

Colliguaja Molina. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 6 temp. S. Am. 
Collinsia Nutt. Scrophul. (n. 4). 25 N. Am., often cult. orn. fl. The 

fl. resembles, in shape and mech., that of Leguminosae. 
Collinsonia L. Labiatae (vi). 2 All. N. Am. 
Collinus (Lat.), on low hills. 
Collococcus P. Br. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Collomia Nutt. Polemoniaceae. 20 W. Am. The seed coat has a 
covering of cells with mucilaginous walls which swell when wetted 
(cf. Brassica, Linum, &c.). Cult. orn. fl. 
Coliyris Vahl = Dischidia R. Br. (Asclep.). 
Colmeiroa F. Muell. Saxifragaceae (v). t Lord Howe I. 
Colobanthus Bartl. Caryophyllaceae (i. i). 15 S. Am., Austr., N.Z. 

Petals o. Sta. in one whorl. 

Colocasia Schott. Araceae (vi). 8 Indomal. Tuberous herbs or small 
shrubs. Monoec. Sta. in synandria. C. antiqnorum Schott (taro, 

W. II 


coco, or scratch-coco), cult, in trop. for its rhiz., which when boiled 

loses its poisonous nature and forms valuable food. 
Colocynth, Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad. 
Colocynthis (Tourn.) L.= Citrullus Neck. (Cucurb.). 
Cologania Kunth (Amphicarpaea EP.). Legum. (m. 10). 30 Am., As. 
Colonist, weed of cult, land, rare elsewhere. 
Colophony, a form of resin. 

Coloptera Coulter et Rose. Umbell. (in. 6). 3 N.W. U.S. 
Colosantliera Pohl. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Colour, change in fi, cf. Change; of young 1., Amktrstia, Brownea, 

Cinnaniomum, Dryobalanops, Haeinatoxylon. 
Colpias E. Mey. Scrophulariaceae (il. 3). i S. Afr. 
Colpodium Trin. Gramineae (10). 12 N. temp. 
Colpoon Berg. Santalaceae. 3 S. Afr. 
Colpothrinax Griseb. et H. Wendl. Palm. (i. 2). i Cuba. 
Colquhounia Wall. LaUatae (vi). 5 Indomal. 
Colt's foot, Tussilago Farfara L. ; (W.I.) Piper umbellatum L. 
Colubrina Rich, ex Brongn. Rhamnaceae. 20 trop., subtrop. 
Columbaria J. et C. Presl = Scabiosa Tourn. (Dipsac.). 
Columbia Pers. Tiliaceae. 15 trop. As. 
Columbine, Aqiiilegia vulgaris L. 
Columella, central axis of fr., Geranium, Thuja. 
Columellia Ruiz et Pav. Columell. 3 N. Andes. Shrubs with evergr. 

opp. exstip. 1. Fls. in cymes, 5, nearly reg. K 5, C (5), A 2, short 

and thick with irreg. broad connective and i twisted pollen sac. 

No disc. G (2), imperfectly 2-loc. ; ov. GO, anatr. ; style short and 

thick with broad 2 4-lobed stigma. Caps., enclosed in K. Endosp. 
Columelliaceae. Dicots. (Sympet. Tubiflorae ; Personates BH.}. 

Only genus Coluniellia (q.v.). [Van Tieghem, Ann. Sc. Nat. 8. 

xviii. 155.] 

Column, cf. Orchidaceae. 
Columnea Plum, ex L. Gesneraceae (i). 75 trop. Am., several climbers 

and epiphytes. Anisophylly is frequent. 
Columniferae (Warming). The J2th cohort of Choripetalae. 
Coluria R. Br. Rosaceae (ill. 2). 4 Siberia, China. 
Colutea (Tourn.) L. Leguminosae (in. 6). 12 S. Eur. to Himal. 

C. arborescens L. (bladder-senna) cult. Its 1. have similar properties 

to senna (Cassia) and are used to adulterate the latter. The pods are 

inflated and burst on being squeezed. 
Coluteocarpus Boiss. Cruciferae (2). i W. As. Mts. 
Colvillea Boj. ex Hook. Leguminosae (n. 7). i Madag. 
Colza, Brassica Napus L. 
Coma, a tuft of hairs. 

Comandra Nutt. Santalaceae. 4 Eur., N. Am. 
Comanthosphace Sp. Moore. Labiatae (vi). 4 Japan. 
Comarella Rydberg (Potentilla p.p.). Rosac. (m. 2). 2 N. Am. 
Coniarobatia Greene (Rubus p.p.). Rosac. (in. 2). i N.W. Am. 
Comarostaphylis Zucc. = Arctostaphylos Adans. p.p. (Eric.). 
Comarum L. = Potentilla L. (Rosac.). 
Combretaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Myrtiflorae; Myrtales 

BH-). i6gen., 450 sp. trop. and subtrop. Trees and shrubs with 


alt. or opp. simple 1. and no stips. ; many climbers, some twining, 
some with hooks formed of the persistent bases of the petioles. Fls. 
usually sessile in racemose infls., $ , reg. Typical formula: K 5, C 5, 
A5 + 5 G i-loc. ; ov. 2 5, anatr., pend. ; style simple. There is 
a disc on the summit of the ovary, sometimes with various outgrowths. 
Fr. dry, i-seedecl, often winged at the angles. Seed exalb. ; coty- 
ledons usu. twisted spirally. Chief genera : Terminalia, Combretum, 

Cornbretocarpus Hook. f. Rhizophoraceae. i Borneo. 
Combretodendron A. Chevalier. Combretaceae. i trop. Afr. 
Combretopsis K. Schum. (f.ophofyxis Hk. f.). Icac. i New Guin. 
Combretum L. Combretaceae. 330 trop. and subtrop., exc. Austr. 
and Polynes. The fruit of C. bittyrosum Tal. (trop. Afr.) yields a 
butter-like substance known as Chiquito, used as butter. 
Comesperma Labill. (Bredenieyera p.p. EP,}. Polygal. 25 Austr. 
Cometes L. Caryophyllaceae (i. 6). 2 W. As. 
Cometia Thou. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 2 Madag. 
Comfrey, Syniphytiini offichtale L. 

Cominsia Hemsl. Marantaceae. 2 Austr., Solomon Is. 
Commelina L. Commelinaceae. 110 trop. C. coelestis Willd. cult, 
orn. fl. In the fl. there is division of labour between the sta. 
(cf. Heeria). The fl. stands horizontally and the sta. and style 
project beyond the C. The upper 3 sta. (in many sp.) are almost 
sterile, but the lobes are juicy. The two lat. lower sta. and the 
median one are fully fertile. Bees often climb up and pierce the 
upper anthers for honey. C. benghalensis L. has subterranean cleisto- 
gamic fls. The rhizome of some sp. is edible. 

Commelinaceae (EP., BH.). Monocots. (Farinosae ; Coronarieae BH.}. 
25 gen., 300 sp., mostly trop. and subtrop. herbs with jointed stems 
and alt. sheathing 1. Infl. usu. a cincinnus of the Boraginaceae type. 
Fl. $, usu. reg., commonly blue. Typical formula K 3, C 3, A 3 + 3, 
G (3), but some sta. commonly absent or stds. K and C differ in 
colour and texture. Ov. 3-loc., with a few orthotr. ov. in each. 
Caps, loculic. or indeh. Endosp. fleshy; seed often arillate. Chief 
genera: Commelina, Tradescantia. 
Commensalism, living together for mutual benefit. 
Commersonia Forst. Sterculiaceae. 10 trop. As., Austr. 
Commersorchis Thou. Orchidaceae (inc. sed.). i Mascarenes. 
Commicarpus Standley (Boerhaavia p.p.). Nyctag. 2 N. Am., W.I. 
Commidendron Burch. Compositae (3). 5 St Helena. C. gumtni- 

fornni DC. yields a gum. 

Commiphora Jacq. (Bahamodendron Kunth). Burseraceae. 80 trop. 
As., Afr. Several spp. yield myrrh. The resin exudes from the tree 
and collects in lumps. It is used in medicine and in incense, &c. 
C. opobalsamuin Engl. is said to yield the resin balm of Gilead. 
Other sp. yield bdellium and other resins. 
Commissure (Umbelliferae), face by which carpels cohere. 
Common receptacle, the receptacle of all fl. on a head. 
Communis (Lat), social, general. 

Community (Cl.), a mixture of individuals of 2 or more spp. 
Comocladia P. Br. Anacardiaceae (3). 15 W.I., C. Am. 

II 2 

164 CO MO LI A 

Comolia DC. Melastomaceae (i). 20 S. Am. 

Comomyrsine Hook. f. (Weigeltia p.p. EP.). Myrsin. (n). 48. Am. 

Comopycna O. Ktze. = Pycnocoma Benth. (Euphorb.). 

Comoroa Oliv. (Teclea p.p. EP.). Rutaceae (iv). i Comoro Is. 

Comose, hairy in tufts. 

Comostemum Nees = Androtrichum Brongn. (Cyper. ). 

Comparettia Poepp. et End!. Orchidaceae (n. 19). 5 trop. Am. 


Compass-plants, Silphiiini laciniatuin L., Lactuca Scariola L. 
Comperia C. Koch (Orchis Bff.). Orchid. (11. i). i S.E. Eur. 
Compital, where veins intersect at an angle. 
Complanate, flattened. 
Complete (fl.), with two whorls of perianth. 
Complicate, folded on itself. 

Compositae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Campanulatae ; Asterales 
BH.). The largest fam. of flg. pi., comprising about 900 genera, 
with over 13,000 sp. more than io/ of the total. They are distr. 
over the greater part of the earth. Although so large a fam. they 
are well marked in their characters and cannot be confounded with 
any other, though they have a superficial likeness to Dipsaceae and 

Living in almost every conceivable situation, they present great 
variety in veg. habit, often within a single genus, e.g. Senecio (q.v.). 
Water and marsh plants and climbers are rare, and so also are 
epiphytes. This latter is interesting, for the distr. mech. of these 
pi. is admirably suited to an epiph. existence, and xero. is not 
uncommon. The enormous majority are herbaceous pi.; trees and 
shrubs are comparatively rare (about i|/ ). It is worthy of note 
that the latter often form an important feature in the Composite flora 
of oceanic islands (see Wallace's Island Life). 

L. usu. alt., frequently rad., opp. in Heliantbeae, whorled in a 
few cases, e.g. Zinnia vertidllata ; slips, rarely present. R. usu. 
a tap-root, sometimes tuberous as in Dahlia, &c., often thickened 
like that of a carrot, e.g. Taraxacum, Cichorium, &c. For details 
of veg. organs refer to individual gen.; e.g. Aster, Barnadesia, Bellis, 
Bidens, Cichorium, Dahlia, Espeletia, Gnaphalium, Helianthus, 
Helichrysum, Lactuca, Mutisia, Petasites, Senecio, Silphium, Taraxa- 
cum, &c. All tribes exc. 12 and 13 contain oil-passages in the 
root, stem, &c. In 13 (Cichorieae), laticiferous vessels are present, 
commonly containing a milky white latex (e.g. lettuce, dandelion). 

Infl. of racemose type, the fls. arranged in heads (capitiila), or 
rarely in spikes. These heads are again arranged in many cases 
into larger infls. racemes, corymbs, &c., or even into cpd. heads 
(Echinops, &c.). In this last case, however, the smaller heads 
contain only one fl. each. Head surrounded by an invol. of bracts, 
usu. green, which performs for all the fls. of the head the functions 
that in most plants are performed by the calices of the individual fls., 
viz. protection of the bud and of the young fr. Fls. arranged upon 
a common receptacle the enlarged end of the axis of various 
shapes, most frequently flat, slightly convex or even spindle-shaped. 
The shape and surface-condition of the receptacle are chars, of 



importance in classification of the fam. It may be smooth or hairy, 
&c. ; there may (Helianthus, &c.) or may not (Calendula, &c.) be, 
upon it, scaly br. belonging to the individual firs. In Cynareae these 
br. are divided so as to form numerous bristles. 

In the simplest case the fls. of a single head are all alike and , 
but there are many deviations from this type. The fls. may be all 
actinomorphic (tubular') or all ] (ligtilate) ', see below. Very commonly 
however, as in daisy or sunflower, there is a distinction into a disc of 
actinomorphic fls., and a marginal ray of -|- fls. Or, as in Centaurea 
sp., the outer florets may be actinomorphic but different in size from 
the central. The number of ray-florets varies in different sp., but 
according to definite rules. 

The distribution <>/" sexes among the fls. of a head varies much. 
The most common case is gynomonoecism, the ray-florets ?, the 
disc ?. The very large ray-florets of Centaurea sp. and others are 
completely sterile (cf. Hydrangea, Viburnum, &c.). Cf. also Tussi- 
lago, Petasites, &c. 

Tlas Jhnoer is fully epig., usu. j-merous. K absent in Ambrosia 
and its allies, Siegesbeckia, &c. ; in some cases 
it appears only as a slightly -globed rim upon 
the top of the inf. ovary (cf. Rubiaceae and 
Umbelliferae) ; usu. it takes the form of hairs 
or bristles the pappus and enlarges after fert. 
into a parachute (Dandelion) or into hooked 
bristles (Bidens) to aid in clistr. (see below). 
C (5), valvate in bud; actinom. (tubular) or [ . 
Of the latter form there are two varieties, 
labiate (lipped) and ligulate (strap-shaped). 
The latter term, strictly speaking, should be 
applied to those corollas which are strap- 
shaped in form with 5 teeth at the end repres. 
the petals, but is usu. also given to those lipped 
forms where the lower lip is strap-shaped and 
ends in 3 teeth. Sta. 5, epipet. with short 
filaments, alt. with the petals. Anthers intr., cohering by their 
edges (syngenesious), forming a tube around the style (cf. Lobelia). 
G (2), with a simple style that forks at the end into two stigmas, an 
ant. 'and a post, (see diagram). The construction of the style and 
stigma is of importance in the classification. There is often a brush 
of hairs on the style below the stigmas. Only the inner (upper) 
surfaces of the stigmas are as a rule receptive to pollen. Ovary i-loc. 
with i erect, basal, anatr. ov., which gives an exalb. seed with 
straight embryo, enclosed in the dry indeh. pericarp. This fr. is usu. 
termed an achene, but of course is, if one adhere strictly to definitions, 
a pseudo-nut, as its pericarp is partly axial, and there is > one cpl. 
It is often crowned with a pappus (see below). 

Natural History of the Flower. Being massed together in heads, 
the individual fls. may be, and usu. are, comparatively very small, 
and the advantage is gained that a single insect visitor may fert. 
many fls. in a short time without having to fly from one to the other, 
while there is no loss of conspicuousness, and a considerable saving 

Floral Diagram of 
Composite fl. with pap- 
pus (after Eichler). The 
small outer lines repre- 
sent the pappus-bristles. 


of corolla-material, dvc. Throughout the fam., the same type of 
mech. of the individual fi. is found, the differences being slight and 
unimportant. It is simple, but effective. Honey is secreted by a 
ring-shaped nectary round the base of the style, and protected from 
rain and from short-lipped insects by the tube of the C. The depth 
of the tube varies within fairly wide limits, but is never so small as 
to permit the shortest-lipped insects to obtain the honey. As a fam., 
the C. all belong to Miiller's fl. class B', but there is considerable 
variety in the depth of tube, &c., and therefore also in the composition 
of the group of visiting insects to each. Thus the long-tubed purple- 
flowered Centaureas, &c. are mainly visited by bees and Lepidoptera, 
while the short-tubed yellow Leontodons or white Achilleas are visited 
mainly by flies. 

At the time when the fl. opens, the style, with its stigmas tightly 
closed against one another, is comparatively short, reaching up to, or 
projecting a small distance into, the anther tube. The pollen is shed 
into this, and as the style grows it presses the pollen little by little 
out at the upper end of the tube where it will come into contact with 
visiting insects. At last the style itself emerges and the stigmas 
separate. The fl. is now ? . Finally, in a great many cases, the 
stigmas curl so far back that they touch the pollen upon their own 
style, so that every fl. is certain to set seed, even though it be by self- 
fert. In a few cases, e.g. Senecio vitlgaris, insect visitors are very 
rare, and the fl. depends entirely on self-fert. The mech. is about 
the simplest and most perfect that exists for attaining the desired 
ends. A striking contrast is seen in the orchids ; they have bizarre 
fls. with most elaborate mechs., and an enormous number of seeds in 
every caps. An interesting modification of the mech. is found in 
Cynareae (see Centaurea) where the sta. are irritable. See also 
Artemisia (wind-fert.). 

The invol. bracts, or ray-florets, or both, often close up over the 
central fls. in cold or wet weather, thus protecting the fls. 

Natural History of the Fruit. The ripening fr.-head is generally 
protected from injury by the invol. bracts, whicli bend inwards over 
it, performing the function of a K. The calices of the individual fls. 
are thus rendered useless in this respect and are, in most C., used for 
purposes of distr. of the fr. In most cases, the K, after the fert. 
of the fl., grows into the familiar pappus, as seen in dandelions or 
thistles, usu. composed of fine hairs, often branched, but in some 
cases, e.g. Achyrachaena, leafy and membranous. The hairs are 
hygroscopic and spread out in dry air; this often helps to lever the 
fr. oft" the receptacle. In Adenostemma the pappus is sticky. In 
Bidens and others the pappus is formed of stout barbed bristles ; the 
fr. adheres to animals. In Arctium the invol. br. become hooked at 
the tips and cling to animals. In Xanthium the recept. is provided 
with hooks. In Siegesbeckia the bracts are sticky. A few genera, 
e.g. Helianthus, Bellis, &c., have no special arrangements at all, and 
the frs. remain upon the common receptacle till jerked off by wind or 

General Considerations. The C. are generally regarded as 
occupying the highest position in the Veg. Kingdom. Their success 


may he put down perhaps to the concurrence of several useful 
peculiarities, viz. 

1 i) the massing of the fls. in heads, surrounded by invol. bracts: 
from this there results 

(a) greater conspicuousness, especially when ray-florets are 
developed; (A) a saving of material in the corollas, &c. ; 
(c) the fact that one insect visitor may fertilise many 
fls. in a short time without having to fly from one to 
another ; 

(2) the very simple and effective floral mechanism, which ensures 
(</) protection of honey and pollen ; (e) exclusion of the very 

short-lipped (allotropous) insects, but not too great speciali- 
sation for a very narrow circle of visitors ; (f) prevention 
of self- and chance of cross-fertilisation till the last possible 
moment; (g) certainty of self-fertilisation if the cross 
fails ; 

(3) the use of the calices of individual fls. for purposes of 
seed-distribution, and the very perfect character of the 

These considerations should be compared with the features of rival 
fams., e.g. Cruciferae, Gramineae, Rubiaceae, Leguminosae. 

Economic uses. The C. furnish but few useful plants (other than 
border or greenhouse pi.). See Lactuca, Cichorium, Cynara, Heli- 
anthus, Carthamus, Chrysanthemum, Tanacetum, &c. 

Classification and chief genera (after Hoffmann). The classifi- 
cation of the C. and the determination of their genera is a matter of 
no small difficulty ; we shall give only the primary groupings and their 
chief genera. [There are several exceptions to the characters given 

{Abbreviations : cap. = capitulum ; tub. = tubular ; lig. ligulate ; 
homog. = fls. in head all similar as to sex; heterog. = fls. of different 
sex in one head, e.g. ray ? and disc .] 

A. TUBULIFLORAE. Fls. of disc not ligulate. No latex. 

1. Vernonieae (cap. homog. ; fls. tub., never yellow; anthers 

arrow-shaped at base, pointed or rarely tailed, with 
filaments inserted high above the base ; stigmas semi- 
cylindrical, long, pointed, hairy outside) ; stigmatic 
papillae all over inner surface : Vernonia, Elephant opus. 

2. Eitpatorieae (cap. homog.; fls. tub., never pure yellow; 

anthers blunt at base, with filaments inserted at base; 
stigmas long, but blunt or flattened at tip, with very 
short hairs ; stigmatic papillae in marginal rows) : Age- 
ratum, Eupatorium, Mikania, Adenostemma. 

3. Astereae (cap. heterog. or homog.; all or only central fls. 

tub. ; anthers as in 2 ; stigmas flattened with marginal 
rows of papillae, and terminal hairy unreceptive portions): 
Solidago, Bellis, Aster, Erigeron, Baccharis, Callistephus, 

4. Imileae (as 4 ; qorolla in tub. fls. with 4 5-toothed limb ; 

anthers tailed at base ; styles various) : Blumea, Filago, 
Antennaria, Gnaphalium, Helichrysum, Inula. 


5. Ileliantheae. (style with crown of long hairs above the 

division; anthers usu. rounded at base with basally 
inserted filaments; corolla of disc fls. actinom. ; pappus 
not hairy; invol. bracts not membranous at margins; 
recept. with scaly br.): Espeletia, Silphium, Xanthium, 
Zinnia, Siegesbeckia, Helianthus, Dahlia, Bidens, Cosmos, 

6. Helenieae (as 5, but recept. without scaly br.) : Helenium, 


7. Antkemideae (as 6, but invol. br. with membranous tip 

and edges; pappus o or abortive): Achillea, Anthemis, 
Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Tanacetum, Artemisia. 

8. Senecioneae (as 5 and 6, but pappus hairy) : Tussilago, 

Petasites, Senecio, Doronicum. 

9. Calendnleae (cap. with ? ray fls., and usu. 3 disc fls., with 

undivided style; anthers pointed at base; recept. not 
scaly; no pappus) : Calendula. 

10. Arctolideae (style, below or at point of division, thickened 

or with circle of hairs; cap. with lig. ray fls.; anthers 
acute at base or with longer or shorter point and with 
filaments inserted above the base) : Arctoiis. 

11. Cynareae (style as in 10; cap. homog. or with neuter, 

rarely ?, not ligulate, ray fls.; anthers uju. tailed; 
recept. usu. bristly; Echinops, Carlina, Arctium, 
Carduus, Cnicus, Cynara, Centaurea, Carthamus, 

12. Alutisicac (cap. homog. or heterog. ; ray fls. when present 

usu. 2-lipped; disc fls. actinom. with deeply-divided limb, 
or 2-lipped): Barnadesia, Mutisia, Stifftia, Gerbera. 
B. LIGULIFLORAE. All fls. ligulate. Latex. 

13. Cichorieae: Cichorium, Rhagadiolus, Picris, Crepis, Hie- 

racium, Leontodon, Taraxacum, Lactuca, Tragopogon, 
Scorzoneia, Sonchus. 
Compound (1.), where the stalk bears several leaflets; (head), Angian- 

thus, Echinops; (fr.), aggregate, Anona, Ranunculus, Ritbits. 
Compressed, flattened. 

Compsoneura Warb. (Myristica p.p.). Myrist. 6 trop. Am. 
Conamomum Ridl. Zingiberaceae (l). 2 Malay Penins. 
Conandrium Mez. Myrsinaceae (n). 3 Malaya. 
Conandron Sieb. et Zucc. Gesneraceae (i). i Japan. 
Conanthera Ruiz et Pav. Amaryllidaceae (in). 5 Chili. 
Conanthus S. Wats. Hydrophyllaceae. i W. U.S. (incl. Nam a 20). 
Conceptacle, reproductive cavity. 

Conceveiba Aubl. Euphorbiaceae (A. 11. 2). 6 trop. S. Am. 
Conchium Sm =Hakea Schrad. (Proteac.). 
Conchopetalum Radlk. Sapindaceae (n). i Madagascar. 
Conchophyllum 131. (Dischidia BH.). Asclep. (n. 3). 5 Malaya. 
Concinnus (Lat.), neat. 
Concolor (Lat.), of uniform colour. 
Concrescence, union of originally distinct organs by growth of the tissue 

beneath them. Organs in the earliest stages of development are usu. 


O V 

s 2 


O " 





separate, and most often remain so, but frequently there is a subsequent 
growth of tissue under them, carry- 
ing them out upon a basal portion 
which most often (e.g. in sympet. fls.) leaf 
has a similar structure to the organs 
themselves, so that they look as if 
joined together by their bases. The leaf 
diagram shows this process on the 
right, but not on the left. It is 
common in fls., less so in other organs. It is not necessary for the 
concrescent organs to be similar; e.g. sta. are often united to pets., 
1. to stems (cf. Solanaceae, &c.). The phenomenon goes under many 
names adnation, connation, adhesion, cohesion, &c. 
Concrete, growing together. 
Condalia Cav. Rhamnaceae. 12 warm Am. 
Condaminea DC. Rubiaceae (i. i). 3 Andes. 

Condiments, or spices, veg. products used rather for the flavour than 
the food value, e.g. alexanders, almond, allspice, angelica, anise, 
asafoetida, balm, basil, camphor, caper, caraway, cardamoms, cassia, 
cayenne, celery, chillies, cicely, cinnamon, chives, cloves, coriander, 
cress, cucumber, cummin, curry-leaf, dill, fennel, fenugreek, garlic, 
ginger, horse-radish, Indian cress, Japan pepper, leek, lemon, lettuce, 
mace, marjoram, mint, mustard, myrrh, nutmeg, onion, parsley, 
pennyroyal, pepper, peppermint, pimento, rhubarb, rosemary, sage, 
samphire, savory, shallot, star-anise, tansy, thyme, turmeric, vanilla, 
watercress, &c. 

Conduplicate (1.), folded lengthwise; (embryo), Crticiferae. 
Condylocarpus Desf. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 10 trop. S. Am. 
Cone, infl. of Coniferae, Cycadaceae, Lycopodiiim, &c. ; -fl. (Am.), 


Confertus (Lat.), crowded. 
Confluent, blending. 

Congdonia Muell.-Arg. Rubiaceae (n. 5). i Rio de Janeiro. 
Congea Roxb. Verbenaceae (6). 5 Burma, Malaya. Cult. orn. 
Congenital, grown to. 
Congo pea, Caja/nts indicns Spreng. 
Congou, Thea. 

Coniferae. The most important class of Gymnosperms, and like the 
others better represented in former ages than now. They form 
i fams. with 41 gen. and 380 sp. Like their past history, their 
present geographical distr. is of interest. Most are erect evergr. 
trees, and grow in dense forests, forming char, features of the veg. in 
many regions (esp. temp, and subtrop. and mountains). Beginning 
in the north we find Jimiperns nana beyond the limit of trees. This 
limit is largely marked by the C. and the birch. Within it, in the 
N. temp, zone, are broad areas covered with C. (Larix, Abies, 
Pinus, &c.). Going S., their importance decreases, and at about 
40 N. they become practically confined to the mountains. Here 
we find in Japan and China a region of development char, by 
Cephalotaxus, Pseudolarix, Cryptomeria, Cunninghamia, Sciado- 
pitys, Chamaecyparis, Keteleeria, Glyptostrobus, Taiwania, &c., 


mostly endemic gen. In Pacific N. Am. is another region, with 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, -Sequoia, Taxodium, Chamaccyparis, Law- 
soniana, Thuja gigantea, and Libocedrus decurrens, together with 
endemic Abies, Tsuga, Finns, &c. The Himal. forms another great 
centre, with many peculiar sp., e.g. Cedrus Dcodara, Finns excdsa, 
and others, Picea sp., Tsuga sp., &c. The C. of the *_ are separated 
from those of the ^ by a broad band of trop. forests, &c., partially 
broken by groups of C. on the Mts. of the Indomal. region and Am. 
In Austr. we find Araucaria, Agathis. Podocarpus, Callitris, Micro- 
cachrys, Athrotaxis, Actinostrobus, &c. In Tasm., N.Z. and Chili 
appear Phyllocladus, Fitzroya, &c. 8. Am. has Araucaria sp., Podo- 
carpus sp., and others. Few gen. and no sp. of C. appear in both N. 
and S. hemispheres ; each sp. is limited to a well-defined area. 

Trees or shrubs, usu. monopodial, often of considerable or even 
(Sequoia) gigantic size. Typically, as may be seen in a fir or larch 
plantation, a certain amount of growth is made each year and a 
number of branches are also formed much at the same level, so that 
in trees of moderate size the number of ' whorls ' of branches is an 
index of the age. Later on the lower branches usu. die off and the 
branching near the apex becomes less reg. The main stem is radially 
symmetrical, but the branches, which often grow almost horiz., have 
a tendency to dorsiventrality, expressed in a two-ranked arrangement 
of the 1., twisting of the 1. on their stalks, and so on. Many C. show 
a difference in their shoots ; some (long shoots, or shoots of unlimited 
growth) grow continuously onwards, except for the interruption in 
winter; others (short shoots, shoots of limited growth, or spurs) grow 
only to a definite size, usu. very small, and bear a few 1. Inter- 
mediate conditions occur in Larix, Cedrus, Taxodium, &c. When 
both kinds occur the foliage 1. are often borne on the short shoots 
only (see Pinus &c. for details). The green 1. are usu. entire and 
are either needle-like, flat and linear, or closely appressed scales 
(Cupressus, &c.). Mention may be made of the curious 'double- 
needles' of Sciadopitys and the flat green short shoots of Phyllo- 
cladus ((/?'.). 

Anatomically, the C. resemble Dicots. in all important points. 
A very general feature (exc. Taxus) is the presence of resin passages 
in all parts of the pi. The 1. exhibit a somewhat peculiar internal 
structure, suited to xero pi., under which class most C. come, living 
in cold soil, as most do, and often with evergr. 1. 

In the fl. we are met with great difficulties. There are two 
theories about its morphology, those of Eichler (Biiithcndiag. or 
Nat. Pfl.) and of Celakovsky (see Warming's System. Bot. or Bot. 
Jahresb. 1890, p. 324, also Noll in Bot. Centr. 60, p. 131). We 
cannot discuss these (see Worsdell, in Ann. of Bot. 14, 1900, p. 39), 
but shall merely state both. As the order is usu. classified according 
to the Eichlerian view, we have adopted this in the classification and 
the details of the gen. 

The fls. of C. appear as a rule in the form of cones, and are always 
unisex., mon- or dioecious. They are never term, on the main stem 
as in Cycads, but are usu. borne lat. near to its apex. Sometimes 
(as in Pinus <?) the cones are massed together in spikes or heads. 


Both theories agree about the 3 fl., which is usu. a cone or catkin 
of sta. on a central axis. The sta. may be flat, but is commonly 
peltate, and bears a number of pollen-sacs (not > 9 as a rule) on 
its lower surface (see Pinus, Taxus, &c.). In the ?, the cone (to 
avoid for the present the word flower) consists typically of an axis 
bearing leaf-like organs. The most familiar case is Pinus (i/.v.), 
where each 1. borne on the axis is a small scale, bearing on its upper 
surface a very large scale (these latter show on the outside of the 
cone) on the upper side of which, again, are the two 
ovules. We may diagrammatically represent it thus, 
using ' cover-scale ' to express the lower, ' ovuliferous 
scale ' (epi in at in m] the upper, of the two scales. In 
Cryptomeria, &c. we find a large scale borne directly 
on the axis, with a little flap on its upper side 
near the outer end, and the ovules at the base. The 
flap is, by both theorists, supposed to represent the 
ovuliferous scale, and so we have what is illustrated by the second 
diagram. Then in Cuprcsseae, &c. we find only one 
scale, and here the two theorists differ. In the other ovulif. sc.l 

fain., Taxaceae, still further difficulties meet us. In cover-scale/ 
Microcachrys the ovule is borne upon a 1. of the 


ovulif. scale 


cone, but in Phyllocladus it is axillary and in Taxus ^"vuKf sc 1 
term, (see these gen.). In most C. there is only cover-scale} 
one integument, but in Taxaceae a second commonly 
appears, forming an aril, fleshy, round the seed as 
it ripens. 

Now as to the explanation of the facts. Eichler regards the 
whole cone as one 2 fl. with a number of cpls. (the 'cover-scales'). 
The cpl. may bear the ovule directly, as in the latter cases above 
mentioned, or may develope upon its upper surface a placenta 
(ovulif. scale) which bears the ovules. Cryptomeria thus represents 
a stage in this evolution, and the whole may be compared with the 
division of a 1. into a sterile and fertile part, as in Ophioglossum. 
The rival theory of Celakovsky regards each ovule or pair of ovules 
with its appurtenances as a 9 fl. (one cpl. to each ovule or pair) so 
that the cone is a spike of fls. A series may be thus drawn : Podo- 
carpus (one cpl., one ovule with two integuments, the whole in the 
axil of a cover-scale, which is therefore to be regarded as a bract], 
Taxus (fl. reduced to ovule, aril = outer integument); then in the 
I'mafeae we have spikes of fls. (cones), the cover scale being the 
bract, the ovuliferous scale the combined outer integuments of the 
ovules of two cpls. (or three, the keel on the middle of the scale in 
Pinus, &c. repres. the third) : a fusion of the bract with the fl. in its 
axil is supposed to have gone on, and we get next the Cryptomeria 
type, and finally that of Cupresseae. 

Ovules orthotr., exc. Podocarpus. For development of the ovule, 
fert., &c., see text-books. The cone often becomes hard and woody 
as the seeds ripen ; in other cases it becomes fleshy. The seeds contain 
an embryo with i 15 cotyledons, and rich endosp. 

Natural History. The C. are entirely wind-fert. ; the pollen is 
light and powdery, sometimes provided with air-bladders (e.g. Pinus), 


and is produced in enormous quantities. About the time it is shed 
the scales of the ? cones open to receive it and the grains adhere to the 
sticky fluid at the apex of the ovule. Fert. often does not take place 
for a long time afterwards (see Finns). 

The seeds in many genera with woody cones (e.g. Firms) are 
winged for wind-carriage ; in other genera they are animal-distributed, 
e.g. Juniperus (cone fleshy), Taxus (fleshy aril), cic. 

Further details of morphology, life history, >S:c. under Gyi/mo- 
sperniae, Pinus and other gen. See also Retinospora for the peculiar 
case of pi. retaining the ' seedling' form throughout life. 

Economically the C. are most important, furnishing the greater 
proportion of our timber, as well as resins, tars, turpentines, &c. 
See gen., esp. Abies, Pinus, Larix, Tsuga, Libocedrus, Juniperus, 
Taxus, &c. 

Classification and Key to Genera (after Eichler and Engler) : 

Fam. i. TAXACEAE. Mostly dioecious ; cone-formation imper- 
fect ; cpls. usu. few or even i terminal, with i 2 ov. each ; 
seeds projecting beyond cpls., or even naked, with fleshy aril or 
drupaceous testa; chiefly"^. 

A. Anther with i pollen-sacs; cpls. i co , with i ov., often 
very small ; ovuliierous scale in all but Pherosphaera, often 
united to integument. I. PODOCARPOIDEAE. 

a. Ovuliferous scale o; ov. at base of cpl., erect; 1. scaly. 

i . Pherosphaereae. 
i. Pherosphaera. 

b. Ovuliferous scale present ; 1. usu. linear. 

i. Podocarpeae. 
a. Ov. scale and integument separate. 

I. Cpls. many; ov. scale membranous, little enlarged. 

1. Cpls. whorled, thick, obtuse; seeds free; 1. scaly. 

i. Microcachrys. 

2. Cpls. spiral, imbr. ; seeds in groove at base, 

small; fr. cpls. united; 1. linear. 

3. Saxegothaea. 

II. Cpls. i few ; ov. scale developed; young ov. 

pend., ultimately mostly upright, rarely stationary, 
enclosed in ov. scale. 4. Dacrydium. 

p. Ov. scale completely curved into itself, united with 
integument of pend. ov., falling with seed; cpls. 
usu. small, much shorter than ov. 

5. Podocarpus. 

B. Anther with 2 loc. ; cpls. with i ov. ; seeds surrounded by 
cupule; twigs phylloclades with tooth-like 1. -rudiments. 

Only genus 6. Phyllocladus. 

C. Anther with 3 8 loc.; cpls. with 2 ov., or fl. reduced to 
i ov. term, on axis covered with scale 1.; ov. scale o; seeds 
with cupule, exc. in 7. III. TAXOIDEAE. 

a. ? fl. of several decussate cpls.; cpl. with 2 ov. 

i . Cephalotaxeae. 
7. Cephalotaxus. 


b. v fl. reduced to i ov. term, on axis covered with scale 1. 

2. Taxcae. 
a. S fl. in pairs in axil of 1., each with 4 decussate scales ; 

anther 4 -loc. 8. Torreya. 

/3. ? fl. usu. single, only one of pair developed, the 
common axis with scale 1. ; anther 6 8-loc. 

9. Taxus. 

Younger ? fl. unknown ; position doubtful, ? Podocarpoideae ; 
sta. 2-loc. ; 2 fl. term, or 23 at tip of twig; cpls. 12. 

10. Acmopyle. 
Fam. 2. PINACEAE. Mostly monoecious ; cones perfect ; seeds 

concealed between scales; testa woody or leathery; no aril. 
A. L. spirally arranged ; sta. with several long pollen-sacs ; 
cpls. simple, with i reversed ov. in centre. 

I. Arancarieae. 
Seeds free from cpl. i r. Agathis. 

,, united lo cpl. 12. Araucaria. 

P>. L. spirally arranged ; cover and ov. scales, the latter usu. 
large, with 2 ov. II. Abieteae. 

a. Long shoots only present. 

a. Needles 4 -angled ; cone pend.; scales persistent. 

13. Picea. 
/3. Needles flat. 

I. L. with i central resin canal; cone pend.; scales 

persistent. 14- Tsuga. 

II. L. with 2 lat. resin canals; cone pend. or erect; 
sta. fl. sol. or umbellate. 

15. Pseudotsuga. 

III. Cone upright with persistent scales. 

1 6. Keteleeria. 

IV. Cone upright with deciduous scales. 

17. Abies. 

b. Long and short shoots both present. 

a. Long shoots with scale 1. only; the green (needle) 1. 

on the short shoots. 18. Firms. 

ft. Needle 1. on both shoots. 

I. Needles evergr. ; fr. 2 3 yrs. in ripening. 

19. Cedrus. 
II. Deciduous; fr. i yr. in ripening. 

Cone scales persistent. 20. Larix. 
Cone scales deciduous. 21. Psettdolarix. 

C. L. spirally arranged ; scales rudimentary or weakly developed 
into cover and ov. scales; ovules 28, axillary and erect, or 
reversed on edges of cpls. III. Taxodieae. 

a. Long shoots with scale L; short shoots = double needles. 

22. Sciadopitys. 

b. Long shoots only, 
a. Seed reversed. 

I. Cpl. minute. China, Cochinchina. 

Ovules 3. 23. Cunninghamia. 

Ovules 2. 24. Taiwania. 


II. Cpl. with ridge-like inner scale. Tasmania, Austr. 

25. Athrotaxis. 

III. Cpl. shield-shaped, no distinct ov. scale. N. Am. 

26. Sequoia. 
/3. Seed erect. 

I. Cpl. with toothed scale. 27. Cryptomeria. 
II. Cpl. shield-shaped, no distinct scale. 
Cone scales persistent. N. Am. 

28. Taxodium. 
Cone scales deciduous. China. 

29. Glyptostrobus. 
D. L. opp. or whorled, rarely alt., often heterophyllous; ovule 

erect. IV. Citpresseae. 

a. Cone woody when ripe ; cpls. valvate. 

i. Actinostrobinae. 

a. Branchlets compressed ; cones sol., axis not produced 
beyond scales ; scales 4 ; N. Afr. 

30. Tetraclinis. 

/3. Branchlets angular ; cones paniculate, axis produced 
beyond scale's. 

Scales 6 unequal ; Austr. 31. Callitris. 
,, 8 equal ; Austr. 32. Actinostrobus. 

,, 4 equal ; trop. and S. Afr. 

33. Widdringtonia. 

y. Branchlets flattened or angular ; dioecious ; i cones 
sol. term.; axis produced; sharp point on back of each 
scale near top ; Chili, Tasm. 34. Fitzroya. 

b. Cone woody when ripe, cpls. imbr. ; whorls of all fl. 

2-merous. 2. Thujopsidinae. 

a. Cpl. with 45 seeds. 35. Thujopsis. 

j3. Cpl. with 2 (i 3) seeds. 

Cpls. 4, upper pair fertile. 36. Libocedrus. 
Cpls. 6 8, both upper pairs fertile. 

37. Thuja. 
Cpls. 68 pair. 38. Fokienia. 

c. Cone woody when ripe; cpl. peltate; whorls of all fls. 

2-merous. 3. Cupressinae. 

a. Cpls. strongly woody when ripe. 

39. Cupressus. 

p. Cpls. slightly woody when ripe; twig system flat in 
one plane. 40. Chamaecyparis. 

d. Cone, berry or drupe-like when ripe. 

4. Juniperinae. 

Only genus. 41. Juniperus. 

Commitella Rydberg (Hatcheia p.p.). Saxifr. (i). i W. U.S. 
Coniog-eton Blume = Buchanania Roxb. (Anacard.). 
Coniogramme Fee. Polypodiaceae. 3 warm |*. 
Conioselinum Fisch. (Ligusticum L. p.'p. BH.}. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 

7 N. palaeotemp. 

ConiumL. Umbelliferae (in. 4). 2 N. temp., S, Afr. C. maailatitm L. 
(hemlock, very poisonous) Brit. 


Conjugate, coupled. 

Connaraceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Archich. Resales, EP., BH.). 
16 gen., 160 sp., trop. ; closely allied to Leguminosae, chiefly dis- 
tinguished by the absence of stips. and the (usual) presence of > 2 
free cpls. Mostly twining shrubs with alt. exstip. 1. and panicles of 
reg. fls. K 5 or (5), imbr. or valvate ; 05; A 10 or 5 sometimes 
joined below ; G 5 or i or 4, each with 2 erect orthotr. ov. Fr. usu. 
one follicle with one seed, album, or not, arillate. Chief genera: 
Connarus, Rourea, Cnestis. 

Connaropsis Planch. Oxalidaceae. 5 Malay Arch. 

Connarus L. Connaraceae. 70 trop. Am., Afr., As. 

Connate (1.), concrescent, Loniccra. 

Connective, the prolongation of the filament into the anther ; elongated 
in Begonia. 

Connellia N.E. Br. Bromeliaceae (2). 2 Guiana. 

Connivent, converging. 

Conobea Aubl. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). 7 Am. 

Conocarpus L. Combretaceae. 2 trop. Am., Afr. 

Conocephalus Blume. Moraceae (in). 15 Indomal. The 1. of C. 
sitaveolens Blume possess water-secreting glands. 

Conoclinium DC. = Eupatorium Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 

Conornitra Fenzl (Glossonema BH.}. Asclep. (n. i). i Kordofan. 

Conomorpha A. DC. Myrsinaceae (11). 40 trop. Am., W.I. 

Conophallus Schott = Amorphophallus Blume p.p. (Arac.). 

Conopnaryngia G. Don ( L. p.p.; Plitmeria Tourn. 
p.p. BH.}. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 25 trop. and S.E. Afr. 

Conopholis Wallr. Orobanchaceae. i Carolina to Mex. 

Conopnora DC. Nieuwland (Cacalia p.p.). Comp. (8). 8 N. Am. 

Conopodium Koch. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 20 Eur., As., N. Afr. 
C. deniidatum Koch (Bimiiim flexuosuin With.) in Brit, (earth nut). 
The tuberous roots are ed. when roasted. 

Conospermum Sm. Proteaceae (i). 35 Austr. 

Conostegla D. Don. Melastomaceae (i). 15 trop. Am. 

Conostephium Benth. Epacridaceae (3). 5 W. Austr. 

Conostylis R. Br. Amaryllid. (in). (Haemodor., BH.) 35 W. 

Conothamnus Lindl. Myrtaceae (11. i). 3 W. Austr. 

Conradia Mart. = Pentarhaphia Lindl. (BH.} Gesneria L. p.p. 

Conradina A. Gray. Labiatae (vi). i Florida. 

Conringia Heist, ex L. Cruciferae (4). 6 E. Medit. 

Constantia Rodrig. (Sophronitis p.p.)- Orchid, (n. 6). i Braz. 

Consuegria Muds. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Contabescent (anther), shrivelling. 

Contarinia Vand. Verbenaceae (?). i Brazil. 

Contortae (Engler), the 5th order of Sympetalae. 

Contorted (aestivation), cf. Aestivation. 

Contortoduplicate, twisted and folded. 

Contrayerva (W.I.), Aristolochia. 

Conuleum A. Rich. Monimiaceae. i Guiana. 

Convallaria L. Liliaceae (vn). i N. temp. (incl. Brit.), C. rnajalis*L., 
lily of the valley, in woods. The stock developes a few scales and 


two green 1. annually. The fls. are homogamous and fert. themselves 
in absence of insects. Cult. orn. fl. 
Convallariaceae (Warming) = Liliaceae ( vi xi). 
Convolute (aestivation), cf. Aestivation. 

Convolvulaceae (EP., BH. incl. Nolanaceae). Dicots. (Sympet. Tubi- 
florac ; Polemoniales BH.}. 40 gen., iooosp., trop. and temp , many 
annual herbs, others shrubs or (rarely) trees; several thorny xero., 
many climbing herbs or lianes, and one (Cuscuta) a climbing parasite. 
Some have tuberous roots (e.g. Ipomoea Batatas), other rhiz. or 
tuberous stems ; latex often present. L. alt., usu. petiolate, rarely 
with stips. Accessory buds often found in the leaf-axils. Infl. 
dich. with tendency to cincinnus or bostryx ; br. and bracteoles 

Fl. 5, reg., hypog., usu. 5-merous. K usu. polysepalous, imbr., 
the odd sep. post.; C sympet., of various shapes, usu. induplicate- 
valvate, sometimes conv. ; A 5, alt. with pets., epipet., on base of C, 
with usu. intr. anthers; G on a honey-secreting disc, (2), rarely 
(3 si), with axile plac. ; ov. 2 in each loc. (rarely 4), erect, anatr. 
or semi-anatr., the micropyle facing out \vards and downwards; one 
integument. Berry, nut or caps. ; endosp. 

Fls. usu. large, brightly coloured. Extra-floral nectaries in many 
on the petiole. Few of economic value exc. for handsome fls. (see 

The C. are closely related to Solanaceae, Boraginaceae and other 
Tubiflorae. See Nat. Pfi. and esp. note by Engler at p. i of art. C- 
[BH. cnars. incl. 1. sometimes paired in infl.; G (2 5), or 5, divided 
by irreg. longitudinal constrictions ; fr. of nutlets.] 
Classification and chief genera : 

I. CONVOLVULOIDEAE (independent green pi.): Di- 
chondra, Evolvulus, Porana, Ipomoea, Convolvulus, 
II. CUSCUTO1DEAE (leafless parasites) ; embryo without 

cotyledons) : Cuscuta (only genus). 

Convolvulus (Tourn.) L. Convolvulaceae (i). 180 chiefly temp. 
C. arvcnsis L. Brit, (bindweed) has sweetly scented fls. which are 
much more often visited by insects than the large but scentless fls. 
of Calystcgia sepium. Smaller fls. with short sta. appear on some 
stocks ; these appear to be due to the action of a fungus (cf. Lychnis 
and see Beth. z. Bot. Centr., 1893, p. 447). The root produces adv. 
stem buds, by which veg. repr. takes place. From incisions made in 
the rhiz. of C. scammonia L. a resinous juice flows, used as a purgative 
(scammony). Some yield rosewood oil. Cult. orn. fl. 
Convolvulus, Calystegia, Convolvulus. 
Conyza L. Compositae (3). 60 temp, and subtrop. 
Conzattia Rose. Leguminosae (II. 7). i Mexico. 
Cooba (Austr.), Acacia salicina Lindl. 
Cookia Sonner. = Clausena Burm. f. (Rutac.). 
Coondi. Carapa. 

Cooperia Herb. Amaryllid. (i). 2 Mex., Texas (evening star). 
Copaiba Adans. =Copaifera L. (Legum.). 
Copaifera L. Leguminosae (n. 2). 25 trop. Am., Afr. Several 


S. Am. sp. yield the resin Balsam of Copaiba, and resins (copals) are 
also obtained from the Afr. sp. Timber good (purpleheart). 

Copaiva tree (W.I.), Copaifera. 

Copal, a hard resiri, Agathis, Copaifera, Hymenaea, Trachylobiitm ; 
Manila, Kauri-, Agathis. 

Copernicia Mart. Palmae (i. 2). 10 trop. Am., W.I. C. cerifera 
Mart, (wax- or Carna-uba-palm, Brazil) has its 1. coated with wax, 
removed by shaking ; it is used in making gramophone records, 
candles, &c. The wood, 1., &c., are also useful. 

Copianthus Hill. Amarantaceae?. i Indomal. 

Copisma E. Mey. = Rhynchosia Lour. p.p. (Legum.). 

Copper-beech, Fagus sylvatica L. var. 

Copra, dried endosp. of Cocas nudfera L. 

Coprosma Forst. Rubiaceae (n. 7). 45 N.Z., Austr., Malaya, Chili. 
The stipules of some are glandular, and some have peculiar openings 
(Pdomatia) on the backs of the 1. 

Copse, coppice wood with occasional standard trees. 

Coptis Salisb. Ranunculaceae (2). 10 N. temp, and arctic. 

Coptoclieile Hoffmgg. Gesneriaceae (inc. sed.). i Brazil? 

Coptophyllum Korth. Rubiaceae (i. 7). r Sumatra. 

Coptosapelta Korth. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 4 Malaya. 

Coptosperma Hook. f. (Tarenna p.p.'). Ruhiac. (i. 8). i trop. Afr. 

Coquilla, coquillio nut, Attalea fimifera Mart. 

Coquito palm, Jubaea spectabilis H. B. et K. 

Coral-berry (Am.), Symphoricarpvs \ -creeper, Kennedya; -root, 
Corallorhiza ; -tree, Erythrina. 

Coralliokyphos Fleischm. et Rech. Orchid, (u. 2). i Samoa. 

Corallobotrys Hook. f. Ericaceae (in. i). i Khasias. 

Corallocarpus Welw. ex Benth. et Hook. f. Cucurb. (2). 20 trop. 

Corallodiscus Batalin. Gesneriaceae (i). r N. China. 

Corallonema Schlechter. Asclepiad. (n. i). i Bolivia. 

Corallorhiza Hall. Orchidaceae (n. 4). 15 N. temp. C. innata K. 
Br. (coral-root) Brit. Saprophytes with much branched fleshy rhiz., 
no r., and scaly 1. [C/. Epipogum.] 

Corallospartium Armstrong. Leguminosae (in. 6). i N.Z. 

Corbularia Salisb. = Narcissus Tourn. p.p. (Amaryll.). 

Corchoropsis Sieb. et Zucc. Tiliaceae. 2 Japan, China. 

Corchorus (Tourn.) L. Tiliaceae. 40 trop. C. capsularis L. and 
C. olitoiins L. (India, &c.) furnish the chief supply of the fibre jute 
or gunny; annuals about 10 feet high, little branched. The stems 
are cut and retted in water, and the fibre beaten out (cf. Linum). 

Cord-grass, Spartina. 

Cordate, heart-shaped. 

Cordeauxia Hemsl. Leguminosae (n. 3). i trop. Afr. 

Cordia L. Boragin. (i). 270 trop. Trees or shrubs; fr. ed.; that of 
C. Myxa L. (sebestens ; Egypt to Austr.) formerly medic. Some 
have good timber, e.g. C. Gerascanthits L. (trup. Am., W.I., prince- 
wood), and C. sebestana L. (trop. Am., W.I., aloewood). [Mez in 
Engl. Jahrb. XII.] 

Cordiaceae ( Warming) = Boraginaceae ( i). 

Cordifolius (Lat.), cordate-leaved. 

W. 12 


Cordobia Niedenzu. Malpighiaceae. i S. Am. 

Cordyla Lour. Leguminosae (11. 9). i trop. Afr. Pods ed. 

Cordylanthus Nutt. (Adenostegia Benth.). Scroph. (in. 3). 12 

N. Am. 
Cordyline Royen ex Adans. Liliaceae (vi). 15 trop., warm temp. 

Decorative ; habit of Dracaena. The 1. of some sp. yield fibre. 
Cordylocarpus Desf. (Rapistrum p.p. BH.}. Crucif. (2). i N. Afr. 
Cordylogyne E. Mey. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i S. Afr. 
Corema D. Don. Empetraceae. 2 W. Eur., All. N. Am. 
Coreocarpus Benth. (Coreopsis f.^. EP.). Comp. (5). i California. 
Coreopsis L. Compositae (5). 80 Am., trop. Afr., Sandw. Is. Many 

cult. orn. ft 

Corethrodendron Fisch. et Basiner. Legum. (in. 7). i Soongaria. 
Corethrogyne DC. Compositae (3). 4 Calif. 

Coriaceous, leathery. ' 

Coriander, Coriandrum sativiitn L. 
Coriandrum (Tourn.) L. Umbelliferae (in. 3). 3 Medit. The fr. 

(coriander-seeds) of C. sativum L. are used in flavouring. 
Coriaria Niss. ex L. The only genus of Coriariaceae. 10 Medit. to 

Japan, N.Z., Chili to Mexico, mostly shrubs with opp. or whorled 1., 

sometimes becoming alt. at the ends of the shoots. The inconspic. 

protog. fls. are in racemose infls. K 5, C 5, A 5 + 5, 65. The 

petals are keeled on the inner side, and after fert. grow fleshy and 

enclose the cpls. forming a pseudo-drupe. Ov. i in each loc., pend., 

anatr. ; raphe dorsal. Enclosp. thin. C. myrtifolia L. (W. Medit.) 

yields tan, others a black dye. 
Coriareae (BH. ) = Coriariaceae. 
Coriariaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Sapindales). Only genus 

Coriaria (q-v.}. The only nearly related order is Empetraceae. Placed 

as anomalous order at end of Disciflorae BH. 

Coridothymus Reichb. f. (Thy inns p.p. BH.}. Labi. (vi). i Medit. 
Corion Mitch. = Spergularia J. et C. Presl (Caryoph.). 
Coriophyllus Rydberg (Cymoptems p.p.). Umbel, (in. 6). 4 

N. Am. 

Coris Tourn. Primulaceae. 2 Medit. Fl. ! 
Corispermum B. Juss. ex L. Chenopodiaceae (A). 16 N. temp. 
Cork, the substance of which the water-tight bark is composed ; -oak, 

Quercus suberL,.; -tree, Indian, Millingtonia liortensis L. f . ; -wood, 

Ochroma, (Am.) Leitneria, (W.I.) A nona palitstris. 
Corm, the base of a stem swollen into a bulbous shape with reserves ; 

Colchicum (and fig.), Amorphofhallns, Arisaema, Boiviea, Crocus, 

Cyclamen, Eranthis, Hablitzia, Testudinaria. 
Cormonema Reissek. Rhamnaceae. 4 trop. Am. 
Cormophyte, a flowering plant or fern. 
Corn, in Engl. wheat, in Am. maize; broom-, Sorghum mtlgare Pers. ; 

Chinese- (W.I.), Setaria ilalica Beauv.; -cockle, Lychnis Gilhago 

Scop. ; -flower, Centaurea Cyanus L. ; Guinea-, Sorghum vulgare 

Pers.; Indian-, Zea Mays L. ; Kaffir-, Sorghum vulgare Pers.; 

-marigold, Chrysanthemum segetutn L. ; -salad, Valerianella. 
Corna Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Cornaceae (EP., BH. incl. Ganyaceae, Nyssaceae}. Dicots. (Arcliichl. 


Umbelliflorae ; Umbellales BH.}. logen., 85 sp., N. and S. temp., 
and trop. Mts, Shrubs with opp. or rarely alt. leaves, usu. entire, 
exstip. Infl. dich., usu. condensed into corymbs or umbels, or even 
(Cornus) heads with invols. Fls. usu. , reg., 4 5 oo -merous. 
Iv 4 5, 4 5, A 4 -,, G(2); epig. disc ; simple style with lobed 
stigma; ovary i 4-loc., with usu. i pend. ov. in each loc., the raphe 
dorsal. Fr. a berry or more often a drupe, with a i 4-loc. stone or 
2 separate stones. [BH. chars, include those of Garryaceae and Nys- 
saceae, both rare.] Chief genera: Cornus, Aucuba, Griselinia. 
Cornel, Cornus sanguined L. 

Cornelian cherry, Cornus mas L. 

Cornelia Rydberg (Cornus p.p.). Cornaceae. 3 N. temp, and 

Corniola Adans. = Genista L. (Legum.). 

1 Cornish moneywort, Sibthorpia eiiropaea L. 

Corniveum Nieuwland (Dicentra p.p.). Papav. (in). i N.W. 

Cornucopiae L. Gramineae (8). i E. Medit., C. ciicullatiim L. Fls. 
in small heads ; when the fr. is ripe these bend over and break off 
with a sharp point ; they adhere to animals and are also said to burrow 
into the soil (cf. Stipa). 

Cornuella Pierre. Sapotaceae (inc. sed.). i Venezuela. 

Cornulaca Del. Chenopodiaceae (B). 5 Egypt to Afghanistan. 

Cornus (Tourn.) L. Cornaceae. 48 N. temp.; 2 Brit., C. sanguined L. 
(cornel or dogwood) and C. suecica. L., the latter a dwarf perenn. 
herb (Highlands). Annual stems are given off from the creeping 
perenn. stems. Fls. in umbels with invols. of 4 large white br. 
C. florida L. (N. Am.) and others yield useful wood. C. mas (mas- 
ciila) L. (Cornelian cherry, Eur., As. Minor) yields a fr. which makes 
good preserves. Its fls. appear in spring before the 1. 

Cornutia Plum, ex L. Verbenaceae (4). 8 trop. Am., W.I. 

Corokia A. Cunn. Cornaceae. 3 N. Zealand. 

Corolla, the_Lnner, usu. coloured, envelope of 1. of the fl. 

Corolline, belonging to the corolla. 

Coromandel wood, Diospyros quaesita Thw., &c. 

Corona, Amaryllidaceae, Asiiepiadaceae, Napoleona, Passifloraceae. 

Coronanthera Vieill. Gesneriaceae (i). 10 New Caled. 

Coronaria L. = Lychnis L. p.p. (Caryoph.). 

Coronarieae (BH.}. The 3rd series of Monocotyledons. 

Coronilla Tourn. ex L. Leguminosae (in. 7). 20 Eur., Medit., \V. As. 
The fl. resembles Lotus, but the honey is usu. secreted by the outer 
surface of the K, and insects poke between the claws of the petals. 
The buds are bent downwards, the open fls. project horiz., the ripening 
fr. down and the ripe fr. usu. up. 

Coronopus Rupp. ex L. (Senebiera DC.). Cruciferae (2). 20 subtrop., 

Coroya Pierre. Leguminosae (ill. 8). i Cochinchina. 

Corpse-plant (Am.), Monotropa. 

Corpusculum, Asclepiadaceae. 

Correa Andr. Rutac. (i). 5 temp. Austr. Cult. orn. shrubs (Australian 
fuchsia). Sympet. 

12 2 


Corrigiola L. Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). 12 Medit., Ancles, S. Afr., Eur. 
i Brit. 

Corsia Becc. Burmanniaceae. i New Guinea. 

Corsiaceae (Beccari), Burmanniaceae p.p. 

Corsican pine, Pin us Laricio Poir. 

Cortaderia Stapf. Gramineae do). 10 S. Am. Pampas grass. 

Cortesia Cav. Boraginaceae (n). 2 temp. S. Am. 

Cortex, tissue between vascular bundles and epidermis. 

Cortia DC. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). 2 Himalaya. 

Cortusa L. Primulaceae. i Mts. of Eur. and As. Cult. orn. fl. 

Corunastylis Fitzgerald. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i Austr. 

Coryanthes Hoolc. Orchidaceae (n. 13). 6 trop. S. Am., epiphytic. 
Fl. pend.; seps. bent back and fairly large, pets, small. Labellum 
complex, forming a bucket-like organ with dome above ; the mouth 
faces upwards, and the edges are incurved ; there is also an overflow 
pipe projecting towards the seps. and closely covered in by the bent 
end of the column, with the stigma and anther. From the base of 
the column project two horns which secrete a thin watery fluid that 
drips into the bucket, keeping it full to the level of the overflow pipe. 
The dome (above) is composed of succulent tissue attractive to bees ; 
these light for places on it to drill the tissue ; every now and then 
one gets pushed off and falls into the bucket. It can neither fly nor 
climb out, and has to squeeze through the overflow pipe. In so 
doing it first passes the stigma, fertilising it if it bears any pollen, 
and then, passing the anther, is loaded with new pollinia. [Darwin's 
Orchids, p. 173, and cf. Stanhopea.] 

Corybas Salisb. = Corysanthes R. Br. (Orchid.). 

Corycium Swartz. Orchidaceae (n. i). 10 S. Afr. 

Corydalis Vent. Papaveraceae (in). 120 Medit., Eur., As. C.clavi- 
cidata DC. Brit., a (leaf) tendril-climbing annual. Most are perennial 
herbs with underground tubers. In C. cava Schweigg. et Kort., and 
others, the main axis forms a tuber, which dies away below, each 
annual shoot arising from the axil of a scale-1. of older date. In 
C. solida Sw., and others, the tuber is a swollen root-structure be- 
longing to the current annual shoot. Fls. transv. -|- (see fam. for 
diagram) ; twisting through 90 brings it vertical ; only one petal is 
spurred and contains the honey secreted by a staminal outgrowth. 
Its mech. resembles that of Leguminosae. The inner pets., united 
at the tip, enclose stigma and anthers ; the upper pet. covers the fl. 
Bees alighting push down the inner pet. and cause the essential 
organs to emerge. In some, e.g. C. oc/iroleuca Koch and C. In tea DC., 
the emergence is explosive (cf. Genista). The fls. of C. cava are self- 
Corylopsis Sieb. et Zucc. Hamamelidaceae. 10 China, Japan. Fls.?, 

in spikes with coloured bracts at base. 

Corylus (Tourn.) L. Betulaceae (i). 8 N. temp. C. avella>ia L., 
hazel-nut (Brit.). Shrubby (largely owing to extensive formation 
of suckers), with monoecious catkinale fls. (the ? catkin sessile and 
elliptical in outline, rather resembling a bud). Both are laid down 
in autumn ; the S catkins are visible all winter, but the ? are not 
obvious until the red stigmas come out early in the year. Anemoph. ; 


the fact of fig. before the appearance of the 1. renders their chance of 

fert. greater. On the inner side of the br. in the $ catkin are found 

2 scales and, adnate to these, 4 8 sta., each 

branched nearly to the base. Here only the central stem 

fl. of the possible 3 (cf. diagram of fam.) is pre- % 3 ft. % 

sent, with its bracteoles a, j3. In the ? catkin, a /3 

on the other hand, we have the two lat. and not bract 

the central fl. as shown in the second diagram 

(* = missing fl.). At the time of fert. the ovary stem 

is minute, but the long red stigmas are easily a a' 

identified. After fert. the ovary (a-loc. at first) a ? (1. % ? fl. /3 

gives a one-seeded nut. enclosed in a cup of /?' /3' 

green leafy nature, really the combined bract bract 

and bracteoles a, a', /3', very much developed. 

The fl. is chalazogamic (cf. Chalazoganiae}. The nuts of this and 

other sp. are valuable as dessert fr., &c. (hazel-nut, cob-nut, filbert), 

and have been cultivated from very early limes (cf. Goeschke, Die 

Hasclnnss, Berlin, 1887). Wood elastic, but cannot be obtained in 

large boards. Oil from the seeds. 

Corymb, a raceme in which the stalks of the lat. fl. elongate to bring all 
to one level, Cruciferae t Iberis. 

Corymbis Thou. Orchidaceae (ll. i}. 12 trop. 

Corymbium L. Compositae (i). 7 S. Afr. 

CorymborcMs Thou. (Corymbis BH.}. Orchid. (11. 4). 16 trop. 

Corymbostachys Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Madag. 

Corynaea Hook. f. Balanophoraceae. 4 Andes. 

Corynanthe Welw. Rubiaceae (i. 5). ^ trop. Afr. 

Corynella DC. Leguminosae (in. 6). 3 W.I. 

Corynephorus Beauv. (IVciiigacrtneria Bernh.). Gramineae (9). 3 Eur. 
C. (IV. or Aim} catiescens Beauv., Brit. 

Corynephyllum Rose. Crassulaceae. i Mexico. 

Corynitis Spreng. Leguminosae (in. 6). 2 Cuba. 

Corynocarpaceae (EP., Anacardiaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Sapindales). Only genus Corynocarpus, tj.r. 

Corynocarpus Forst. Corynocarpaceae. 3 New Hebrides, New Caled., 
N. Zealand. Trees or shrubs with alt. leathery 1. and panicles of $ fl. 
A in two whorls, inner sta. stds. ; G (2), one fertile, with one pend. ov. 
Compressed drupe. No endosp. 

Corynostylis Mart. (Calyptrion EP.}. Violaceae. 2 trop. S. Am. 

Corynotheca F. Muell. Liliaceae (in). 3 trop. and W. Austr. 

Corynula Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. 7). i Colombia. 

Corypha L. Palmae (i. 2). 6 Ceylon, Indomal. The gigantic infl. 
terminates the life of the tree. C. umbraeulifera L. (talipot palm, 
Ceylon, S. Ind.) grows to a great size, up to 80 feet. The 1. are 
used as umbrellas, and for thatching, also as writing material (a metal 
stylus being used). 

Corypriantha Lem. = MamilIaria Haw. p.p. (Cact.). 

Coryphlum (CL), an alpine meadow formation. 

Corysanthes R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 20 N.Z. to Malaya. 

Corythea S. Wats. Euphorbiaceae (A. 11. 7). i Mexico. 

Corytholoma Decne. (Gesneria p.p.). Gesn. (u). 60 trop. Am. 


Coscinium Colebr. Menispermaceae. 4 Indomal. 

Cosmanthus Nolle = Phacelia Juss. p.p. (Hydrophyll.). 

Cosmea Willd. = Cosmos Cav. (Compos.). 

Cosmelia R. Br. Epacridaceae (2). i S.W. Austr. 

Cosmibuena Ruiz et Pav. (1802). Rubiaceae (i. 5). 6 trop. Am. Good 
bud-protection by the slips, of the last-opened 1. 

Cosmibuena Ruiz el Pav. (iy94) = Hirtella L. (Rosaceae). 

Cosmos Cav. (Cosmea Wi lid.). Compos. (5). 20 Am., W.I. Orn. fl. 

Cosmostigma Wight. Asclepiadaceae (11. 3). i Indomal. 

Cossinia (Cossignid) Comm. ex Lam. Sapind. (n). 3 Masc., New Cal. 

Cossonia Durieu (Kaffcnaldia BH.}. Cruciferae (2). 3 N. Afr. 

Costaea A. Rich. (Purdica BH.}. Cyrillaceae. 3 Cuba, Colombia. 

Costate (diminutive costulate), ribbed. 

Costera J. J. Smith. Ericaceae (in. i). i Borneo. 

Costularia C. B. Clarke. Cyperaceae (n). 9 Masc., S. Afr. 

Costus L. Zingiberaceae (n). 40 trop. Labellum very large, lat. 
stds. wanting, sepals and petals comparalively small. Projecting in 
the centre is the fertile petaloid sta. with anther on its ant. face ; the 
style reaches just above this. The fl. mech. thus resembles Iris. 
Cull. orn. pi. 

Cota J. Gay Anlhemis Mich. p.p. (Compos.). 

Cotinus (Tourn.) L. (Rhus L. p.p. BH.}. Anacard. (3). 2 N. temp. 

Cotoneaster Rupp. Rosaceae (n). 30 N. temp. C. vulgaris Lindl. 
Brit. In the Alps visited solely by a wasp \Polistes gallica] whose 
nests are often attached to the rocks where the pi. grows. Fl. protog. 
with self-fert. in default of insects. Several cult. orn. shrubs. 

Cottea Ktmth. Gramineae (10). i trop. Am. to New Mexico. 

Cottendorffla Schult. f. Bromeliaceae (2). 2 trop. S. Am. 

Cotton, the fibre of Gossypiton, and loosely, of other IWalvaceae and 
Boinbacaceae. The fibre most used, and extensively cull, in ihe U.S., 
India, Brazil, trop. Afr., Japan, W. L, &c. It is the fine silky fibre 
enveloping the seed, and in G. barbadense and others comes clean 
away, but in G. herbaceum and most spp. leaves a ' fuzz ' adhering to 
ihe seed. There are many grades upon ihe market : the longest and 
finest 'staple' is that of Sea Island, G. barbadense L., and the next 
best Egyptian and some Brazilian and American. The bulk of the 
supply is American ' Upland,' and the poorest qualities come from 
India. For details see Watt, Wild and Cult. Cotton Plants of the 
World; Willis, Agriculture in the Tropics, -grass, Eriophoriuii ; 
-rose (Am.), Filago ; -sedge, Eriophornm ; silk-, Eriodendron, 
Chorisia ; -thistle, Onopordon ; -tree, Bombax ; -weed, Diotis ; 
-wood tree, Fopitlns. 

Cottonia Wight. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 2 Ceylon to China. 

Cottony, with sofl long hairs. 

Cotula (Tourn.) L. (incl. Ceiiiajnss. EP.}. Composilae (7). jocosmop., 
esp. 1^~. Cull. orn. fl. 

Cotylanthera Blume. Genlianaceae (i). 3 E. Indomal., Mariannes. 

Cotyledon Tourn. ex L. (incl. Echercria DC.). Crassulaceae. 100 Afr., 
Eur., As., Mexico, S. Am. C. Umbilicus Linn, (penny-wort) Brit. 
Pets, uniled inlo a lube. L. succulent. Cult. orn. fl. 

Cotyledon, a seed 1. 


Cotylelobiopsis Heim. Dipterocarpaceae. i Borneo. 

Cotylelobium Pierre. Dipterocarpaceae. 5 Indomal. 

Cotyliform, dish- or wheel-shaped. 

Cotylodiscus Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Madagascar. 

Cotylonychia Stapf. Sterculiaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Coublandia Aubl. (Muellera L. f. ). Legum. (in. 8). 3 trop. Am. 

Couch grass, Agropyron repens Beauv. 

Coudenbergia March (Pentapanax EP.}. Araliac. (2). i Brazil. 

Couepia Aubl. Rosaceae (vi). 45 S. Am. 

Coula Baill. Olacaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 

Coulterella Vaizey et Rose. Compositae (5). i Lower Calif. 

Coulterophytum Robinson. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 5 Mex. 

Coiuna Aubl. Apocynaceae (i. i). 5 Brazil, Guiana. 

Coumarin, Anthoxantlnitn. 

Coumarouna Aubl. (Dipteryx, g.v.). Legum. (in. 8). 8 trop. Am. 

Country almond (Ceylon), Terniinalia Catappa L ; -walnut, Alatritei 

triloba Forst. 

Coupoui Aubl. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.) (Apocyn. Bff.}. i Guiana. 
Couralia Splitg. Bignoniaceae (2). 4 trop. S. Am. 
Courantia Lemaire (Cotyledon Tourn.). Crassul. i Mexico. 
Couratari Aubl. Lecythidaceae. 8 S. Am. The bark yields a soft 

fibre used for making clothing. 

Courbonia ISrongn. Capparidaceae (n). 5 trop. Afr. 
Courimari Aubl. Inc. sed. i Guiana. 
Couroupita Aubl. Lecythid. 9 trop. S. Am., W.I. The fls. of 

C. guianensis Aubl. are borne on the old stems and followed by 

large spherical woody caps, (whence the name cannon-ball tree). 

Good timber. 

Coursetia DC. Leguminosae (in. 6). 15 Brazil to Calif. 
Courtoisia Nees. Cyperaceae (i). 2 trop. As., Afr. 
Cousinia Cass. Compositae (n). 240 E. Medit., W. As. 
Coussapoa Aubl. Moraceae (in). 18 trop. S. Am. 
Coussarea Aubl. Rubiaceae (n. 8). 45 Brazil, Venezuela. 
Coutarea Aubl. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 6 trop. Am., W.I. 
Couthovia A. Gray. Loganiaceae. 5 Polynesia, Malay Arch. 
Coutoubea Aubl. Gentianaceae (i). 4 trop. S. Am., W.I. 
Covellia Gasp. = Ficus Tourn. p.p. (Morac.). 
Cover-scale, Coniferae. 

Covilhamia Kunth. Sterculiaceae. i Borneo. 
Covillea Vail. = Larrea Cav. (Zygophyll.). 
Cow-bane, Cicuta virosa L. ; -berry, Vacciniuin Vitis-Idaea L. ; -itch, 

Mucunaprurtens'DC.; -parsnip, Heracleum Sphondyliuin L. ; -pea, 

Vigna sinensis Endl.; -tree, Brosimum', -wheat, Melampyrum, 
Cowage, Mitcnna pruriens DC. 

Cowania D. Don. Rosaceae (in. i). 3 Mexico, S.W. U.S. 
Cowiea Wernham. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Borneo. 
Cowrie pine, Agathis australis Steud. 
Cowslip, Primula vtris Lehm. 

Coxella Cheesem. et Hemsl. Umbellif. (in. 5). i Chatham Is. 
Crab grass (Am.), Panic urn, Eleusine; -'& eyes, Abrus precatorius L. ; 

-wood (W.I.), Carapa guianensis Aubl. 


Crabbea Harv. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 12 trop. and S. Afr. 

Cracca Benth. ex Oerst. Leguminosae (in. 6). 6 trop. Am.; do. L. 
= Tephrosia Pers. ; do. (Riv.) Medic. = Vicia Tourn. p.p. 

Craibia Harms et Dunn. Leguminosae (in. 6). 15 trop. Afr. 

Craibiodendron W. W. Smith. Ericaceae (n. i). i Burma. 

Crambe Tourn. ex L. Cruciferae (2). 20 Eur., Meclit., As., Polynes., 
Patagonia. C. maritima L. (sea-kale) on coast of Brit, has 1. fleshy 
and waxy. The young 1. blanched form a veg. 

Cranberry, Vaccinium Oxycvccus L. 

Crane's bill, Geranium pratense L., &c. 

CranicMs Sw. Orchidaceae (11. 2). 25 trop. Am., W.I. 

Craniolaria L. Martyniaceae. 3 S. Am. 

Craniospennum Lehni. Boraginaceae (iv. 2). 3 temp. As. 

Craniotome Reichb. Labiatae (vi). i Himalaya. 

Cranocarpus Benth. Leguminosae (ill. 7). 2 Brazil. 

Crantzia Scop. (Alloplectus Mart. EP.). Gesneriaceae (i). 35 trop. 
Am.; do. Nutt. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i Am., Austr., N.Z.; do. 
Pohl. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Craspedia Eorst. f. Compositae (4). 4 temp. Aust., JM.Z. 

Craspedodictyum Copeland (Gynmogramme p.p.). Polypodiaceae. 
2 Malay Arch., Polynesia. 

Craspedorachis Benth. Gramineae (n). 2 trop. Afr. 

Craspidospermum Boj. ex DC. Apocynaceae (i. i). i Madag. 

Crassocephalum Moench. (Gytiura EP.}. Comp. (8). 20 warm Afr., 

Crassula Dill, ex L. (incl. Dinacria Harv., and Til/aea Michx. EP.). 
Crassulaceae. 150 S. Afr., a few Abyss, and Himal., chiefly succu- 
lent 1. xero. In C. lycopodioides Lam. the 1. are narrow and closely 
packed, giving to the pi. the habit of a Lycopodium. In C. {Rochea) 
falcala Wendl. the connate decussate 1. stand almost edgewise, and 
are very fleshy ; some of the epidermal cells are swollen above the 
rest into large bladders which meet one another over the whole 
surface. At first living, when the 1. is mature they are dead and 
full of air, their walls infiltrated with quantities of silica. A pro- 
tection against evap. is thus afforded. In C. ncniorosa Endl. there is 
veg. repr. by the formation of young plants in the infl. in place of fls. 

Crassulaceae (EP., BH.). Dicotyledons (Archichl. Resales -/"., BH.). 
15 gen., 450 sp. cosmop., chiefly S. Afr., a very natural group. Most 
are perenn. living in dry (esp. rocky) places and exhibit xero. chars., 
fleshy 1. and stem, often tufted growth, close packing of 1.. waxy 
surface, sunk stomata, &c. Veg. repr. frequent ; usu. by rhiz. or 
offsets ; some form bulbils, &c. (e.g. Crassula), others form adv. 
buds upon the 1. (e.g. Bryophyllum). Fls. usu. in cymes (cincinni), 
5 or rarely unisex., actinom. with very reg. construction. Formula 
K, C, A M + , Gn, where n represents any number from 3 to 30. 
K persistent; C sometimes (e.g. Cotyledon) gamopet.; A frequently 
obdipl. Insertion of parts usu. perig.. but recept. not deeply hollowed. 
Cpls. frequently slightly united at the base; at the base of each 
commonly a honey-secreting scale; ov. usu. <x> . Fr. usu. a group 
of follicles with very small seeds. Endosp. none or very little. Fls. 
mostly protandr. and chiefly visited by flies, &c., their honey being 

C RE PIS 185 

easily obtainable. Chief genera: Sedum, Sempervivum, Cotyledon, 

Bryophyllum, Crassula. 
Crassus (Lat.), thick. 
Crataegus Tourn. ex L. (Mespilns EP. The boundaries of these two 

genera and of Pyrus are ill-defined.) Rosaceae (n). 100 N. temp. 

Some hundreds of spp. have in recent years been described from the 

U.S., but there is some possibility that they may arise through 

hybridisation (cf. Journ. of ffered., June 1916). C. Oxyacantha L. 

(hawthorn or may) in Brit. The thorns are modified branches. 

Collateral buds appear in the axils. Fls. of class AB. The wood is 

a substitute for that of box in engraving, &c. 

Crataemespilus x G. Camus. Hybrid, Crataegus Mespilus. i Eur. 
Crataeva L. Capparidaceae (11). 10 trop. 
Crateranthus E. G. Baker. Lecythidaceae. i Nigeria. 
Crateriform, cup-shaped. 

Crateriphytum Scheff. ex Koord. Loganiaceae. i Moluccas. 
Craterispermum Benth. Rubiaceae (n. i). 10 trop. Afr., Seychelles. 
Cratero siphon Engl. et Gilg. Thymelaeaceae. 2 Cameroons. 
Craterostemma K. Schum. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i S.E. Afr. 
Craterostigma Hochst. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). 5 trop. and S. Afr. 
Cratoxylon Blume. Guttiferae (11). 12 Indomal. 
Cratylia Mart. Leguminosae (m. 10). 6 S. Am. 
Cratystylis Sp. Moore (Glearia p.p. in part.). Comp. (3). 3 Austr. 
Crawfurdia Wall. Gentianaceae (i). 10 warm As. 
Creaghia Scortech. (Mussaendopsis EP.). Rubiac. (i. 5). i Malaya. 
Creaghiella Stapf. Melastomaceae (i). i Borneo. 
Creeper, Canary, Tropaeolimi peregrinnm L. ; trumpet-, Tecoma 

radicans Juss. ; Virginian-, Parthenotissns. 
Creeping plant, one with stolons or runners, rooting at the nodes, 

Agropyron, Agrostis, Ajiiga, Fragaria, Ranunculus, &c. 
Cremanium D. Don = Miconia Ruiz et Pav. p.p. (Melast.). 
Cremanthodium Benth. Compositae (8). 15 Himal., China. 
Cremaspora Benth. Rubiaceae (n. i). 6 trop. Afr., Madag. 
Creraastra Lindl. Drchidaceae (n. 10). 2 Mepal, Japan. 
Cremastus Miers (Bignonia BH.}. Bignon. (i). 3 Brazil. 
Crenmium (Cl.), a cliff formation. 

Cremnophila Rose (Sedum p.p.). Crassulaceae. i Mex. 
Cremocarp, a mericarp. 

Cremocarpus Boiv. ex Baill. Rubiaceae (n. 7). i Comoros. 
Cremolobus DC. Cruciferae (i). 10 Andes. 
Crenamon Raf. Inc. sed. i N. Am. 

Crenate (L), teeth pointing forward, rounded ; notches sharp. 
Crenea Aubl. Lythraceae. 2 trop. Am. 
Crenium (CL), a spring formation. 

Creochiton Blume. Melastomaceae (i). 3 Java, Phil. Is. 
Creosote plant, Larrea mexicana Moric. 
Crepe-flower, Lagerstroemia, 

Crepidopsis Arv. Touv. Compositae (13). i Mex. 
Crepidospermum Hook. f. Burseraceae. 2 Northern S. Am. 
Crepinella Marshal. Araliaceae (i). i Brit. Guiana. 
Crepis (Vaill.) L. (incl. Barkhansia Moench.). Compositae (13). 

1 86 CRE PIS 

220 N. Hemisph., S. Afr., S. Am.; 6 in Brit, (hawk's beard). Like 

Crescentia L. Bignon. (iv). 5 trop. Am. Fls. on old stems, succeeded 
by gourd-like berries ; the epicarp is woody, and after removal of the 
pulp forms a calabash (C. Cnjete L., calabash tree, most used). 

Cress, Lepidium sativitin L. ; American-, Barbarca praecox R. Br. ; 
bitter-, Cardamine ; Indian-, Tropaeoluni; penny-, 7Yi/aipi; rock-, 
Arabis; water-, Nasturtium officinale R. Br. ; winter-, Barbarea; 
yellow-, Barbarea, Nasturtium. 

Cressa L. Convolvulaceae (i). 5 trop. and subtrop. 

Crest, a ridge or outgrowth. 

Cretaceous, chalky. 

Cribriform, sieve-like. 

Crinitus (Lat.), with soft hairs. 

Crinodendron Molina (Tricuspidaria R. et P.). Elaeocarp. 2 Chili. 

Crinum L. Amaryllidaceae (i). 70 trop. and subtrop., esp. on sea- 
coasts. Large bulbous pi. with showy fls. The seed of C. asiaticum L. 
(Goebel, Pftanzenbiol. Schild. \. p. 128) has a very thin corky covering 
and is suited to distr. by water and early germination. The ovule has 
no integuments, and the testa is replaced by a formation of cork at the 
outside of the endosp. Cult. orn. fl. 

Crioceras Pierre (Tabernaemontana p.p.). Apocyn. (i. 3). 2 trop. Afr. 

Crisp, crispate, crisped, curled. 

Cristaria (Heist.) Cav. Malvaceae (2). 30 Chili, Peru. 

Cristatella Nutt. Capparidaceae (v). 2 S.W. U.S. 

Cristatus (Lat.), crested. 

Crithmum L. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i C. niaritimiiin L., the samphire, 
on rocky coasts, Medit., Eur. (incl. Brit.). It has much divided and 
very fleshy 1. Used for making pickles. 

Crocidium Hook. Compositae (8). i W. N. Am. 

Crocion Nieuwland (Viola p.p.). Violaceae. 2 N. Am. 

Crockeria Greene ex A. Gray. Compositae (6). i Calif. 

Crocodiloides Adans. = Berkheya Ehrh. (Compos.). 

Crocopsis Pax. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 S. Am. 

Crocosmia Planch. (Tritonia p.p. EP.}. Iridaceae (ill), i, C. aurea 
Planch., trop. and S. Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 

Crocus (Tourn.) L. Iridaceae (i). 60 Medit., Eur., 2 nat. in Brit. 
Below ground is a corm (cf. Colchicum), covered with a few scaly L, 
in whose axils may arise one or more buds, giving rise to new corms 
on the top of the old. The 1. are dorsiv., and curiously grooved on 
the back. The fl. is often single and term.; in some sp. there is 
a small cyme. The fl. closes at night and in dull weather. The 
tube of the P is so long that the ovary remains below the soil and is 
protected from the weather (cf. Colchicum). The fl. is protandr. and 
visited by bees and Lepidoptera. Honey is secreted by the ovary, 
and the anthers face outwards so as to touch any insect alighting on 
the petals and seeking honey. The stigmas are branched. Birds 
often bite off the fls. in gardens (? for honey) ; they seem to prefer the 
yellow fls., leaving the blue and white alone. 

The dried stigmas of C. sativits L. form saffron, once largely used 
as an orange yellow dye, but now chiefly employed in flavouring and 


colouring dishes, liqueurs, &c. [See Kronfeld's Ceschichte des Sa/rans, 
&c., Wien 1892, or Beih. z. Dot. Centr., 1893, p. 71.] 

Crocus, autumn, Colchicum attfumnale L. 

Crocyllis E. Mey. Rubiaceae (n. 7). i S. Afr. 

Croftia King et Prain. Zingiberaceae (l). i India. 

Croftia Small (Schaueria p.p.)- Acanth. (iv. B). r N. Am. 

Croixia Pierre. Sapotaceae (n). i Malaya. 

Crookea Small (Ascyrum p.p.)- Guttif. (n). i N. Am. 

Croomia Torr. ex Torr. et A. Gray. Stemonaceae. 3 E. U.S., Japan. 

Crosnes, Stachys Sicboldi Miq. 

Crossandra Salisb. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 17 trop. As., Afr., Madag. 
The seeds of many sp. are covered with scales which spread out and 
become sticky when wetted (cf. Linum). Cult. orn. fl. 

Cross-fertilisation or -pollination, pollination from a distinct plant ; 
cf. Floral mechanisms, Flower classes, &c. 

Cross-wort, Galiitm. 

Crossandrella C. B. Clarke. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Uganda. 

Crossonephelis Baill. Sapindaceae (l). r Nossi Be. 

Crossopetalum P. Br. = Myginda L. (Celastr.). 

Crossopteryx Fenzl. Rubiaceae (i. 5). i trop. Afr. 

Crossosoma Nutt. The only genus of Crossosomataceae. 3S.W. U.S., 
Mex. Shrubs with small stiff 1. and sol. 11. Like Rosaceae Spiraeoi- 
deae, but seeds kidney-shaped, with rich endosp. Aril. (Engler.) 

Crossosomataceae (EP.; Dillcniaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl., 
Rosales). Only genus (q.v.} Crossosoma. 

Crossostemma Planch, ex Benth. in Hook. Passifl. i W. trop. Afr. 

Crossostephium Less. Compositae (7). i China, Phil. Is. 

Crossostylis Foist. Rhizophoraceae. 6 Polynesia. 

Crossotropis Stapf. Gramineae (n). 3 trop. Afr., Arabia. 

Crotalaria Dill, ex L. Leguminosae (in. 3). 350 trop. and subtrop. 
C. jnncea L. (India, Austr.), an annual about 8 ft. high, is largely 
cult, for the fibre obtained from its stems by maceration in water 
(cf. Linum), known as Sunn-hemp, Bombay or Madras hemp, &c. 
C. retusa L. (trop.) is also employed. 

Croton L. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. i). 600 trop. and subtrop. Fls. 
mon- or dioecious, little reduced from the type of the fam. C. Tigliiiin 
L. (trop. As.) is the source of croton oil (a powerful purgative drug, 
expressed from the seeds). C. Cascarilla Benn. and C. Eluteria Benn. 
(Bahamas) yield Cascarilla bark, used as a tonic (cf. Cascarilla). 
C. laccifcrus L. (India, Ceylon) yields a lac, used in varnish-making, 
and several Brazilian spp. a dragon's blood resin. 
Croton (of trop. gardens), Codiaeum variegatum Bl. 
Croton-oil, Croton Tiglinni L. 

Crotonogyne Muell.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). to trop. Afr. 
Crotonogynopsis Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). i trop. Afr. 
Crotonopsis Michx. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. i). 2 N. Am. 
Crow-berry, Em pel nun nigrinn ' L. ; -foot, Ranunculus; -foot-grass, 

Dactyloctcn in in. 

Crowea Smith. Rutaceae (i). 4 Austr. 

Crown-bark, Cinchona ; -beard (Am.), Verbesina ; -Imperial, Frilil- 
laria imperialis L.; -palm (W.I.), Maximiliana. 


Crucianella L. Rubiaceae (n. n). 4 Eur., Medit. Cult. orn. fl. 

Cruciate, cross-shaped. 

Cruciferae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Rhoeadales ; Panetales 

BH.}. 220 gen., 1900 sp., cosmop., but chiefly N. temp, and esp. 

Medit. ; a very natural fam., well marked off from others, though 

approaching Papaveraceae and Capparidaceae. Herbs, a few under : 

shrubs ; some ann., many perenn., forming each year a new shoot 

term, in the infl. L. usu. alt., exstip., with unicellular simple or 

branched hairs. For other peculiarities of veg. organs see gen., e.g. 

Brassica, Anastatica, Subularia, Vella, &c. Infl. usu. a raceme or 

corymb, and nearly always without bracts or bracteoles. 

Fl. usu. 5, reg., hypog., with typical formula K 2 + 2, 4, A 6, 

G (2). The K has two whorls, the C only 

one, alt. with the K as a whole. The 

petals usu. spread out in the form of a 

cross and are often clawed ; the sta. in two 

whorls, an outer of 2 short, an inner of 

4 long, sta. (tetradynamous) ; anthers intr. 

The two cpls. are placed trans v., and have 

parietal plac., but the ov. is 2-loc. on 

account of the presence of an antero-post. 

partition, the repluin or so-called spurious 

septum, an outgrowth of the placentae. 

Stigmas 2, on short style, above the 

placentae (cf. Papaveraceae). Ovules anatr. Floral Diagram 

, J . (after Eichler). 

or campylotr. 

The explanation of the morphology of 

this fl. has given rise to much dispute. It is usu. regarded as a 
typically 2-merous fl. (cf. Papaveraceae), and the 4 petals and 4 inner 
sta. are supposed to be due to branching. Others regard it as 4-merous 
(e.g. Klein in Bot. Centr. 58, p. 197). Full discussion in Eichler's or in Asa Gray's Struct. Bot. p. 206. 

On the bases of the sta. are the nectaries, the honey being secreted 
into the often gibbous bases of the inner sepals. The sepals often 
stand almost straight up, and the petals are then provided with claws 
and spread out horiz. beyond the sepals. The honey is thus concealed 
to some extent and protected from rain. The majority of the order 
exhibit this construction more or less, thus coming into the biological 
fl. -class AB. In many gen. the fls. are arranged in corymbs, thus 
getting the advantage of many fls. massed together on one level 
(cf. Umbelliferae and Compositae). Insects visiting the fls. touch 
the anthers with one side of their bodies and the stigma with the 
other, and may in this way effect cross-fert., as they go sometimes to 
one, sometimes to the other, side of the fl. Dichogamy is frequent, 
but not well marked, and in almost all self-fert. ultimately occurs. 
fMiiller, Pert, of Fls.] 

Fr. a caps, of pod-like form ; if at least three times as long as 
broad it is called a siliqna, if shorter a silicula. It is divided into 
two by the replum and is usu. thin and membranous. The valves 
break away from below upwards, leaving the replum with the seeds 
pressed against it and adhering. The fr. may be flattened in two 


ways, either || or JL the replum ; this char, is of systematic importance. 
It may also be jointed between the seeds as in a lomentum (Legumi- 
nosae). Achene-like one-seeded fr. occur in a few gen. Others have 
subterranean fr. (Cardamine sp., &c.). 

The chars, of the seed are also of great importance in classification. 
The seed is exalb. : the testa is often mucilaginous, swelling up when 
wetted (e.g. the familiar case of mustard seed). The ovules being 
campylotr., the embryo sacs, and embryos, are curved, usu. with the 
radicle in one half of the seed, the cots, in the other. The shape of 
the embryo and the position of the radicle with regard to the cots, 
are important. The chief cases are: (i) radicle incumbent (or embryo 
notorhizal), i.e. lying on the back of one cot., the cots, not being 
folded on themselves; this may be shown thus o||, the o repres. the 
radicle; (2) decumbent (or embryo pleurorhizal}, o=, the radicle 
against the edges of the cots. ; (3) orthoplocous (cots, conduplicate), 
o> >; (4) spirolol'ous, as in (i) but cots, once folded, o||||; (5) diple- 
cotoboits, ditto twice or more folded, o||||||l|. 

For plants of economic value see esp. Brassica (which gives a 
number of valuable vegetables), Sinapis, Nasturtium, Lepidium, &c. 
All C. are harmless, and most are rich in sulphur compounds (to 
which the smell of boiling cabbages is due), and are thus useful in 
scurvy, &c. 

Classification and chief genera (after Frantl) : 

The grouping of the smaller divisions of the fam. and the defining 
of the genera is a most difficult task. Many classifications have been 
devised. Prantl (in Nat. Pfl.} bases his largely upon the hairs borne 
on the leaves. Others rely on characters of fruit and embryo, &c. In 
any case the identification of a cruciferous genus is a difficult matter. 

A. Hairs simple or none : no glandular hairs. 

1. Thelypodieae (stigma equally developed all round; style un- 
divided or prolonged above middle of cpls., or turned back) : 
Pringlea, Thelypodium, Heliophila. 

2. Sinapeae (stigma better developed over placentae) : Subu- 
laria, Lepidium, Iberis, Cochlearia, Alliaria, Sisymbrium, 
Cakile, Isatis, Vella, Sinapis, Brassica, Raphanus, Crambe, 
Nasturtium, Cardamine, Lunaria. 

B. Hairs branched (a few exceptions) : Sometimes also glandular 


3. Schizopctaleae (stigma equal all round) : Schizopetalum, 

4. Hesperideae (stigma better developed over placentae) : Cap- 
sella, Draba, Arabis, Erysimum, Cheiranthus, Alyssum, 
Anastatica, Malcomia, Hesperis, Matthiola, Conringia. 

Cruckshankia Hook, et Am. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 5 Chili. 

Cruddasia Prain. Leguminosae (in. 10). i N. India. 

Crudia Schreb. (Apalaton Aubl.). Legumin. (n. 3). 20 trop. 

Cruentus (Lat.), blood coloured. 

Crula Nieuwland (Acer p.p.). Aceraceae. 7 E. As. 

Crumenaria Mart. Rhamnaceae. 5 trop. Brazil. 

Crunocallis Rydberg (Claytonia p.p.). Portul. i Arct. As. Am. 

Crupina Dill, ex L., Cass. Compositae (i i). 2 S. Eur. to Persia. 

1 90 CRUSE A 

Crusea Cham, et Schlechtcl. Rubiaceae (n. 10). 10 Mex., C. Am. 

Crustaceous, hard and brittle. 

Cruzia Phil. Labiatae (vi). i Patagonia. 

Crymium (C1-), a polar barren formation. 

Cryosophila Blume (Copernicia BH.). Palmae (i. 2). i Mex. 

Cryphiacanthus Nees (Ruellia p.p.). Acanth. (iv. A). 10 S. Am. 

Crypsis Ait. Gramineae (8). i Medit. 

Cryptadenia Meissn. Thymelaeaceae. 5 Cape Col. Cult. orn. 

Cryptandra Sm. Rhamnaceae. 30 temp. Austr. 

Cryptanglum Schrad. Cyperaceae (n). 20 trop. Am. 

Cryptantha Lehm. (Eritrichium BH.). Borag. (iv. 2). 80 Pacif. Am. 

Cryptanthe Benth. et Hook. f. = preceding. 

Cryptanthopsis Ule. Bromeliaceae (4). 2 Brazil (Bahia). 

Cryptanthus Otto et Diet r. Bromeliaceae (4). 10 Brazil. Cult. orn. fol. 

Cryptarrhena R. Br. Orchidaceae (11. 19). 3 W.I., Guiana, Mex. 

Crypteronia Blume. Sonneratiaceae (Lythr. BH.). 4 Malaya. 

Cryptocarpus H. B. et K. Nyctaginaceae. 2 W. coast Am. 

Cryptocarya R. Br. Lauraceae (n). 60 trop. and subtrop. The fr. 

of C, moschata Nees et Mart. (Brazilian nutmegs) used as spice. 
Cryptocentrum Benth. (Mystacidium EP.). Orchid, (n. 20). i 


Cryptochilus Wall. Orchidaceae (n. 5). i Himalaya. 
Cryptochloris Benth. (Tetrapogon EP.). Gram in. (n). i Patagonia. 
Cryptocoryne Fisch. Araceae (vn). 20 Indomal. Marsh plants. 

Some sp. are apparently ' viviparous ' in their germination, like 

mangroves (see Goebel's Pflanzenbiol. Schild. I. p. 132). 
Cryptodiscus Schrenk. Umbelliferae (in. 4). 4 W. As. 
Cryptogamae. A term used to distinguish those pi. which do not 

produce seeds. All the higher C. exhibit alternation of generations 

(see Pteridophyta), and the distinction between them and Phanerogams 

depends on the fact that in C. the macrospore or spore falls out of its 

sporangium, germinates upon the ground or in water and gives rise 

to an independent ? (or 5 ) prothallus; in the P. on the other hand, it 

does not do so. 

The C. form 3 great groups, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, and Pteri- 

dophyta, each usu. regarded as equivalent to Spermaphyta. 
Cryptogamae Vascularea*= Pteridophyta. 
Cryptogramma R. Br. (Allosorus Bernh.). Polypodiaceae. 5 Eur., 

As., Am. C. crispa R. Br. (parsley-fern, curled rockbrake) Brit. 
Cryptogyne Hook. f. Sapotaceae (i). i Madag. 
Cryptolepis R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (i). 20 palaeotrop. 
Cryptomeria D. Don. Com'ferae (Pinaceae; see C. for gen. char.). 

i Japan, C. Japonica D. Don. (Japanese cedar), often cult. Timber 

Cryptophaseolus O. Ktze. (Canavalia p.p. EP.). Legum. (in. 10). 

i Annam. 
Cryptophoranthus Barb. Rodr. (Pleurothattis BH.). Orchid, (n. 8). 

10 trop. Am., W.I. 
Cryptophragmium Nees (Gymnostachyum BH.). Acanth. (iv. B). 

15 trop. As. 
Cryptopus Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). i Madag. 


Cryptosepalum Benth. Leguminosae (n. 3). 8 trop. Afr. 

Cryptospora Kar. et Kir. Cruciferae (4) i W. As. 

Cryptostegia R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (i). 2 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Cryptostemma R. Br. (Arctotis p.p. EP.}. Comp. (10). 3 S. Afr. 

Cryptostephanus VVelw. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 trop. Afr. 

Cryptostylis R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 7 Indomal. 

Cryptotaenia DC. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 3 Canada, Calabria, Came- 
roons (an almost impossible distribution; cf. Willis in Ann. Bot. 

Cryptotaeniopsis Dunn (Carum p.p. in part). Umb. (in. 5). 10 China. 

Ctenanthe Eichl. Marantaceae. 10 trop. Am. 

Ctenium Panz. Gramineae (n). 7 Am., Afr., Masc. 

Ctenodon Baill. (Aeschynomene p.p. EP.}. Legum. (in. 7). i Brazil. 

Ctenolophon Oliv. Linaceae (formerly Olac.). 2 Malay Peninsula. 

Ctenophryniurn K. Schum. Marantaceae. i Madag. 

Ctenophyllum Rydb. (Phaca p.p.). Leguminosae (in. 6). i N. Am. 

Ctenopsis De Notar. (Festiica p.p. EP.). Gramin. (10). i trop. Afr. 

Cuba bark (W.I.), bast, Hibiscus elatus Sw. ; -liemp (Aust.), Furcrea. 

Cubanthus Millspaugh (Pedilantkus p.p.). Euphorb. (A. n. 8). 2 

Cubeba Raf. = Piper L. (Piper.). 

Cubebs, Piper Cubeba L. 

Cubilia Blume. Sapindaceae (inc. sed.). 2 Phil. Is., Celebes. 

Cuckoo flower, Cardainine, &c. ; -pint, Arum maculatum L. 

Cucutaalus (Tourn.) L. Caryophyllaceae (n. i). i, C. bacdfer L., 
N. temp, (introd. in Brit.). Fr. a berry. 

Cucullaria Schreb. = Vochysia Juss. (Vochys.). 

Cucullate, hooded, cowled. 

Cucullus, Asclepiadaceae. 

Cucumber, Cuciimis sativus L.; calabash-, Lagenaria; squirting-, 
Ecballium; -tree (Am.), Magnolia. 

Cucumeropsis Naud. Cucurbitaceae (2). 2 trop. W. Afr. 

Cucumis (Tourn.) L. Cucurb. (3). 3 trop., subtrop. C. Melo L. 
(melon), C. sativus L. (cucumber) cult, from early times. Tendrils 
simple, regarded as of 1. nature (see fam.), the stem portion sup- 

Cucurbita (Tourn. ) L. Cucurbitaceae (3). 10 Am., but many so long cult, 
that their origin is doubtful. F~or tendrils see fam. Fls. monoecious. 
Germination interesting. On the lower side of the hypocotyl a peg 
is formed which holds one side of the testa firmly while the expansion 
of the plumule splits off the other side. The position of the peg is 
determined by gravity. 

C. Pepo L. is the pumpkin, with its vars. the vegetable marrow and 
squash; C. maxima Duchesne the giant pumpkin, cult, in N. Am 

Cucurbitaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Cucurbitales ; Polypet. 
Passiflorales BH.}. 90 gen., 750 sp., wanting in the colder regions, 
most abundant in the trop., chiefly climbing ann. herbs with very 
rapid growth and abundance of sap in their steins and other tissues. 
L. alt. roundish, entire or lobed. They climb by tendrils, about 
whose morphological nature there has been much discussion ; they 
have been considered by various authors as "roots, stems, leaves, 


stipules, shoots, flower-stalks or organs sui generis." According to 
Muller (Nat. Pfl.} the tendrils of Cncurbita Pepo, with their frequent 
abnormalities, give a proof of their true nature. Every variety is 
found, from simple threads to long leafy tendrils, in which the 1. show 
all transitions to tendrils. Muller, therefore, considers the twining 
portion of the tendril to be a met. 1. , the lower stiff portion a stem. 
The tendrils of C. are very sensitive and show very well all the 
phenomena of tendril-climbing. 

Fls. diclinous, rarely 5 , in infls. of various types (see Nat. Pfl., 
or Eichler, K and C typically (5) each, reg. ; A 
typically 5, but great var. is introduced by cohesions, &c.; it is 
almost always [ . In Fevillea we find ~, sta. with biloc. anthers, the 
simplest type ; it is noteworthy that the usual 4-loc. anther never 
occurs in C., and no trace of the missing loc. is to be found in either 
lobe of the anther of Fevillea. In the rest of the fam. the A is more 
complex. In Thladiantha two pairs of sta. stand apart from the 
fifth sta. In Sicydium these pairs show union of their members at 
the base, and in others the union is more complete, until, as in 
Bryonia, &c., the A apparently has only 3 sta., of which 2 have 
4-loc. anthers due to unions. The more the sta. depart from the 
simple type the more curved do the loculi of the anthers become, 
till in Cucurbita, &c. the pollen-sacs are twisted in a most extra- 
ordinary manner (cf. Columellia). In Cyclanthera the sta. are all 
united into a column with two ring-shaped pollen_chambers running 
round the top (cf. the flow ers of Cyclanthus). G i io-loc. , with 
i oo anatr. ov. in each loc. ; the most common type is, however, 
a 3-loc. ovary with axile plac. projecting deep into the cavity. 
Stigmas as many as cpls., usually forked. Fr. usu. fleshy, of the 
type of the melon or cucumber berry-like, sometimes called a pepo. 
Seeds exalb. In Zanonia, Ecballium, Cyclanthera, &c. (q.v.), the 
mode of seed-dispersal is interesting. Several have ed. fr. , e.g. 
Cucurbita, Cucumis, Sechium, Lagenaria, &c. 

The relationships of this fam. have been much disputed. It has 
been placed near Passifloraceae, Loasaceae and Begoniaceae, but 
most probably it comes near to the Campanulaceae. 

Classification and chief genera (after Pax) : 

A. Pollen-sacs not fused into a ring. 

a. Sta. free or only united at base. 

i. Ftvilleeae (sta. 5, rarely 4) : Fevillea, Zanonia, Thladiantha. 
i. Melothrieae (sta. 3, rarely i or 4; pollen-sacs straight or 
slightly curved): Melothria, Telfairia. 

3. Ciicurbiteae (do., but pollen-sacs S or U shaped): Acan- 
thosicyos, Momordica, Luffa, Bryonia, Ecballium, Cucumis, 
Lagenaria, Trichosanthes, Cucurbita. 

b. Sta. united into a column. 

4. Sicyoideae: Echinocystis, Sechium, Sicyos. 

B. Pollen-sacs fused into a ring. 

5. Cydanthereae: Cyclanthera (only genus). 
Cucurbitaceous, gourd-like. 

Cucurbitales (EP.). The pth order of Dicots. Sympetalae. 
Cucurbitella Walp. Cucurbitaceae (2). 4 temp. S. Am. 


Cudrania Tree. Moraceae (n). 4 Japan to Austr., New Cal. 

Cudweed, Gnaphalium. 

Culcasia P. Beauv. Araceae (i). 15 trop. Afr. 

Culcitium Humb. et Bonpl. Compos. (8). 20 Andes. Like Espeletla. 

Cullenia Wight. Bombacaceae. i India, Ceylon. 

Cullumia R. Br. Compositae (10). 15 S. Afr. 

Cullumiopsis Drake del Castillo. Compositae (4). i Madag. 

Culm, the stem of a grass. 

Cultivation, see Economic and ornamental plants. 

Culver's physic, -root, Veronica virginica L. 

Cumbu, Pennisetiim tvphoidcum Rich. 

Cumin seed, Cuminiim Cyminuiii L. 

Cumingia Vidal. Bombacaceae. i Phil. Is. 

Cuminia Colla. Labiatae (vi). 3 Juan Fernandez. 

Cuminum (Tourn.) L. Umbelliferae (7). i C. Cyminum L., Medit. 
The fr. (cumin seeds) are sometimes used like caraway seeds. 

Cumminsia King ex Prain = Cathcartia Hk. f. (Papav.). 

Cuneal, cuneate, cuneiform, wedge-shaped. 

Cunila L. Labiatae (vi). 15 Am. 

Cunninghamia R. Br. Coniferae (Pinaceae; see C. for genus charac- 
ters). C. sinensis R. Br., the only sp., in S. China and Cochin- 

Cunonia L. Cunoniaceae. i, C. capensis L., S. Afr. It shows good 
bud-protection by stipules. 

Cunoniaceae (EP. ; Saxzfragactae p.p. BH.}. Dicot. (Archichl. Ro- 
sales). 21 gen., 120 sp., chiefly between 13 and 35 S- Shrubs 
and trees with opp. or whorled leathery 1., stip. (the slip, often united 
in pairs as in Rubiaceae). Fl. small, usu. $ . Receptacle usu. flat. 
K 4 5; C 4 5, usu. smaller than calyx, often absent ; A 8 10 or 
oo or 4 5; G usu. (2), rarely 2; ovary usu. 2-loc., generally with 

00 2 ovules in 2 rows in each loc. Fruit usu. a capsule, rarely drupe 
or nut. Endosperm. Chief genera: Cunonia, Weinmannia. 

Cunuria Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 3). 2 N. Brazil. 

Cup, a hollow floral receptacle, Myrtaceae, Rosaceae, &c.; -flower, 
Nierembergia ; -plant (Am.), Silphium perfoliatum L. 

Cupania L. Sapindaceae (i). 32 warm Am. Wood of some is 
useful. C. sapida Voigt (C. edulis Schum. et Thonn.) = Blighia. 

Cupaniopsis Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). 28 Austr., Polynesia. 

CupLea P. Br. Lythraceae. 200 Am. L. decussate; usu. there is 
one fl. at each node, standing between the two 1. ; this is really the 
axillary ft of the 1. below, and its peduncle is 'adnate' to the main 
stem. Many covered with sticky glandular hairs. Cult. orn. fl. 

Cupheanthus Seem. (Jambosa, Syzygium p.p. ? EP.). Myrtaceae (i). 

1 New Caied. 

Cuphocarpus Decne. et Planch. Araliaceae (i). i Madag. 

Cupia DC. = Randia L. (Rubiac.). 

Cupirana Miers (Coupoui BH.). Apocynaceae (i. i). i Guiana. 

Cuprea bark, Reinijia. 

Cupreous, copper-coloured. 

Cupressaceae ( Warming) = Pinaceae Cupresseae. 

Cupressus Tourn. ex L. [Synonymy: C. fastigiata DC. C.semper- 

w. 13 


virens L. ; C. pendula Staunt. = C. fnnebris Endl.; C. nootkatensis 
Lamb. = Chamaecyparis nutkatensis Spach. ; C. thttjoides L = Ch. 
sphaeroidea Spach.; C. juniperoides L,. = Callitris arborea Schrad. ; 
C. japonica L. = Cryptomeria jap. Don. 

Coniferae (Pinaceae; see C. for gen. char.). 12 Medit., As., 
N.Am. The gen. habit is xero. , the 1. being much reduced and 
closely appressed to the stems. C. sempervirens L. is the cypress 
of the Medit. region; C.funebris Endl. the funereal cypress of China 
and Thibet, with ' weeping ' branches ; C. macrocarpa Hartn. 
(Monterey cypress, Calif.) is largely planted for timber and shade in 
warm countries. Several yield useful timber, e.g. C. Laivsoniana Murr. 
(Calif., Oregon), C. Lindleyi Klotzsch (Mexico), C. tornlosa Don 
(W.Himal.), C. sempervirens, &c. (see Camus, Les Cypres, Paris, 


Cupule, Fagaceae, Betulaceae. 

Cupuliferae (BH. ) = Betulaceae + Fagaceae ; (Warming) = Fagaceae. 

Curangajuss. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i Indomal. 

Curare, Strychnos toxifera Schomb. 

Curatella L. Dilleniaceae. 5 trop. Am., W. I. 

Curculigo Gaertn. Amaryllidaceae (in). 15 palaeotrop., S. Afr. 

Curcuma L. Zingiber. (i). 35 palaeotrop. C. angustifolia Roxb. 
tubers furnish east Indian arrowroot. C. longa L. yields the yellow 
dye turmeric (dried and ground rhiz. ). The tubers of C. Zedoaria 
Rose, yield zedoary, used in the East as a tonic and perfume. 

Curima O. F. Cook (Bactris EP.}. Palmae (iv. 2). 2 W. Indies. 

Curinila Roem. et Schult. Asclepiadaceae (inc. sed.). i Malaya. 

Curled rockbrake, Cryptogramma crispa R. Br. 

Curly greens, Brassica oleracea L. var. 

Curmeria Linden et Andre = Homalomena Schott p.p. (Arac.). 

Curraniodendron Merrill. Saxifragaceae (v). i Phil. Is. 

Currant, Kibes, Vitis ; Australian-, Leiicopogon ; black-, Ribes nigruin 
L. ; -bush (W.I.), Clidemia, Miconia, &c.; flowering-, Ribes sangni- 
neum Pursh; -tree (W.I.), Beureria, Jacquinia. 

Curroria Planch. Asclepiadaceae (i). i S. Afr. 

Curry-leaf (Ceyl., India), Murraya Koenigii Sprang. 

Curtia Cham, et Schlechtd. Gentian, (i). 10 Guiana to Uruguay. 

Curtisia Ait. Cornaceae. i S. Afr., C. faginea Ait., yielding a hard 
and useful timber (assegai-wood). 

Curvembryae. The ist series (BH.) of Monochlamydeae. The 7th 
cohort (Warming) of Choripetalae. 

Cuscuaria Schott (Scindapsiis p.p. EP.~). Araceae (n). i Malay 

Cuscus (khas-khas), Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf. 

Cuscuta (Tourn.) L. Convolvulaceae (n). 100 trop. and temp.; 3 Brit, 
(dodder, scald, &c.). Many have extended their boundaries through 
being carried about with their host plants. Leafless and rootless total 
parasites. The stem twines and is sensitive to contact like a tendril 
so that it clasps the support tightly ; it rarely makes more than three 
turns about the same branch of the host. At the points in close 
contact suckers are developed which penetrate the tissues of the host, 
growing into organic union with them and drawing off all the food 


materials required by the parasite, which has no green tissue of its 
own. The seeds of C. germinate later than those of the host plant ; 
a very short anchorage root is formed and the stem nutates in search 
of a host; as soon as it has clasped one the root dies away. Much 
damage is often done by these plants: most of the Brit. sp. confine 
themselves to particular host pi., but others attack a variety of pi. 
For details see Kerner's Nat. Hist, of Plants, vol. i., and papers by 
Peirce in Ann. of Bat. 1893 4. 

Cushion plants, with cushion-like growth reducing evap. 

Cusickia M. E. Jones. Umbelliferae (in. 6). i N.Am. 

Cusparia Humb. Rutaceae (i). 22 S. Am. C. febrifuga Humb. (C. 
trifoliata Eng.) yields Angostura or Cusparia bark, sometimes used 
in place of cinchona bark. 

Cuspidaria DC. Bignoniaceae (i). 5 Brazil, Bolivia. 

Cuspidate, with rigid point. 

Cussonia Thunb. Araliaceae (i). 25 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 

Custard-apple, Anona sqtiaiosa L. , reticulata L. 

Cutandia Wilk. Gramineae (10). 6 Medit. 

Cutch, Acacia Catechu Willd., Rhizophora. 

Cuthbertia Small ( Tradescantia p-p-). Commelin. 2 N.Am. 

Cuticle, the thin detachable skin of a plant. 

Cutting grass (W.I.), Scleriaflagellum-nigrorum Berg. 

Cuttsia F. Muell. Saxifragaceae (v). i E.Austr. 

Cuviera DC. Rubiaceae (n. i). 10 trop. Afr. Several are ant- 
inhabited with hollow swellings of the stem above the nodes. 

Cyamopsis DC. Leguminosae (in. 6). 3 trop. Afr., As. C. psoraloides 
DC. is largely cultivated in India as fodder (guar). 

Cyanaeorchis Barb. Rodr. Orchidaceae (n. 7). i Brazil. 

Cyanandrium Stapf. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Borneo. 

Cyananthus Wall. Campanul. (i). 10 Mts. mid. and E. As. Ov. sup. 

Cyanastraceae (EP., Pontederiaceae p.p. BH. ). Monocots. (Farinosae). 
Only genus Cyanastrum, q.v. 

Cyanastrum Oliv. Cyanastraceae. 5 trop. Afr. Herbs with tuber 
or tuberous rhiz. , and racemes or panicles of $ reg. fls. P (3 + 3), 
A (6), G (3), 3-loc. with 2 ov. in each. Fr. i-seeded. Perisperm. 

Cyanea Gaudich. Campanulaceae (ill). 28 Sandw. Is. 

Cyanella L. Amaryllidaceae un.). (Haemodor. BH.} 7 S. Afr. 

Cyaneus (Lat.), full blue. 

Cyanocarpus Bailey. Proteaceae (11). 2 Queensland. 

Cyanodaphne Blume. Lauraceae (n). 2 Malay Archipelago. 

Cyanostegia Turcz. Verbenaceae (3). 4 W. Austr. 

Cyanothyrsus Harms. (Daniella p. p.), Legumin. (n. 3). 3 trop. Afr. 

Cyanotis D. Don. Commelinaceae. 35 palaeotrop. 

Cyanus (Toutn.) L. = Centaurea L. (Comp.). 

Cyathanthus Engl. Moraceae (i). i Cameroons. 

CyatheaSm. Cyatheaceae. 240 tiop. and subtrop. Tree ferns, forming 
a char, feature in the scenery of various regions. C. medullaris Sw. 
(N. Z.) and C. dcalbata Sw. are well known. Their pulpy pith is 
eaten by the natives. 

Cyatheaceae. Filicineae Leptosporangiatae (Homosporous). 9 gen. 
with 360 sp. chiefly trop. and subtrop., mostly tree ferns with stout 


erect stems, covered with adv. roots and a palm-like crown of 1. at 
the top. These show circinate vernation, &c., very well. The sori 
are marginal or on the under side of the 1., naked or with a cup- 
shaped indusium ; the sporangia are shortly stalked and have a 
complete excentric annulus. Chief genera: Cyathea, Alsophila, 
Dicksonia, Hemitelia. 

CyatMum, an infl. reduced to look like a single fl., Euphorbia, Antho- 

Cyathocalyx Champ, ex Hook. f. et Thorns. Anon. (4). 9 Indomal. 

Cyathocephalum Nakai. Compositae (8). 2 Japan, Manchuria. 

Cyathochaeta Nees. Cyperaceae (n). 4 Austr. 

Cyathocline Cass. Compositae (3). 2 India. 

Cyathodes Labill. (Styphelia p.p. EP.}, Epacrid. 15 Austr. Polynes. 

Cyathogyne Muell.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 5 trop. Afr. 

Cyathopsis Brongn. et Gris. (Styphelia p.p. EP.). Epacridaceae (3). 
2 Indomal. 

Cyathopus Stapf. Gramineae (8). i Indomal. 

Cyathoselinum Eenth. (Scseli p.p. EP.}. Umbellif. (in. 5). i Dal- 

Cyatb-ostelma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 2 Brazil. 

Cyathostemma Griff. Anonaceae (i). 7 Malaya. 

Cyathula Lour. Amarantaceae (2). 10 Afr., As., S.Am. 

Cybele, a flora. 

Cybiantnus Mart. Myrsinaceae (ll). 35 trop. Am. 

Cybistax Mart. Bignoniaceae (2). 3 S. Am. The 1. of C. Spmcei 
K. Sch. are used as a blue dye, by boiling them with the cloth. 

Cycadaceae (chiefly after Eichler). Gymnospermae. 9 genera with 
about 75 sp., the survivors of a group of plants which in past ages 
figured more largely in the flora of the earth, reaching their maximum 
about the end of the Triassic and beginning of the Jurassic period. 
They represent the lowest type of living seed-plants and in appear- 
ance and habit are like tree-ferns. The stem is usu. short and stout, 
only growing to any noteworthy height in Cycas itself, and is often 
tuberously swollen; it shows a secondary growth in thickness. It 
has a long primary tap root. In some sp. a sort of felt-work of 
roots is formed at the base of the stem, and a number of short lat. 
branches of these stand erect and may emerge from the soil (see 
Nat. Pfl.}- The stem has usu. a crown of leaves, and its lower 
portion is covered with scales. There are, in all except a few sp. of 
Macrozamia, two sorts of 1., foliage- and scale-1., borne spirally 
upon the stem, and alt. with one another, as a rule several circles of 
scales before each circle of foliage 1., which they protect in the bud. 
The scales are really 1. bases whose blades abort. The foliage 1. are 
very char. They possess usu. a thickened, woody, sheathing base, 
which often persists after the fall of the rest of the 1. There is a 
stout rachis or petiole, frequently thorny at the base, the thorns 
being ' metamorphosed ' leaflets. Upon its upper side are two 
grooves, from which spring the leaflets, which may or may not be 
opp. to one another; there is usu. no term, leaflet. The leaflets 
may be entire or toothed and are usu. very rigid and leathery. Three 
types of nervature occur : 


(1) midrib, no lateral nerves: Cycas. 

(2) midrib and lateral nerves : Stangeria. 

(3) numerous parallel or wavy, simple or forked nerves running 

longitudinally: the other genera. 

The fls. are dioec. and usu. take the form of cones ; these art: 
term., and so the stem becomes a sympodium, except in Cycas and 
some spp. of Encephalartos, &c., where the stem 'grows through' 
the fl or fls. The size of the cones varies considerably. Each 
consists essentially of a central axis bearing a number of fertile 1. or 
sporophylls; occasionally the lowest 1. are sterile as in Coniferae. 
In the <? cone, the 1. (scales) are generally of a sort of nail shape 
(cf. Equisetum), and bear sort upon the lower side, each of 2 6 
sporangia (pollen-sacs), arranged with the lines of dehiscence radiating 
from the common centre. In the cone the scale (cpl.) is of some- 
what similar shape but bears as a rule only two sporangia (ovules), 
whose apices are directed towards the axis of the cone. Cycas (q.v.) 
has no proper cone, but the stem bears a whorl of cpls. in place of 
ordinary 1. The ovule is large, orthotr. with one integument. The 
pollen is carried by the wind to the micropyle, where it germinates. 

The ov. grows into a large seed; testa two-layered, the inner 
woody, the outer fleshy. Endopleura on the seed. Nucellus reduced 
to a thin cap on the top of the seed, the bulk of which is endosp., 
with straight embryo in centre. 2 cots., usu. united at the tips. 

The C. are exclusively trop. and subtrop. Of the genera, 4, 7, 8, 
9 are from Am., 3 and 6 Austr., 2 and =, Afr., whilst Cycas is found 
in E. Ind., Austr., and the islands of Ind. and Pacif. Oceans. 

Classification and Genera (after Eichler) : 

I. Cycadeae (cpls. with 84, rarely 2 ovules; stem growing 
through the ? fl. ; leaflet with midrib only): i. Cycas. 

II. Zamieae (ovules 2; stem not growing through) : 
Pinna pinnately nerved 2. Stangeria. 

,, longitudinally nerved 

Leaf bipinnate 3- Bowenia. 

,, once pinnate 

Ov. on swelling of cpl. 4. Dioon. 

,, sessile 

Scales peltate. Afr. 5. Encephalartos. 

,, pointed. Austr. 6. Macrozamia. 

,, peltate. Am. 7. Zamia. 

,, two-horned 8. Ceratozamia. 

,, in 3 flat, in ? peltate. 9. Microcycas. 

Cycas L. Cycadaceae. 16 trop. E. Ind., Austr., Polynes. For gen. 
char., &c., see fam. The 9 pi. does not bear a cone, but a whorl of 
cpls. of a woolly brown appearance; in notches upon the margins of 
these are the naked ovules, usu. 4 8 in number. Stems reaching 
50 ft. in some sp., usu. unbranched. The pith of C. circinahs L. 
(trop. As., sometimes called sago-palm) and C. revoluta Thunb. 
(Japan) yields a sago. Literature in Coulter and Chamberlain, 
Morphology of Gymnosperms (q.v.'). 

Cyclachaena Fresen. (Iva EP.). Compositae (5). 2 N. Am. 
Cycladenia Benth. Apocynaceae (n. i). 2 California. 


Cyclamen (Tourn.) L. Primulaceae (2). 12 Eur. (mostly alpine), 
Medit. C. europaeiim L. Brit, (sow-bread). There is a stout corm 
(cf. Colchicum) due to thickening of the hypocotyl. The P-lubes 
are bent back and the fl. is pend., with loose-pollen mechanism (cf. 
Acanthus, Erica). After fert. the stalk usu. coils up spirally, draw- 
ing the ripening fr. down to the soil (cf. Vallisneria) ; in C. persicum 
Sibth. et Sm. it bends over and forces the fr. into the ground (cf. 
Arachis). Cult. orn. fl. 

Cyclanthaceae (EP., BH.}. Monocots. (Synanthae; Nudiflorae BH.}. 
6 gen., 45 sp. trop. Am.; they help to char, the flora of this region. 
Climbers, epiph., rhiz. -herbs, or small shrubs, of palm-like habit, 
with curious spadix infls. on which the <? and ? fls. alt. in various 
ways (see Carludovica and Cyclanthus). Fr. multiple, fleshy. Endosp. 
The fain, is nearly related to Palniae, Pandanaceae and Araceae. 
Chief genera: Carludovica, Cyclanthus. 

Cyclanthera Schrad. Cucurbitaceae (5). 30 trop. Am. Sta. com- 
bined into a column as in section 4, but here the anther-loculi fused 
into 2 ring-shaped loculi running completely round the top of the 
column. C. explodens Naud. has explosive fr. (cf. Ecballium) ; the 
pericarp is extremely turgid on its inner surface, and the fr. dehisces 
into valves, each of which rolls back on itself with a jerk. 

Cyclantheropsis Harms. (Gerrardanthus p.p.). Cucurb. (4). i trop. 

Cyclanthus Poit. Cyclanthaceae. 4 trop. Am., W.I. The rhiz. 
bears large 1., forked into two at the top. Infl. term, on a long 
stalk, as a large cylindrical spadix with big bracts at base, resembling 
a number of discs piled upon one another, with their edges sharpened 
to a thin rim. In some two || spirals compose the spadix, each with 
a sharpened edge. In the former case every other disc bears i fls., 
in the latter one of the spirals, the other being ? . The 3 fls. occupy 
a groove at the edge of the rim ; each has 6 sta. and no P. The ? fls. 
are embedded in the disc; ovaries united into a long continuous 
chamber running all round the disc and containing numerous pla- 
centae. Ps united all round the disc ; on their inner sides they bear 
stds. Fr. multiple, consisting of a number of seeds embedded in a 
general fleshy mass formed of ovaries and spadix. Cf. Carludovica. 

Cyclea Arn. Menispermaceae. 12 trop. As., Madag. 

Cyclic (fl. ), with all members in whorls. 

Cyclo- (Gr. pref. ), circle ; -spermous, with embryo coiled round endosp. 

Cyclobothra D. Don in Sweet -Calochortus Pursh (Lili.). 

Cyclocampe Steud. Cyperaceae (n). 3 Mauritius, New Cal. (?). 

Cyclocarpa Afzel., emend. Urban. Leguminosae (ill. 7). i W. Afr. 

Cyclocheilon Oliv. (Holmskioldia Retz. ). Verben. (4). 2 trop. Afr. 

Cyclocotyla Stapf. Apocynaceae (i. i). i Congo. 

Cyclodium Presl. Polypodiaceae. 2 W. I., trop. S. Am. 

Cyclolepis Gill. Compos. (12). i temp. S. Am. Char, in N. Patag. 

Cyclolobium Benth. Leguminosae (in. 8). 4 Brazil, Guiana. 

Cycloloma iMoq. Chenopodiaceae (A), i Central N. Am. 

Cyclonema Hochst. = Clerodendron L. p.p. (Verb.). 

Cyclopeltis ]. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 4 trop. E. As. and Am. 

Cyclophorus Desv. (Niphobolus Kaulf.). Polypod. 90 trop. and subtrop. 

CYME i99 

Cyclophyllum Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. i). i New Caled. 
Cyclopia Vent. Leguminosae (in. 2). 10 S. Afr. 
CycloptycMs E. Mey in Drege. Cruciferae (i). 2 S. Afr. 
Cyclospathe O. F. Cook. Palmaceae (iv. i). i Bahamas. 
Cyclostemon Blume. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 35 trop. Afr., As. 
Cycnia Grift". Rosaceae (inc. sed.). i Burma. 

Cycniopsis Engl. (Browallia p.p.). Scrophular. (in. 2). 3 trop. Afr. 
Cycnium E. Mey. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). 15 trop. and S. Afr. 
Cycnoclies Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. u). 8 trop. Am. Fl. like that 

of Catasetum in mechanism and polymorphism. 
Cydista Miers (Bignonia Bff.). Bignon. (i). 2 trop. Am. 
Cydonia Tourn. ex Mill. (Pyrus Tourn. Bff.). Rosaceae (11), 5 Eur., 
N. As. C. vulgaris Pers. (P. Cydonia L.) is the quince (ed. fr.) ; 
C. japonica Pers. (P. japonica Thunb.) cult. orn. wall shrub. 
Cylicodaphne Nees = Litsea Lam. p.p. (Laur.). 

Cylicodiscus Harms. (Erythrophloeum p.p.). Legum. (i. 5). i Gaboon. 
Cylicomorpha Urb. (Jacaralia p.p.). Caricaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 
Cylindria Lour. Inc. sed. i China. 

Cylindrocarpa Regel. (Phyteumap.p. EP.}. Campan. (i. i). i W. As. 
Cylindrocline Cass. Compositae (4). i Mauritius. 
Cylindrolepis Boeck. Cyperaceae (i). i S. Afr. 
Cylindropsis Pierre (Car -podinus p.p.). Apocyn. (i. i). 3 trop. Afr. 
Cylindrosolen O. Ktze. = next. 

Cylindrosolenium Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Peru. 
Cylista Ait. Leguminosae (in. 10). 4 palaeotrop. 
Cymaria Benth. Labiatae (i). 3 Malaya, Burma. 
Gymbalaria Medic. (Linana Bff.). Scroph. (n. 3). 9 Medit. W. 


Cymbalariella Nappi (Saxifraga p.p.). Saxifr. (i). 12 N. temp. |#. 
Cymbaria L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). 3 Russia, temp. As. 
Cymbia Standley (Krigia p.p.). Compositae (13). i S.W. U.S. 
Cymbidium Sw. Orchidaceae (11. 17). 30 Afr. to Austr. and Japan. 

Cult. orn. fl. 

Cymbiform, boat-shaped. 
Cymbocarpa Miers (Gymnosiphon Bff.}. Burmanniaceae. i trop. S. 


Cymbocarpum DC. Umbelliferae (ill. 6). 4 W. As. 
Cymbonotus Cass. (Arctotis p.p. EP.). Compositae (10). i temp. 


Cymbopetalum Benth. Anonaceae (2). 5 Mexico, trop. Am. 
Cymbopogon Sprang. (Andropogon p.p.). Gramineae (2). 60 trop. 

Char, of savannas of trop. Afr. Several yield essential aromatic 

oils, e.g. C. Nardus Rendle and others (Ceylon ; citronella), dtratus 

Stapf (Ceylon, S. India; lemon-grass), C. Martini Stapf (India; 

palma rosa or geranium oil), used in soaps, perfumery, &c. Cf. Stapf, 

under Andropogon. 

Cymbosema Benth. Leguminosae (in. 10). i Brazil. 
Cymbosepalum Baker. Leguminosae (n. 2). i Madag. 
Cyme, an infl. in which each successive branch ends in a fl. after 

bearing one or more bracteoles, from whose axils the branching is 

continued. According to the number of branches borne on each 

200 CYME 

successive branch, the cyme is termed mono-, di- or pleio-chasial. 
Dich. cymes occur in Caryophyllaceae, Gentianaceae, &c. , and very 
commonly tend to become monochasial in the later branchings. 
Monochasia are of four types; if each successive branch is upon the 
same side of the relatively main axis, and in the same plane, it is a 
drfpaniiiw, Juncaceae, &c.; if on the same side but at right angles, a 
bostiyx or screw, Hemerocallis, Ilypericum, &c.; if it fall alt. on one 
side and the other in the same plane, a rhipidium, Iris, &c.; if at 
right angles, a fincinnus, Boraginaceae, Helianthemum, Hydro- 
phyllaceae, Pentaphragma, Tradescantia, &c. ; cymose, of cyme 
nature, Hydrangea. 

Cymelonema Presl (Urophyllum p.p. EP.}. Rubi. (i. 7). i Phil. Is. 

Cymiuosma Gaertn. = Acronychia Forst. (Rut.). 

Cymodocea Kon. Potamogetonaceae. 7 trop. and suhtrop. 

Cymophora Robinson. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 

Cymophyllus Mackenzie (Carex p.p.). Cyperaceae (m) i S.E. U.S. 

Cymopterus Rafin. Umbelliferae (ill. 6). 25 W. N. Am. 

Cynancbum L. (incl. Vincetoxicimi Rupp.)- Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 
1 20 trop. and temp., many twiners, and xero. with fleshy stems and 
reduced 1. ; fls. fert. by carrion-flies which get the pollinia attached 
to their proboscides. 

Cynapium Nutt. = Ligusticum L. (Umbell.). 

Cynara Vaill. ex L. Compositae (u). n Medit. C. Scolymus L. 
is the true artichoke (cf. Helianthus) ; young fl. -heads enclosed in 
the invol. bracts, a valuable pot-herb. The blanched summer growth 
(chards) is also ed. C. Cardiincidus L. is the cardoon, whose 1. are 
blanched and eaten like celery ; it has spread over great areas on 
the Pampas, where it was introduced. 

Cynaropsis O. Ktze. (Cynara p.p.). Compositae (inc. sed.). i 

Cyno- (Gr. pref.), dog-. 

Cynocrambaceae {Tkelygonaceae] (EP. Urticaceae p.p. BH.]. Dicots. 
(Archichl. Centrospeimae). One genus, Cynocrambe (y-v.), which 
is so anomalous that it has been placed near to Urticaceae (united 
BH.), Phytolaccaceae (united by Warming), Chenopodiaceae, Be- 
goniaceae, Santalaceae, Monimiaceae, &c. (see Nat. Pft.). 

Cynocrambe Tourn. ex Adans. (Thelygonum L.). Cynocrambaceae 
(only gen.). 2 Canaries, Medit., C. As. Herbs with fleshy slip. 1., 
the basal opp. Fls. unisex., the $ opp. the 1., with P 2 5, A 10 
30; ? in 3-fld. axillary cymes, with P 3 4; G i, style basal, ov. i. 
Drupe. Endosp. 

Cynoctonum E. Mey. =Vincetoxicum Moench. (BH.} = Cynanchum L. 

Cynodon Rich. Gramineae (u). 3 Austr., i C. Dactylon Pers. 
(dog's-tooth or Bermuda grass), cosmop. (incl. Brit.)- It grows with 
creeping stems on sandy soil and is used for binding dunes; useful 
pasture. Spikes digitate, spikelets i-fld. 

Cynoglossum (Tourn. ) L. Boraginaceae (iv. i). 50 temp, and subtrop. 
i Brit., incl. C. officinale (hound's tongue). Formerly offic. Fr. 

Cynomarathrum Nutt. (Pencedanum p.p.). Umbell. (in. 6). 5 
N. Am. 



Cynometra L. Leguminosae (n. 2). 30 trop. C. cauliflora L. is a 

good example of stem-fruiting or cauliflory. 
Cynomoriaceae (EP.; Balanophoraceae p.p. BH). Dicots. (Archichl. 

Myrtiflorae). Only genus Cynomorium, q.v. 
Cynomorium Mich. ex. L. Cynomoriaceae. i Medit, C. coccineum 

L. Khiz. brownish, total parasitic herbs with polygamous fls. $ fl. 

with epig. sta. Ovule i, pend. 

Cynorchis Thou. (Cynosorckis). Orchid, (n. i). 15 trop. Afr., Madag. 
Cynosciadium DC. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 3 N. Am. 
Cynosurus L. Gramineae (10). 5 Old World temp., 2 Brit, (dog's- 
tail grass), one, C. cn's/attis L., a valuable pasture and fodder. 
Cypella Herb. Iridaceae (n. i). 5 temp. S. Am. One sp. unfolds 

its fls. in great numbers at definite times. 
Cypellium Desv. Inc. sed. i Guiana. 
Cyperaceae (EP., BH.). Monocots. (Glumiflorae; Glumaceae BH.). 

65 gen., 2600 sp., cosmop., chiefly marsh-pi. Grass-like pi. (sedges), 

mostly perenn. with creeping sympodial rhiz. The new shoot of 

each year is adnate, for an internode or more, to the parent shoot, 

so that the branching seems at first sight extra-axillary. The aerial 

shoot is usu. grass-like, bat the stem solid and angular with 3 ranks 

of 1. The 1. is sheathing at the base, but the sheath is entire, not 

split as in a grass. The unit of infl. is again a spikelet ; the total 

infl. may be a spike or panicle as in grasses. In many sedges the 

spikelet is cymose a sympodium 

and should perhaps be termed 

a pseudo-spikelet. The fl. is 

borne in the axil of a glume 

and may be ? or unisexual; it is 

usu. naked but may have a P of 

6 (or oo ) small scales or hairs ; 

A 3, G (3) or (2), i-loc., with 

long feathery (anemoph. ) stigmas ; 

ovule i, basal, anatr. In Carex, 

&c., the $ fl. is borne in the axil 

of a second glume (the utricle) 

which closely enwraps it (in the 

figure it is shown diagiammati- 

cally). The fls. are wind-pollinated. Fr. an achene, the testa not 

adhering to the pericarp. The sedges are of little economic value ; 

see Cyperus. 

Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : 

I. SCIRPOIDEAE (fls. $ in many-fld. spikelets, or single 
i ? with or without trichomes) : Cyperus, Eriophorum, 
Scirpus, Eleocharis, Fimbristylis. 

II. RHYNCHOSPOKOIDEAE (fls. or 3 ? with or with- 
out trichomes in few-fld. spike-like cymes aggregated into 
spikes or heads): Schoenus, Cladium, Rhynchospora, Ma- 
pania, Scleria. 

III. CARICOIDEAE (fls. <? 9, naked, usu. in many-fld. 
spikes; ? enclosed by utricle) : Carex, Uncinia. 

Cyperorchis Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 17). 3 Himal. Cult. orn. fls. 

Diagrams of Carex (after Eichler). A, 
diagram of a 2-carpelled ? flr. . B, side 
viewof ? flr. a. =axis of spikelet ; utr. 
= utricle. 



Cyperus L. (incl. Mariscus Gaertn.). Cyperaceae (i). 400 trop. and 
warm temp. (2 Brit.). Herbs with sympodial rhiz. and leafless or 
leafy shoots above ground. Infl. umbel- or head-like. C. Papyrus 
L. (paper-reed) is a river-side plant with shoots 3 12 feet high. 
From the stems was made the ancient writing paper, papyrus. The 
stem was split into thin strips, which were pressed together while 
still wet. The rhiz. is ed., and also the root-tubers of several sp. ; 
the stems (whole or split) of many are used for basket making, &c. 
Cyphel, Arcnaria Cherleria Hook. 

CypMa Berg. Campamilaceae (n). 25 Afr. [Cyphiaceae, Warming.] 
Cyphocarpa Lopriore. Amarantaceae (2). 10 trop. and S. Afr. 
Cyphocarpus Miers. Campanulaceae (n). i Chili. 
Cypnochilus Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. a. in.). 6 New Guinea. 
Cyphochlaena Hackel. Gramineae (4). i Madag. 
Cyphokentia Brongn. Palmae (iv. i). 10 New Caled. 
Cypholepis Chiov. (Eragrostis p.p.). Gramin. (10). i Arabia. 
Cypholophus Wedd. Urticaceae (3). 10 Malaya, Polynesia. 
Cyphomandra Mart, ex Sendtn. Solanaceae (2). 30 S. Am. C. be- 

tacea Sendt. (tree tomato) cult. ed. fr. 

Cyphomeris Standley (Lindenia p.p.). Nyctagin. 2 Mexico. 
Cyphophoenix H. Wendl. ex Benth. et Hook. f. Palmae (iv. i). 2 

New Cal. 
Cyphosperma H. Wendl. (Cyphokentia]. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 New 


Cyphostigma Benth. Zingiberaceae (i). i Ceylon. 
Cypress Cupressus\ -pine (Austr.), Callitris; Sitka-, Chamaecyparis; 

swamp-, Taxodium. 

Cypripedium L. Orchidaceae (i. 2). 30 N. temp, and subtrop. (C. 
Calceohis L. in Brit.). Lady's-slipper orchids. Terrestrial acran- 
thous plants. Lat. sepals completely united. Labellum slipper-like 
with inturned edge; at its base is the column, partly enclosed in it. 
The large std. (see fam.) is visible outside the labellum; under it 
are the two anthers, and lower down the flat stigma. Pollen 
glutinous not united into pollinia. Insects (mostly bees) visiting 
the ft get inside the labellum and cannot get out by the way they 
entered, so have to pass out by the openings at the base, in doing 
which they brush against the stigma and then the anthers. 
Cypselea Turp. Aizoaceae (n). i W. Indies. 

Cypselocarpus F. Muell. Chenopodiaceae (inc. sed.). i W. Austr. 
Cypselodontia DC. Compositae (4). i S. Afr. 
Cyrilla Garden. Cyrillaceae. 3 warm Am., marsh plants with 

evergr. L, and fls. in racemes below them. 

Cyrillaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. ( Archichl. Sapindales ; Olacales BH.}. 
3 gen., 6 sp. Am. Evergr. shrubs with alt., exstip. 1. and racemes 
of $ , reg. flrs. K 5, imbr , persistent; C 5 or (5), imbr. ; A 5 + 5 or 
5, with intr. anthers; G (5 2) multi-loc. with i (rarely 24) pend. 
anatr. ov. in each loc.; raphe dorsal, micropyle facing upwards and 
inwards. Embryo straight, in endosp. Genera: Cliftonia, Costaea, 

Cyrtandra Forst. Gesneriaceae (i) 200 Malaya, China, Polynesia. 
Cyrtandraceae = Gesneriaceae. 


Cyrtandromoea Zoll. Gesneriaceae (i). to Malay Archipelago. 

Cyrtandropsis Lauterb. Gesneriaceae (i). i New Guinea. 

Cyrtanthera Nees=Jacobinia Moric. (Acanth.). 

Cyrtanthus Ait. Amaryllid. (i). 16 S. and Crop. Afr. Cult. orn. n. 

Cyrtocarpa H.B. et K. Anacardiaceae (2). i Mexico. 

Cyrtoceras Benn. = Hoya R. Br. p.p. (Asclep.). 

Cyrtochilum H.B. et K. = Oncidium Sw. p.p. (Orchid.). 

Cyrtodeira Hanst. = Episcia Mart. p.p. (Gesner.). 

Cyrtogonone Prain. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. i). i trop. Afr. 

Cyrtomium Presl (Polysfichiim p.p.). Polypodiaceae. 4 E. As. 

Cyrtonora Zipp. Inc. sed. r New Guinea. 

Cyrtopera Lindl. =Eulophia R. Br. (Orchid.). 

Cyrtopodium R. Br. Orchidaceae (11. 10). 5 trop. Am. Cult. orn. fl. 

Cyrtorcliis Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 15 trop. Afr. 

Cyrtosia Blume (Galeola BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 4 S.E. As. 

Cyrtosperma Griff. Araceae (iv). n trop. The rhiz. of C. editle 
Schott is ed. when cooked (cult, in Polynes.). 

Cyrtostachys Blume. Palmaceae (iv. i). 3 Malaya. Ornamental. 

Cyrtostylis R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 3 Austr., N. Z. 

Cyrtoxiphus Harms (Cylicodiscus}. Legum. (i. 5). i trop. Afr. 

Cystacanthus T. Anders. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 4 Further India. 

Cystochilum Barb. Rodr. ( Cranichis EP. ). Orchid, (n. 3). i Brazil. 

Cystolith, a concretion in cells of Urticaceae, &c., showing as a lighter 
coloured dot when held up to the light. 

Cystopteris Bernh. Polypodiaceae. 15 temp, and subtrop. 2 Brit., 
incl. C. fragilis Bernh. (bladder-fern). In C. bulbifera Bernh. 
adv. buds on petioles give veg. repr. 

Cystopus Blume = Odontochilus Blume (Orchid.). 

Cystorchis Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 2 Malay Archipelago. 

Cystostemma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. r). i S. Brazil. 

Cystostemon Balf. f. Boraginaceae (iv. 4). i Socotra. 

Cytberea Salisb. = Calypso Salisb. (Orchid.). 

Cytinaceae (BH.}~ Rafflesiaceae+ Hydnoraceae. Multiovulatae Ter- 

Cytinus L. Rafflesiaceae. 2 Afr., Medit. 

Cytisopsis Jaub. et Spach. Leguminosae (in. 5). i. W. As. 

Cytisus L. (incl. Sarothamnus Wimm., excl. Laburnum L.). Legu- 
minosae (in. 3). 40 Eur., Medit. C. (S.) scoparius Link, the broom, 
Brit. The 1. in this sp. are reduced to scales and assim. is chiefly 
performed by the stems. The fl. has an explosive mech., in general 
like Genista (q.7)-), but different in detail. The style is very long 
and there are two lengths of sta., so that pollen is shed near the tip 
of the keel (where also is the stigma) and also about half way along 
its upper side. When an insect alights on the fl. (there is no honey), 
the keel begins to split from the base towards the tip, and presently 
the pollen of the short sta. is shot out upon the lower surface of the 
visitor; immediately afterwards, the split having reached the tip, the 
other pollen and the style spring violently out and strike the insect 
on the back. As the stigma touches first there is thus a chance of a 
cross, if the insect bear any pollen. Afterwards the style bends right 
round and the stigma occupies a position just above the short sta., 


so that another chance of cross-fert. is afforded if other insects visit 
the fl. (in most exploding fls. there is only the one chance). Other 
sp. have simple mechanisms like Trifolium. The fr. explodes by a 
twisting of the valves. 

C. Adami Poit is a curious graft-hybrid between C.purpureus 
Scop, and Laburnum rnlgare. The latter was used as the stock; the 
shoots above the graft exhibit hybrid characters (see Darwin, Varia- 
tion under Dottiest, ch. Xi). Recently this matter of chimeras (half- 
and-half shoots, &c.) and graft-hybrids has been much investigated. 
See review in Bot. Gazette, 51, 191 r, p. 147. 

Daboecia D. Don (Dabeoda]. Ericaceae (i. 3). i Atl. Eur. (incl. 
Ireland), D. polifolia D. Don (St. Dabeoc's heath). Cult. orn. fl. 

Dacrydium Soland. Coniferae (Taxaceae ; see C. for gen. char.). 12 
Malaya, N.Z. , Tasm., S. Am. Most are dioecious. Fruit scales 
I or i or more. Seed arillate. D. Franklinii Hook. f. (Huon 
pine; Tasm.) and D. cupressinum Soland. (red pine; N.Z.) good 

Dacryodes Vahl. Burseraceae. i W. Indies. 

Dactylaena Schrad. Cappaiidaceae (v). 3 Brazil. 

Dactylanthera Welw. nomen. Guttiferae. 

Dactylanthus Hook. f. Balanophoraceae. i New Zealand. 

Dactyliandra Hook. f. Cucurbitaceae (2). i trop. W. Afr. 

Dactylis L. Gramineae (10). i Eur. (incl. Brit), Medit., As., D. 
glomerata L., cock's-foot, a valuable pasture grass. 

Dactylocladus Oliv. Melastomaceae (in), i Borneo. 

Dactyloctenium Willd. (Eleusine p.p. BH.}. Gram. (u). 5 warm. 

Dactyloid, finger-like. 

Dactyloides Nieuwland (Saxifraga p.p.). Saxifr. (i). 2 N. Am. 

Dactylopetalum Benth. Rhizophoraceae. 8 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Dactylophyllum Spach = Gilia Ruiz et Pav. p.p. (Polemon.). 

Dactylorhynchus Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 16). i New Guinea. 

Dactylostalix Reichb. f. (Cremastra BH.}. Orchid. (ll. 10). i Japan. 

Dactylostelma Schlechter. Asclepiadaceae (11. i). i Bolivia. 

Dactylostemon Klotzsch = Actinostemon Klotzsch p.p. (Euph.). 

Dadap, Erythrina. 

Dadia Yell. Compositae (inc. sed.). i Brazil. 

Daedalacanthus T. Anders. (Eianthemum p.p.). Acanth. (iv. A). 
14 Indomal. 

Daetnia R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 4 palaetrop. 

Daemonorops Blume ex Schult. f. (Calamus p.p. EP. }. Palmaceae 
(in. i}. 60 Indomal. 

Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus L. 

Dagger-plant (W. I.), Yucca. 

Dahlia Cav. Compositae (5). 10 Mexico. Perenn. herbs with tuberous 
roots. Many vars. of D. variabilis Desf. and other sp. are cult. orn. 
fl.; the double forms have the disc florets ligulate as well as the ray 
(if. Chrysanthemum). (Hemsley in Card. Chron. 1879.) 

Danlstedtia Mai me (Camptosema p.p.). Legum. (in. 10). i Brazil. 

Daikon, see Radish. 

Dais Royen ex L. Thymelaeaceae. 2 Natal, Madag. Cult. orn. 

Daisy, Bellis perennis L.; Australian-, Vittadinia; bush-, Olearia, 

DANA1S 205 

Haastia; dog-, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemitm\..\ globe-, Globu- 
lar ia; Michaelmas-, Aster; ox-eye, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemwm 
L.; -tree, Montanoa pinnatifida C. Koch. 

Dal, pigeon- pea, Cajanus indie us Spreng. 

Dalbergia L. f. Leguminosae (in. 8). 120 trop. Several are lianes. 
D. variabilis Vog. is a shrub with pendulous twigs when growing in 
the open, but in the forest becomes a liane climbing by aid of short 
lat. shoots which are sensitive to contact. Many yield valuable 
wood. e.g. D. nigra Allem. (rosewood ; Braz.) and other Am. spp. ; 
D . melanoxylon Guill. et Perr. (Afr. blackwood; W. trop. Afr.) ; 
D. latifolia Roxb. (blackwood or East Indian rosewood), and D. 
Sissoo Roxb. (shisham, sissoo, India). 

Dalea L. Leguminosae (ill. 6). 100 Am. 

Dalechampia Plum, ex L. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. i). 60 trop. D. 
Roezliana Miill.-Arg. cult. orn. infl.; it has a very 
complex infl. (</. the diagram). The whole is enclosed 
in two large outer bracts (the big brackets), coloured 
pink or white. Above these on the axis is a smaller cushion, 
bract (the little bracket), in whose axil is a 3-fld. * male fls. # 
cyme of 9 fls. (F). Above this is the <? part of the * 

infl., starting with 4 bracts (repres. by the asterisks). F F F 

Above these, anteriorly, are 9 14 <? flrs. and pos- . ^ 

teriorly a curious yellow cushion, consisting of rudi- 

mentary 3 fls. In a Braz. sp. the cushion secretes 

resin, which is used by bees for nest making, and attracts them to 

the flr. 

Dalembertia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 4 Mexico. 

Dalenia Korth. . Melastomaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Dalhousiea R. Grah. Leguminosae (in. i). i palaeotrop. 

Dalibarda L. = Rubus Tourn. p.p. (Ros.). 

Dallachya F. Muell. Rhamnaceae. i E. Austr., Polynes. 

Dalmatian insect powder, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis. 

Damask rose, Rosa damascena Mill. 

Damasonium Mill. Alismaceae. 3 Eur., Medit., Austr., Tasm., 

Dame's violet, rocket, Hesperis matronalis L. 

Dammar, a hard resin, Agathis, Dipterocarpaceae, Shorea; black-, 
Canariiim ; white-, Valeria. 

Dammara (Rumph.) Lam. = Agathis Salisb. (Conif.). 

Dammaropsis Warb. Moraceae (n). i New Guinea. 

Dammera Lauterb. et K. Schum. Palmaceae (i. 2). 2 New Guinea. 

Damnacanthus Gaertn. f. Rubiaceae (n. 9). 2 E. As. 

Dampiera R. Br. Goodeniaceae. 35 Austr. 

Damson, Primus insititia L., van; bitter- (W.I.), Simaruba amara 
Aubl.; -plum (W.I.), Chrysophyllum. 

Danaa All. Physospermum Cunn. (Umbell.). 

Danae Medic. Liliaceae (vn). i W. As. 

Danaea Sm. Marattiaceae (in). 30 Am. The stem branches, a 
rare character in M. The synangia are very long, sometimes reaching 
from midrib to margin of the 1., and open by a terminal pore. 

Danais Comm. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 20 Madag., Masc. 


Dancing girls, Mantisia saltatcria Sims. 

Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber. 

Dangleberry (Am.), Gaylussacia. 

Danielia Mello. Bignoniaceae (i). i Brazil. 

Daniella J. J. Benn. Leguminosae (n. 3). 3 trop. W. Afr. 

Danthonia DC. Gramineae (9). 150 trop. and temp., esp. S. Afr. 

Dapania Korth. Oxalidaceae. 2 Malaya. 

Daphnales (BH.). The 5th series of Monochlamydeae. 

Daphnandra Benth. Monimiaceae. 4 Austr. 

Daphne Tourn. ex L. Thymelaeaceae. 40 Eur., temp, and subtrop. 
As. ; D. Mezeretim L. (mezereon) and D. Laureola L. (spurge- 
laurel) Brit. Honey is secreted by the base of the ovary, and the 
depth of the tube preserves it for long-tongued insects ; the fl. belongs 
to class F. Several cult. orn. fl. Bark used for paper in India. 

Daphnidium Nees = Lindera Thunb. p.p. (Laur.). 

Daphniphyllum Blume. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. 3). i trop. Afr., Indo- 
mal., China, &c. 

Daphnopsis Mart, et Zucc. Thymelaeaceae. 25 S. Am., Mex., W. I. 

Darlingia F. Muell. Proteaceae (n). i Queensland. 

Darlingtonia Torr. Sarraceniaceae. i Calif., a -pitcher pi. like Sar- 
racenia, but top of tube bent over and a fish-tail-shaped flap in front. 

Darnel grass, Lolium tennilenttun L. 

Dartus Lour. Solanaceae (inc. sed.). i E. As. 

Darwinia Rudge. Myrtaceae (n. 2). 25 Austr. Heath-like shrubs. 

Dasheen, tuberous-rooted taro, Colocasia antiquomni Schott. 

Dasiogyna Rafin. Inc. sed. i N. Am. 

Dasistoma Rafin. =Gerardia L. (Scroph.). 

Dasus Lour. Inc. sed. i Cochin-china. 

Dasycephala Benth. et Hook. f. (Diodia L. EP.). Rubiaceae (n. 10). 
5 trop. Am. 

Da'sycoleum Turcz. (Chisocheton EP.}. Meliac. (in). 4 Mai. Arch. 

Dasylepis Oliv. Flacourtiaceae (i). 2 W. Afr. 

Dasylirion Zucc. Liliaceae (vi). 10 Texas, Mex. Aloe-like, xero. ; 
stems woody, often tuberous ; hard 1. Fls. dioec., in gigantic infl. 
Cf. Cordyline. 

Dasyloma DC. = Oenanthe Tourn. p.p. (Umbell.) 

Dasymascbalon Hook. f. et Thorns. Anon. (4). 3 trop. As. 

Dasynema Schott = Sloanea L. (Elaeocarp.). 

Dasypoa Pilger (Poa p.p. EP.). Gramineae (10). i Peru. 

Dasypogon K. Br. Liliaceae (in.) (June. BH.}. i S.W. Austr. 

Dasyspermum Neck. Inc. sed. Farrago Umbelliferarum. 

Dasysphaera Volkens. Amarantaceae (2). 2 E. Afr. 

Dasystachys Baker (Chlorophytum p.p. EP.}. Lili. (in). 15 trop. 

Dasystephana Adans. = Gentiana Tourn. p.p. (Gent.). 

Date, Phoenix dactylifera L. ; -plum, Diospyros Lotus L., &c. 

Datisca L. Datiscaceae. 2 N. Am., W. As. 

Datiscaceae (f., BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Parietales; Passiflorales 
BH. }. 3 gen. 4 sp., trop. and temp. Trees or herbs with exstip. 1. 
and racemes or spikes of reg., usu. dioec., sometimes apet. fls. cf fl-: 
K 3 9, free or united ; C 4 9 or o ; A 4 9 or co ; ? : K 3 8, 


united to one another and to the ovary; C o; G (3 8), with free 
styles; i-loc. with parietal plac. and oo anatr. ov. Caps. No 
endosp. Genera: Datisca, Tetrameles, Octomeles. Affinities doubtful 
(see Nat. Pfl.} ; probably allied to Begoniaceae. 

Datura L. Solanaceae (3). 15 trop. and warm temp. D. Stramonium 
L. (thorn-apple ; escape in Brit.) has a 4-loc. ov. (see fam.) giving a 
4-valved caps, covered with spines. The 1. and seeds are medic. 
Some cult. orn. fl. 

Daubenya Lindl. Liliaceae (v). 3 S. Afr. 

Daucophyllum Rydberg. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 2 Rockies. 

Daucus (Tourn. ) L. Umbelliferae (in. 8). '60 Eur., As., Afr., Am. 
D. Carota L. (carrot) Brit., biennial with thickened root. The cult, 
form has much more fleshy roots than the wild. In the centre of 
the umbel is usu. a red term fl. After fert. the peduncles all bend 
inwards until the frs. are ripe and then spread out again allowing 
the burred mericarps to adhere to animals. 

Davallia Sm. Polypodiaceae. 80 mostly trop. Sori marginal. 

Daveaua Willk. Compositae (7). i Portugal. 

Davidia Baill. Cornaceae. i Tibet, China. 

Davidsonia F. Muell. Cunoniaceae. i N.E. Austr. L. alt. 

David's root (W. I.), Chiococca. 

Daviesia Sm. Leguminosae (in. 2). 55 Austr. 

Davllla Vand. Dilleniaceae. 25 trop. Am. The two inner sepals 
are larger; after fert. they grow woody or leathery and enclose the fr. 

Davya DC. = Meriania Sw. p.p. (Melast.). 

Day-flower (Am.), Commelina; -lily (Am.), Hemerocallis. 

Deadly dwale (W. I.), Acnistus; -nightshade, Atropa Belladonna L. 

Dead-finish (Austr.), Acacia tetragonophylla F. Muell.; -nettle, Lamium. 

Deal, Finns sylvestris L. , c. 

Dealbate, whitened. 

Deanea Coulter et Rose. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 8 Mexico. 

Debesia O. Ktze. (Acrospira). Liliaceae (ill), i trop. Afr. 

Debregeasia Gaud. Urticaceae (3). 5 Abyss., S. and E. As. D. edulis 
Wedd. (janatsi; Japan) ed. fr. , useful fibre (if. Boehmeria). 

Deca- (Gr. pref.), decem (Lat.), ten; -androus, with 10 sta. 

Decabelone Decne. Asclepiadaceae (11. 3). 3 S. Afr. 

Decaceras Haw. (Anisotoma BH.}. Asclepiadaceae (il. 3). 2 S. Afr. 

Decachaeta DC. Compositae (2). i Mexico. 

Decadia Lour. Inc. sed. i Cochin-China. 

Decag-onocarpus Engl. Rutaceae (i). i Amazon valley. 

Decaisnea Hook. f. et Thorns. Lardizabalaceae. i Himal., China, 
D. insignis H. f. et T., with ed. fr. (Hooker's Himal. Journ., XXV.). 

Decalepis Boeck. (Boeckeleria Uurand). Cyper. (n). i S. Afr. 

Decalepis Wight et Arn. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Dekkan. 

Decaloba M. Roem. = Passiflora L. p.p. (Passifl.). 

Decanema Decne. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 2 Madagascar. 

Decanemopsis Costantin et Galland. Asclep. (11. i). i Madag. 

Decaneurum DC. = Centratherum Cass. (Compos.). 

Decaptera Turcz. Cruciferae (i). Chili. 

Decaschistia Wight et Arn. Malvaceae (4). 5 trop. As. 

Decaspermum Forst. Myrtaceae (i). 12 Indomal. 


Decaspora R. Br. = Trochocarpa R. Br. (Epacricl.). 

Decastelma Schlechter. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i W. Indies. 

Decatoca F. Muell. Epacridaceae (3). i New Guinea. 

Decatropis Hook. f. Rutaceae (i). i S. Mexico. 

Decazesia F. Muell. Composilae (4). i W. Austr. 

Deciduous (1.), falling in autumn, or at the beginning of the dry season ; 
(perianth-), falling after fertilisation. 

Decipiens (Lat.), deceiving. 

Deckenia H. Wendl. (Acanthophoenix BH.}. Palmae (iv. i). i 

Deckera Sch.-Bip. = Picris L. p.p. (Comp.). 

Declieuxia H. B. et K. Ruhiaceae (n. 5). 33 trop. S. Am., W. I. 

Declinate, bent downwards or forwards. 

Decodon J. F. Gmel. (Nesaea BH.}. Lythraceae. i N. Am. 

Decompound, several times divided. 

Decumaria L. Saxifragaceae (in), i China, S.E. U.S. 

Decumbent (stem), bending upwards from prostrate base. 

Decurrent (1.), continued by wing on stem, as in thistles. 

Decussate (L), each pair of opp. 1. _L to the next pair. 

Dedea Baill. Saxifragaceae (v). 2 New Caledonia. 

Dedoublement, branching, Polygonaccac. 

Deer-berry (Am.), Vacciniuni stamincnin L. ; -grass (Am.), Rhexia. 

Deeringia R. Br. Amarantaceae (i). 6 palaeotrop. 

Definite growth (stem), when the buds grow rapidly to their full elon- 
gation, and stop, Aesculus, Pinus, &c. ; (infl ), when the branches 
each in turn term, in a fl. (cymes, q.i> ). 

Deflersia Schweinf. ex Penzig. Euphorb. (inc. fed.). i Erythrea. 

Deflexed, bent sharply outwards. 

Defoliation, leaf-casting. 

Degenerate fl., one which has gone back to an earlier type. 

Degenia Hayek. (Lesquerella p.p.). Crucif. (4). i Croatia. 

Deguelia Aubl. (Deiris Lour. BH.}. Legum. (in. 8). 40 trop. 

Deliaasia Blume. Lauraceae (n). 10 Malay Archipelago. 

Deherainia Decne. Theophrastaceae. 2 Mex., W. I., incl. D. smarag- 
dina Decne. with large green fls. (coloured by chlorophyll). 

Dehiscence, mode of opening; cf. Fruit, Stamen. 

Deianira Cham, et Schlecht. Gentianaceae (i). 5 Brazil. 

Deidamia Nor. ex Thou. Passifloraceae. 6 Madagascar. 

Deinacanthon Mez (Rhodostachys Phil.). Bromel. (4). i Argentina. 

Deinandra Greene = Hemizonia DC- (Comp.). 

Deinanthe Maxim. Saxifragaceae (in), i Japan. 

Deinbollia Schum. et Thonn. Sapindaceae (i). 15 warm Afr. , 

Dekindtia Gilg. Oleaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Dekinia Mart, et Gal. (Lepechinia p.p. E.P.). Labiat. (vi). i Mex. 

Delamerea Sp. Moore. Compositae (4). i Brit. E. Afr. 

Delaportea Thorel et Gagnep. Leguminosae (i. i). i Laos. 

Delarbrea Vieill. Araliaceae (2). 3 New Caled., New Guinea. 

Delavaya Franch. Sapindaceae (n). i Yunnan. 

Delima L. =Tetracera L. p.p. (Dillen.). 

Deliquescent (stem), breaking up into branches. 


Delissea Gaudich. Campanulaceae (in). 7 Sandwich Islands. 

Delognaea Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (3). i Madagascar. 

Delopyrum Small (Polygonella p.p.)- Polygon. (11. 2). 2 U. S. 

Delostoma D. Don. Bignoniaceae (2). 5 trop. Andes. 

Delpechia Montr. Inc. sed. 2 New Caled. 

Delphinium Tourn. ex L. Ranunculaceae (2). 150 N. temp. D. 
Ajacis L. (larkspur) Brit. Several cult. orn. fl. Fls. -|- in racemes; 
the post, sepal is drawn out into a spur containing the spurs of the 
two post, petals, in which the honey is secreted. (Cf. with Aconitum, 
which is far more frequently robbed by humble-bees.) The fl. is 
protandr. with movement of sta., fert. by humble-bees. The open 
fl. projects horiz., but subsequently the stalk bends up and the follicles 
stand erect so that the seeds can only escape if shaken, e.g. by 
strong wind (censer-mechanism). 

Delphyodon K. Schum. Apocynaceae (n. i). i New Guinea. 

Delpinoa H. Ross (Agave p.p. EP. ). Amaryll. (n). i N. Am. 

Delpinoella Spegazz. Cruciferae (inc. sed.). i Patagonia. 

Delpinophytum Spegazz. Cruciferae (2). i Patagonia. 

Delpya Pierre ex Bonati (Vandellia p.p.). Scrophulariaceae (11. 6). 
i Cochin-China. 

Delpydora Pierre. Sapotaceae (i). i trop. Afr. 

Deltoid, the shape of an equilateral triangle. 

Dematophyllum Griseb. Zygophyllaceae(P). i Argentina. 

Demazeria Dum. Gramineae (10). 4 Medit., S. Afr. D.(Brizopyruni) 
sicitla Dum. is a cult, ornam. grass. 

Demersus (Lat.), sub-aqueous. 

Demeusia De Wild, et Durand. Amaryllidaceae (i). i Congo. 

Demidium DC. (Aniphidoxa EP.}. Compositae (4). i Madagascar. 

Democrita Veil. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Dendrobangia Rusby. Icacinaceae. i Bolivia. 

Dendrobium S\v. Orchidaceae (n. 15). 600 trop. As., Japan, Austr., 
Polynes. Epiphytes; cult. orn. fl. For floral mechanism see Dar- 
win's Orchids, p. 138. 

Dendrocalamus Nees. Gramineae (13). 12 Indomal., China. D. 
giganteus Munro (the giant bamboo), the largest known bamboo (cf. 
bamboos), grovvs with great rapidity (see Lock in Ann. Perad., II. 
1904, p. 21 1), even as much as 46 cm. a day. D. strictus Nees (male 
bamboo) has solid stems, used for lances, &c. 

DendrocMlum Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 16). 3 Indomal. 

Dendrocolla Blume = Sarcochilus R. Br. p.p. (Orchid.). 

Dendroconche Copeland (Polypodium p.p.). Polypod. i Phil. Is. 

Dendrocousinia Millspaugh. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 2 N. Am. 

Dendroid, tree-like. 

Dendromecon Henth. Papaveraceae (n). ro California. 

Dendron (Gr.), a tree. 

Dendropanax Decne. et Planch. (Gilibertia Ruiz et Pav. EP.}. Aralia- 
ceae (i). 25 trop. and subtrop. 

Dendrophthoe Mart. = Loranthus L. p.p. (Loranth.). 

Dendrophthora Eichl. Loranthaceae (n). 20 W.I., trop. Am. 

Dendrophylax Reichb. f. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 3 W. Indies. 

Dendropogon Rafin.^Tillandsia L. (Bromel.). 

W. 14 

2 IO 


Dendroseris D. Don. Compositae (13). 7 Juan Fernandez. 

Dendrosicyos Balf. f. Cucurbitaceae (2). 2 Socotra, trop. Afr. 

Dendrosma Panch. et Sebert. Rutaceae (inc. sed.). i New Caled. 

Dendrostylis Karst. et Triana (iMayna EP.). Flac. (2). 8 S. Am. 

Denekia Thunb. Compositae (4). 2 trop. Afr. 

Denhamia Meissn. Celastraceae. 4 trop. Austr. 

Denisia Post et O- Ktze. (Phryma p.p.). Phrymaceae. i S. Afr. 

Denisonia F. Muell. Verbenaceae (3). i Australia. 

Denizen, a pi. probably foreign, but maintaining its place. 

Dennettia E. G. Baker. Anonaceae (i). i S. Nigeria. 

Dennstaedtia Bernh. Polypodiaceae. 60 trop., S. Am., Austr. 

Dens (Lat.), a tooth. 

Dentaria (Tourn.) L. (Cardamine p.p. BH.). Crucif. (2). 20 N. temp. 

Dentate (dim. denticulate), with small teeth pointing outwards. 

Dentella Forst. Rubiaceae (i. 2). i Indomal. 

Deodar, Cedrus Deodnra Loud. 

Deonia Pierre ex Pax. (Blachia EP.). Euphorb. (A. n. 5). i Cochin- 


Depauperate, diminutive. 
Dependent, hanging down. 

DeplancheaVieill. \Diplanthera BH.). Bignon. (2). 6 Malaya, Austr. 
Deppea Cham, et Sclilechtd. Rubiaceae (I. 3). 9 C. Am., Mex. 
Depresmenilia F. Muell. (Pityrodia p.p. EP.). Verben. (3). i Austr. 
Dermatobotrys Bolus. Scrophul. (inc. sed.). i Zululand. 
Dermatocalyx Oerst. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). i Costa Rica. 
Deroemeria Reichb. f. (Habenaria p.p. BH.). Orchidaceae (n. i). 

4 trop. Afr., Abyssinia. 

Derris Lour. (Deguelia Aubl.). Leguminosae (in. 8). 50 trop. 
Desbordesia Pierre ex Van Tiegh. {Irvingia p.p.). Simarubaceae. 

5 trop. Afr. 

Descending (aestivation), see Aestivation. 

Deschampsia Beauv. Gramineae (9). 20 temp, and frigid. D. caespi- 
tosa Beauv. (Aira) and D. flexuosa Trin. in Brit, (hair grass); of 
tufted growth ; rough fodder grasses. 

Description of plants. Root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit, &c. are 
described for floras, &c. in concise technical terms (original descrip- 
tions of new species must be in Latin), which are mostly given here 
under fl., 1., &c. The descriptions of families in this book may serve 
as examples for large groups, and as examples of a species described 
in full detail we may refer to any numbers of \\\ejourn. Linn. Sot. 
or to Lind ley's Descriptive Botany, from which we quote as instances: 
lilac (1.): 1. opp., exstip., roundish-cordate, very acute, thin, 

smooth, rather longer than the linear channelled petiole, 
buttercup (fl.) : fl. term., sol., on long angular and furrowed 
peduncles, reg., S, hypog. Sepals 5, polysep., oval, coloured 
at edge, reflexed, with shaggy hairs. Petals 5, polypet. , round- 
ish, concave, with wedge-shaped basal nectaries, bright yellow. 
Stamens co , polyandrous, spiral ; filament yellow, slender ; 
anther linear, adnate, extrorse. Carpels oo , apocarpous, superior, 
collected into a nearly spherical head, greenish ; stigmas sessile, 
recurved ; ovules solitary, ascending, anatropous. 


But if all the species in a genus are known, it is obvious that for 
purposes of description to enable identification, such a description 
is much too long, and the skill of the describer will be shown in 
describing those characters only in full (or as fully as necessary) 
which are essential to the discrimination of the species among its 

Descurainia Webb et Berth. (Sisymbrium p.p. BH.) Cruciferae (4). 
1 8 N. temp., S. Am. 

Desdemona Sp. Moore. Scrophulariaceae (inc. seel.), i Brazil. 

Desfontainia Ruiz et Pav. Loganiaceae. 2 Andes. Ovary 5-loc. 

Desmanthodium Benth. Compositae (5). 4 Mexico, C. Am. 

Desmanthus VVilld. Leguminosae (i. 3). 15 Am., Madagascar. 

Desmiograstis Borner. Cyperaceae (in), i N. temp. 

Desmochaeta DC. = Pupalia Juss. (Amarant.). 

Desraodium Desv. Leguminosae (in. 7). 170 trop. and subtrop. In 
D. gyrans DC. (telegraph plant), during the day, if the temperature 
be not below 72 F. the two small lat. leaflets of each 1. move steadily 
round in elliptical orbits. See Darwin's Movements of Plants. At 
night the leaves sleep, drooping downwards. Several are useful as 
fodder, and are cult. 

Desmogyne King et Prain. Ericaceae (in. r). i India. 

Desmoncus Mart. Palmae (iv. 2). 25 trop. Am., climbing palms 
with reedy stems, and hooks like Calamus. 

Desmonema Miers. Menispermaceae. 6 warm Afr. 

Desmoscelis Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 2 trop. S. Am. 

Desmostachya Stapf. Gramineae (10). r trop. As. and Afr. 

Desmostachys Planch. Icacinaceae. 3 Madagascar, trop. Afr. 

Desmothamnus Small (Andromeda p.p.). Eric. (n. i). i Florida. 

Desmotrichum Blume (Dendrobium p.p. ). Orch. (11. 15). 27 Malaya. 

Despeleza Nieuwland (Lespedcza p.p.). Legum. (in. 7). 4 U.S. 

Desplatzia Bocq. Tiliaceae. i W. trop. Afr. 

Desvauxia R. Br. Centrolepis Labill. (Centrolep.). 

Detandra Miers (Sychnoscpalum Eichl. ). Menisp. 4 trop. S. Am. 

Detarium J uss. Legumin. (n. 2). 4 trop. Air. Pith of pod ed. 

Determinate, derinite, ending with a bud. 

Dethawia Endl. (Seseli p.p. BH.}. Umbellif. (in. 5). i Pyrenees. 

Detris Adans. = Felicia Cass. (Comp.). 

Deuterocohnia Mez. (Dyckia). Bromeliaceae (2). 3 S. Am. 

Deutzia Thunb. Saxifragaceae (ill). 20 N. temp, and trop. Ovary 
inf. 3 4-loc. The fruit splits septicidally into its cpls. which open 
each at its apex. The seed is provided with a winged testa, very 

Deverra DC. = Pituranthos Viv. (Umbell. ). 

Devil-in-a-bush, Nigdla; -'s bean (W.I.), Capparis jamaicensis Jacq. ; 
-'s bit scabious, Scabiosa Succisa L. ; -'s cotton, Abroma augusta L. f. 

Devillea Tul. et Wedd. Podostemaceae. i Brazil. 

Dewberry, Riilnts caesins L. 

Dewevrea M. Micheli. Leguminosae (in. 6). i trop. Afr. 

Dewevrella De Wild. Apocynaceae (n. i). i trop. Afr. 

Deweya Torr. et A. Gray (Arracacia BH.}. Umbell. (in. 4). 4 
W. N. Am. 



Dewildemania O. Hoffm. Compositae (i). i Congo. 
Dewindtia I)e Wild. Leguminosae (ll. 3). i trop. Afr. 
Dextrorse, to the right. 

Deyeuxia Clar. (Calania^rostii, 'p.p. EP.}. Gramineae (8). 120 temp. 
Dhak tree, Buteafrondosa Roxb. 
Dhal, pigeon pea, Cajaniis indicus Spreng. 

Di- (Gr. pref.), two; -adelpnous, in two groups; -androus, with two 
sta. ; -carpellary, with two cpls. ; -chlamydeous, with distinct K 
and C ; -chogamy, see article below ; -chotomy, actual forking of 
growing apex; -clinism (-clinous), with separate 3 and ? fl.; -coty- 
ledons, one of the great divisions of angiosperms ; -cyclic, in two 
whorls ; -dymous, twinned ; -dynamous, with two sta. longer than 
rest, Labiatae ; -merous, with two members in each whorl ; -midiate, 
halved ; -morphism, see article below ; -oecism, see article below ; 
-photic, with two surfaces unequally lighted ; -plecolobous, Cruci- 
ferae; -plocnlamydeous, see dichlamydeous ; -plostemonous, sta. in 
two whorls, outer alt. with C; -ptera, flies, &c. ; -Sticbous, in two 
ranks; -thecous, with two thecae; -varicate, very divergent ; -vergens 
(Lat.), separating. 

Dia- (Gr. pref.), transverse; -heliotropism, transv. h., e.g. in runners, 
&c. ; -phragm, a dividing membrane ; -tropism, a placing of organs 
transv. to a stimulus. 

Diacalpe Blume. Polypodiaceae. i trop. As. 
Diacarpa Sim. Sapindaceae. i E. Afr. 
Diacattleya x , Dialaelia x Hort. Orchidaceae. Hybrids of Diacrium 

with Cattleya and Laelia. 

Diacidia Griseb. Malpighiaceae (11). i trop. S. Am. 
Diacrium Benth. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 4 Mexico to Guiana. 
Diadenium Poepp. et Endl. Orchidaceae (n. 19). i Peru. 
Diagram, floral, see Floral Diagram. 
Dialiopsis Radlk. Sapindaceae (n). i trop. Afr. 
Dialium L. Leguminosae (11. 5). 15 trop. Petals 2, i, or o; sta. 2, 
or rarely 3. D. guineense Willd. (trop. Afr.; velvet tamarind) pod 
contains an ed. pulp ; wood useful, resists salt water. D. indum L. 
(Java ; tamarind plum) and others have also ed. fr. 
Dialyanthera Warb. Myristicaceae. 2 Peru, Colombia. 
Dialycarpa Mast. Bombacaceae. i Borneo. 
Dialyopsis Radlk. Sapindaceae (a), i trop. Afr. 
Dialypetalae, Polypetalae. 

Dialypetalum Benth. Campanulaceae (ill). 2 Madagascar. 
Diamorpha Nutt. Crassulaceae. 2 E. U.S. 
Diandriella Engl. Araceae (v). i New Guinea. 
Diandrolyra Stapf. Gramineae (5). j, habitat unknown. 
Dianella Lain. Liliaceae (in). u trop. As., Austr., Polynes., 


Dianthera Gronov. (Justicia p.p. EP.). Acanthaceae (iv. B). 80 trop. 

Dianthoseris Sch. Bip. Compositae (13). 2 Abyssinia. 

Diantbus L. Caryophyllaceae (n. 2). 250 Eur., As., Afr., esp. Medit., 

mostly in dry sunny situations (4 in Brit.; pinks). Genus readily 

known by the bracts under the K. Fls. very protandrous (class F), 

largely visited by butterflies. Many cult. orn. fl., e.g. D. barbatus L. 


(Sweet William),/?. Caryophyllus\^,. (carnation, picotee, clove-pink), 
D. chinensis (China or Indian pink), &c. 

Diapedium Koen. = Dicliptera Juss. (Acanth.). 

Diapensia L. Diapensiaceae. 2, one Himal., D. lapponica L. circum- 
polar boreal. Tufted, like oo alpine and arctic pi.; fl. protog. 

Diapensiaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Ericales EP., BH.). 
6 gen., 9 sp., "^ , chiefly alpine and arctic evergr. under-shrubs, with 
rosettes of 1. ; fls. sol. or in racemes, with two bracteoles, , actinom., 
without a disc. K (5) or 5, C (;) nearly polypet., A 5, epipet., opp. 
sepals, with frequently 5 stds. opp. petals ; anthers transv., each lobe 
opening by longitudinal slit ; pollen simple ; G (3) with axile plac. 
bearing oo anatr. or amphitr. ov. ; style simple with 3-lobed capitate 
stigma. Fruit a loculic. caps. Embryo cylindrical, endosp. fleshy. 
Chief genera : Diapensia, Shortia, Galax. 

Diaperia Nutt. (Evax p.p.). Compositae (4). 4 N. Am. 

Diaphanantlie Schlechter. Orchid, (n. 20). 20 trop. Afr. 

Diapliycarpus Calest. (Canmi p.p.). Umbell. (in. 5). i Medit. 

Diarrhena Beauv. Gramineae uo). 3 N. Am., E. As. 

Diarthron Turcx. Thymelaeaceae. i C. As. 

Diascia Link et Otto. Scrophulariaceae (n. i). 30 S. Afr. 

Diaspasis R. Br. Goodeniaceae. i S.W. Austr. 

Diasperus L. = Phyllanthus L. (Euph.). 

Diaspis Niedenzu. Malpighiaceae (i). i Brit. E. Afr. 

Diastatea Scheidw. Campanulaceae (inc. sed.). i Mexico. 

Diastema Benth. Gesneriaceae (n). 18 trop. Am. Cult. orn. fl. 

Diateinacanthus Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Centr. Am. 

Diatenopteryx Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i S. Am. 

Diberara Baill. (Nebelia BH.}. Bruniaceae. 5 S. Afr. 

Dicaelospermum C. B. Clarke. Cucurbitaceae (2). i Indomal. 

Dicarpidium F. Muell. Bombacaceae. i Austr. 

Dicaryum Willd. (Geissanthus EP.}. Myrsinaceae (n). 2 S. Am. 

Dicella Griseb. Malpighiaceae (n). 3 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Dicellandra Hook. f. Melastomaceae (i). 2 trop. W. Afr. 

Dicellostyles Benth. Malvaceae (4). 2 Ceylon, Sikkim. 

Dicentra Bernh. Papaveraceae (in), 15 As., N. Am. D. Cucullaria 
Bernh. (Dutchman's breeches) and others cult. orn. fl. The rhiz. of 
many sp. ( Cucullaria} resembles a succession of bulbs, on account 
of the fleshiness of the scale 1. and of the sheathing bases of the fol. 1. 
The materials formed in the 1. during the growing season are stored 
up in the fleshy base, which survives the winter, while the rest of the 
1. dies. Fls. in racemes, pend. Each outer petal has a large pouch 
at its base. The inner petals are spoon-shaped and cohere at the tip, 
forming a hood which covers the anthers and stigma. The pend. 
position and complex structure of the fl. render it suited to bees, 
which hang on to it and probe for honey first one side, then the 
other, in the pouches of the petals. In so doing they push aside 
the hood and touch the stigma, on which there is usu. pollen from 
its own sta. 

Dicerandra Benth. = Ceranthera Ell. (Labiatae). 

Diceratella Boiss. Cruciferae (4). 3 W. As., trop. Afr. 

Dicerostylis Blume (Hylophila EP.}. Orchidaceae (n. 2). t Malaya. 



Dichaea Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 10 trop. Am., W. I. Monopodial. 

creeping epiphytes with sheathing 1. Cult. orn. fl. 
Dichaelia^Harv. (Brachystelma BH.}. Asclep. (II. 3). 10 S. Afr. 
Dichaeopsis Pfitz. (Dichaea Lindl. p.p.). Orchidaceae (n. 20). 5 trop. 


Dichaetanthera Endl. Melastomaceae (i). 16 Madagascar, Masc. 
Dichaetaria Nees (Gymnopogon Beauv.). Gramin. (n). i Indomal. 
Dichaetophora A. Gray (Boltonia p.p. BH.). Comp. (3). i Texas. 
Dichapetalaceae (EP.; Chailletiaceae BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Gera- 
niales EP., BH.}. 3 gen., 100 sp. trop. Woody pi. with entire 
stip. 1. Fls. in cymose umbels, &c., sometimes epiphyllous, usu. 
reg., 5 or unisex., typically =,-merous. K and C free or united, the 
petals often bifid ; axis continued into a cup-like disc or scales ; A 5, 
sometimes epipet. ; 6(23), each with 2 ov " Dru P e with '" or 
2-loc. stone ; no endosp. ; sometimes a caruncle. Chief genus 

Dichapetalum Thou. (Chailletia DC.). Dichapet. 120 trop. Several 
have epiphyllous infl. (cf. Erythrochiton), probably arising by a de- 
velopment like infl. of Solanaceae, or thorns of Cactaceae. 
Dichasial cyme, one in which each successive branch bears two branches 
upon itself, Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Begonia, Bignoniaceae, 
Carvophyliaceae, Castanea, Convolvulaceae, Cornaceae, Labiatae, 
Linaceae, Sanicula, Saxifragaceae, Ulmus, Urlica, Verbenaceae. 
Dichazothece Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Rio de Janeiro. 
Dichelacrine Endl. Gramineae (8). 3 Austr., N. Zealand. 
Dichelostemma Kunth. (Brodiea Sm.). Lili. (iv). 8 N. Am. 
Dicherantlius Webb. Caryophyllaceae (i. 6). i Canaries. 
DicMlanthe Thw. Rubiaceae (n. 2). 2 trop. As. 
Dichiloboea Stapf. Gesneriaceae (i). i E. trop. As. 
Dichilus DC. Leguminosae (ill. 3). 4 S. Afr. 
Dichoespermum Wight = Aneilema R. Br. p.p. (Commelm.). 
Dichogamy, ripening of sexes at different times ; sta. ripe before stigma, 
protandry, Aeschynanthus, Aconitum, Aquilegia, Bignonia, Borago, 
Campanula, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Clerodendron, Com- 
positae, Crassulaceae, Crocus, Delphinium, . Dipsacaceae, Echium, 
Empetrum, Epilobium, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Gladiolus, La- 
biatae, Malva, Monarda, Oxalis, Phacelia, Phyteuma, Rosaceae, 
Saxifraga, Scabiosa, Stellaria, Teucrium, Thymus, Umbelliferae, 
Valeriana ; stigma ripe before sta., protogyiiy, Alopecurus, Amorpha, 
Anthurium, Aesculus, Araceae, Callitriche, Carex, Chimonanthus, 
Colchicum, Coriaria, Epimedium, Euphrasia, Ficus, Fragaria, Helle- 
borus, Humulus, Juncus, Magnolia, Mirabilis, Parietana, Pans, 
Plantago, Potamogeton. Pyrus, Scrophularia, Thalictrum. 
Dichoglottis Fisch. et Mey. =Gypsophila L. p.p. (Caryophyll.). 
Dichondra Forst. Convolvulaceae (i). 5 trop., some amphicarpic. 
Dichondropsis T. S. Brandegee. Convolvulaceae (i). i Mexico. 
Dichopog-on Kunth. Liliaceae (ill), i Austr. Cult. orn. 
Dichopsis Thw. (Palaquinm Blanco i/.v.). Sapotaceae (i). 50 Indomal. 
Dichorisandra Mikan. Commelinaceae. 30 trop. Am. Infl. racemose 

(cf. fam.); its branches often pierce the leaf-sheath. 
Dichosciadium Domin. (Azorella p.p.). Umbell. (I. 2). i Austr. 


Dichostemma Pierre. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 8). i trop. Afr. 

Dichotomantlies S. Kurz. Rosaceae (v). r Yunnan. 

Dichroa Lour. Saxifragaceae (in), i Himal. and China to Java. 

Dichrocephala L'Herit. ex DC. Compositae (3). 8 warm Afr., As. 

Dichrolepis Welw. (Eriocattlon p.p. EP.). Eriocaul. i trop. Afr. 

Dichromena Michx. Cyperaceae (i). 12 Am. 

Dickrostachys Wight et Am. Leguminosae (i. 4). 10 palaeotrop. 
Stipules often thorny. Upper fls. of infl. , yellow, lower neuter 
and white, rose, or purple. 

Dichrotrichum Reinw. Gesneriaceae (i). 10 Malay Archip. 

Dickinsia Franch. Umbelliferae (i. i). i China. 

Dicksonia L'Herit. (excl. Cibotiitm Kaulf.). Cyatheaceae. 25 trop. and 
subtrop. and S. Hemisph. Most are tree ferns, e.g. D. antarctica 
Labill. (Austr., N. Z.). Sori marginal. For the Tartarian lamb 
cf. Cibotium. 

Dicladanthera F. Muell. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i W. Austr. 

Diclidanthera Mart. Styracaceae. 2 Brazil. 

Diclidium Schrad. ex Nees=Mariscus Gaertn. (,#//. ) = Cyperus L. p.p. 

Diclidocarpus A. Gray ( Trichospermum BH.}. Tili. 2 Java, Fiji. 

Dicliptera Juss. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 70 trop. 

Diclis Benth. Scrophulariaceae (n. 3). 5 S- Afr., Madag. 

Diclytra Borckh. = Dicentra Bernh. (Papav. ). 

Dicoelia Benth. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i Borneo. 

Dicoma Cass. Compositae (12). 30 Afr., Madag., trop. As. 

Dicoria Torr. et A. Gray. Compositae (5). 4 W. U.S. 

Dicorynia Benth. Leguminosae (n. 5). 2 Guiana, N. Brazil. 

Dicoryphe Thou. Hamamelidaceae. 13 Madag., Comoro Is. 

Dicotyledones. One of the two great divisions of Angiospermae. 

Dicraea (Du Pet. Th.) Tul. Podosternaceae. 7 Madag., Ceylon, 
India. Thallus (root) drifting from attached base, exogenously 
branched, with marginal secondary shoots. Fr. isolobous. 

Dicraeanthus Engl. Podostemaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Dicraeopetalum Harms. Leguminosae (in. i). i Somaliland. 

Dicranocarpus A. Gray. Compositae (5). i Texas, Mexico. 

Dicranolepis Planch. Thymelaeaceae. 15 trop. Afr. 

Dicranopteris Bernhardi = Gleichenia Sm. (Poly pod.). 

Dicranostyles Benth. Convolvulaceae (i). 2 trop. S. Am. 

Dicranotaenia Finet. Orchidaceae (n. 20). i Dahomey. 

Dicrastylis Drumm. Verbenaceae (3). 8 N. and W. Austr. 

Dicraurus Hook. f. Amarantaceae (3). i Texas, Mexico. 

Dicrypta Lindl. = Maxillaria Ruiz et Pav. (Orchid ). 

Dictamnus L. Rutaceae (i). i Eur. As., D. a/bus L. (D- Fraxinella 
Pers.), dittany or candle-plant. The ethereal oil secreted by the 
pi. is volatile and inflammable, so that on hot calm days the air 
round it may sometimes be ignited. Fl. [ ; the unripe sta. are 
curved down, and bend up to dehisce. Fr. opens elastically. 

Dictyandra Welw. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 W. trop. Afr. 

Dictyanthus Decne. in DC. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). 4 Mexico. 

Dictyocaryum H. Wendl. (Iriartea p.p. EP}. Palmae (iv. i). i 
trop. Am. 

Dictyochloa Camus (Ammochloa p.p.). Gramineae (10). i N. Afr. 


Dictyoloma A. Juss. Rutaceae ('li). 2 Brazil, Peru. 
Dictyoneura Blume (Cupania p.p. BH.). Sapind. (i). 3 Malay Arch. 
Dictyophleba Pierre (Landolphia p.p.). Apocyn. (i. i). T trop Afr. 
Dictyosperma Regel (Pirea EP.). Cruciferae (2). i Turkestan. 
Dictyosperma Wendl. et Drude. Palmae (iv. i). 3 Mascarenes. 
Dictyostega Miers. Burmanniaceae. 5 trop. Am. and Afr. 
Dictyoxiphium Hook. Polypodiaceae. i Cent. Am. 
Dicyclophora Boiss. (Pycnocycla BH.). Umbell. (in. i). i Persia. 
Dicymbe Spruce ex Benth. et Hook. f. Leguminosae (n. 8). i Braz. 
Dicypellium Nees. Lauraceae (i). i Brazil, D. caryophyllatum 

(Mart.) Nees. Wood valuable; bark (Cassia caryophyllata) smells 

like cloves. 

Dicyrta Regel (Achimenes p.p. EP.). Gesner. (n). -2 Guatemala. 
Didactyle Lindl. =Bulbophyllum Thou. (Orchid.)- 
Didelotia Baill. Leguminosae (li. 3). 4 trop. Afr. 
Didelta L'Herit. Compositae (10). 3 S.W. Afr. 
Didesmandra Stapf. Dilleniaceae. i Borneo. 
Didesmus Desv. = Rapistrum Tourn. p.p. (Crucif.). 
Didiciea King et Pantl. Orchidaceae (n. 6). i Sikkim. 
Didieraceae, a fam. sometimes created for Didierea. 
Didierea Baill. Sapindaceae (?). 4 Madag. Anomalous plants with 

the habit of cactus-like Euphorbias, and of doubtful affinity. See 

Nat. Pfi. m 5, p. 461, Kew Bull. 1898, p. 97. 
Didiplis Rafin. (Peplis p.p. EP.). Lythraceae. i N. Am. 
Didiscus DC. (Trachymene BH.). Umbell. (i. i). 10 Malaya, Austr. 
Didissandra C. B. Clarke. Gesneriaceae (i). 30 India, China. 
Didymaea Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. n). i Mexico. 
Didymanthus Endl. Chenopodiaceae (A), i W. Aust. 
Didymeles Thou. Inc. sed. i Madagascar. 
Didymia Phil. (Mariscus p.p. BH.). Cyperaceae (n). i Chili. 
Didymocarpaceae = Gesneriaceae. 
Didymocarpus Wall. (Rottlera \z\\\). Gesneriaceae (i). 120 Indomal., 

China, Madag., Austr., trop. Afr. 
Didymochlaena Desv. Polypodiaceae. i trop. 

Didymochlamys Hook. f. Rubiaceae (1.7). i Colombia. Epiphytic. 
Didymopanax Decne. et Planch. Araliaceae (i). 24 trop. Am. 
Didymopelta Regel et Schmalh. (Astragalus p.p. BH.). Leguminosae 

(ill. 6). i Turkestan. 

Didymophysa Boiss. Cruciferae (2). i Persia. 

Didymoplexis Griff. (Leucorchis p.p. EP.). Orch. (n. 2). 10 Indomal. 
Didymosperma H. Wendl. et Drude. Palmae (iv. i). 8 Indomal. 
Didymotheca Hook. f. Phytolaccaceae. 4 Austr., Tasmania. 
Dieffenbachia Schott. Aracea (v). 12 trop. Am. Fls. monoec. , naked, 

the $ is a synandrium of 4 or 5 sta. D. Scgiiine Scott is the ' dumb 

cane' of the \V. Ind. , formerly used in torturing slaves; it renders 

speechless a person who chews a piece of the stem. 
Diellia Brackenridge. Polypodiaceae. 8 Hawaiian Is. 
Dielsia Gilg. Restionaceae. i Austr. 
Dielsina O. Ktze. (Polyceratocarpus Engl. et Diels). Anonaceae (4). 

i trop. Afr. 
Dielytra Cham, et Schlecht. = Dicentra Bernh. (Papav.). 


Dienia Lindl. = Microstylis Nutt. (Orchid.). 

Dierama C. Koch. Iridaceae (in). 4 trop. and S. Afr. 

DierviUa Tourn. ex L. ( Weigelia Thunh.). Caprifoliaceae. 8 E. As., 
N. Am. D. florida Sieb. et Succ. , and others, cult. orn. shrubs. 
Fl. adapted to bees; changes colour after fert. (? only the effect of 
age) ; cf. Ribes, Fumaria, &c. 

Dietes Salisb. = Moraea L. p.p. (Irid.). 

Dieudonnaea Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (3). i Peru. 

Diffuse, loosely spreading. 

Digera Forsk. Amarantaceae (2). i trop. As., Afr. 

Digitalin, Digitalis. 

Digitalis (Tourn.) L. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). 22 Eur., W. As., 
Canary Is. D. purpurea L. (foxglove), Brit. Fls. in racemes, one- 
sided by twisting of peduncles ; adapted to fert. by bees. The 1. are 
offic., containing the poisonous alkaloid digitalin. 

Digitaria Heist, ex Adans. = Panicum L. p.p. (Gram.). 

Digitate (1.), palmate with 5 (or 7) leaflets. 

Diglyphosa Blume (Ckrysoglossum BH.}. Orchid, (n. a. n). i Java. 

Dignathe Lindl. Orchidaceae (ll. 19). i Mexico. 

Dignathia Stapf. Gramineae (3). 2 E. trop. Afr. 

DigompMa Benth. Bignoniaceae (2). i Guiana. 

DigrapMs Trin. = Phalaris L. p.p. (Gramm.). 

Digyroloma Turcz. Acanthaceae (inc. sed.). i Madras. 

Diholcos K yd berg (Astragahis p.p.). Legumin. (ill. 6). 4 N. Am. 

Dilatris Berg. Haemodoraceae. 2 S. Afr. 

Dildo (W.I.), Cereus Swartzii Griseb. 

Dilkea Mast. Passifloraceae. 5 N. Brazil. 

Dill, Peucedanitm graveolens Benth. et Hook. f. 

Dillenia L. (incl. Wormia Rottb.). Dilleniaceae. 25 sp. Indomal. 

Dilleniaceae (EP. ; BH. incl. Crossosomataceae}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Parietales ; Ranales BH.}. 12 gen., 320 sp., trop., esp. well repres. 
in the Austr. ' scrub' veg. Most are trees and shrubs (many lianes) 
with alt. usu. leathery 1. and cymose infl. Fl. usu. reg., ?. K 5, 
or 3, 4 or even oo , spiral, persistent after flowering ; C usu. 5 ; A oo , 
hypog., free or united at base; G. oo i, free or united; styles 
usu. free; ov. oo i, erect, anatr., with ventral raphe. Plac. usu. 
inconspic., unthickened. Fr. dehisc. or not. Seed always with funi- 
cular aril united to the testa. Endosp. copious; embryo small, 
straight. Chief genera: Dillenia, Hibbertia. 

Dillwynia Sm. in Kon. et Sims. Leguminosae (in. 2). 10 Austr. 

Dilobeia Thou. Pioteaceae (i). i Madagascar. 

Dilodendron Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i S. Brazil. Seeds yield oil. 

Dilophia T. Thorns. Cruciferae (2). 5 Centr. As. 

Dimacria Lindl. in Sweet. = Pelargonium L'Herit. (Geran.). 

Dimeresia A. Gray. Compositae (4). i Oregon. 

Dimeria R. Br. Gramineae (2). -20 Indomal., S. China. 

Dimerocostus O. Ktze. Zingiberaceae (n). 4 W. S.Am. 

Dimerostemma Cass. Compositae (5). i Brazil. 

Dimetopis DC. = Trachymene Rudge (BH.} = Didiscus DC. (Umb.). 

Dimorphandra Schott. Leguminosae (n. i). 10 trop. Am. D. Mora 
Benth. et Hook, furnishes excellent timber. 


Dimorphanthera F. Muell. (Agapetes p.p.)- Eric. (in. 2). 4 Malaya, 

Dimorpliantlies Cass. =Conyza L. (Comp. ). 

Dimorphanthus Miq. = Aralia Tourn. 

Dimorphism, appearing in two forms, e.g. flower, Asperula, Cassia, 
Exacum, Saintpaulia, and cf. Dioecism, Hfterostylism; fruit, Car- 
damine, Chenopodium, Dimorphotheca ; inflorescence, Trifolium ; 
leaf, Anisophyllea, Bidens, Dischidia, Ficus, Hedera, Heteranthera, 
Platyceriuin, Polygonum, Polypodium, Ranunculus, Sagittaria, 
Salvinia, Trapa, and cf. Water-plants; plant, Littorella ; polltn, 
Faramea; root, Araceae, Ficus, Jussieua, Orchidaceae; shoot, Marc- 
gravia, Salacia; stamens, Heeria, Monochaetum. 

Dimorphocalyx Thw. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). 6 Indomal. 

Dimorphochlamys Hook. f. Cucurbitaceae (3). 3 trop. W. Afr. 

Dimorphocoma F. Muell. et Tate. Compositae (7). i C. Austr. 

Dimorphotheca Vaill ex L. Compositae (10). 20 S. and trop. Afr. 
There are two kinds of fr. on the head (cf. Calendula). 

Dinacria Haw. (Crassula p.p. EP.). Crassulaceae. 2 S. Afr. 

Dinebra Jacq. Gramineae (n). i trop. Afr., As. 

Dinemagonum A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (i). 4 N. Chili. 

Dinemandra A. Juss. ex Encll. Malpighiaceae (i). 6 Peru, Chili. 

Dinklagea Gilg. Connaraceae. i Liberia. 

Dinochloa Buese. Gramineae (13). 6 Malay Archip. 

Dinophora Benth. Melastomaceae (i). 2 trop. W. Afr. 

Dinoseris Griseb. Compositae (i 2). i Argentina. 

Dintera Stapf. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i trop. Afr. 

Dinteracanthus C. B. Clarke ex Schinz. Acanth. (iv. A). 3 S. Afr. 

Dioclea H. B. et K. Leguminosae (in. 10). 20 trop. 

Diodia Gronov. Rubiaceae (11. 10). 35 trop. and subtrop. D. niari- 
t/i/ia Schum. et Thonn. is common to Afr. and Am. 

Dioecism (-ious), <? fl. on one pi., ? on another; Antcnnaria, Arisaema, 
Ancuba, Cannabis, Mercurialis, Myrica, Rhamnus, Rhus, Salix, 

Diolena Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 6 trop. S. Am. 

Diomedia Cass. = Borrichia Adans. (Comp.). 

Dionaea Fllis. Droseraceae. i Carolina, D. muscipula Ellis (Venus' 
fly-trap), in damp mossy places on the 'pine-barrens.' Short rhiz. 
bearing a rosette of 1., which lie close to the soil. Each has a lower 
and an upper blade; the former may be regarded as a winged petiole, 
the latter has a quadrangular shape and the margins project as long 
teeth close together. The two halves of this part of the 1. are bent 
upwards so as to present a flat V-form in section. The edge of each 
half is green, the inner part of the surface is covered with reddish 
dots, which under the microscope are seen to be digestive glands; 
unless stimulated, no secretion is carried on. On each half of the 1. 
are three long hairs the trigger-hairsjointed at the base so that 
they fold downwards when the 1. closes. The slightest touch to one 
of these, or a more vigorous stimulus to the surface of the 1., causes 
an immediate closing. The teeth cross one another, and i 1 an insect 
cause the movement, it is thus captured. The closing of the 1. still 
continues till the two halves are tightly squeezed together. Then 

DIO TA C A NTH US 2 1 9 

the digestive glands commence to secrete a ferment which acts upon 
the proteids of the prey and renders them soluble, when they are 
absorbed by the 1. (cf. Drosera). When the process is complete the 
1. opens again. [Macfarlane in Contrib. from Bot. Lab. Pennsylv. 
Univ. I. 1892.] 

Dioncophyllum Baill. Flacourtiaceae (5). i Congo. 

DionycMa Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Madagascar. 

Dionysia Fenzl. Primulaceae (i). 15 alpine Persia, Afghanistan. 

Dioon Lindl. Cycadaceae. 3 Mexico. The seeds are ground into 
meal, which contains much starch. 

Dioscorea Plum, ex L. Dioscoreaceae. 200 trop. and subtrop. D. 
pyrenaica Bub. et Bordere (Pyrenees) is the only Eur. sp. They 
have twining annual stems arising from tubers which in different 
sp. are of different morphological nature. In D. Batatas Dene., &c. 
the tuber arises by a lateral hypertrophy of the hypocotyl, and is 
variously regarded as a rhiz. or a root; in D. sinuata Vel., &c. it 
arises by lateral hypertrophy of the internodes above the cotyledon ; 
in D. pentaphylla L., &c. it arises from the internode just above the 
cotyledon together with the hypocotyl, whilst in D. villosa, L., D. 
qitimpieloba Thunb., &c., there is a fleshy rhiz. The tubers are 
known as yams; they contain much starch and are largely cult, for 
food in trop., esp. Am. The best are perhaps D. alata L. (white 
yam), D. cayennensis Link (negro yam), D. trifida L. f. (cush-cush ; 
yampi). They are propagated by 'eyes' like potatoes. Small 
axillary tubers often form on the main stem and may also be used. 

Dioscoreaceae (EP., BH.}. Monocots. (Liliiflorae; Epigynae BH.). 
9 gen., 220 sp., trop. and warm temp., climbing herbs or shrubs with 
tubers or rhizomes at the base (morphology varied; see gen.). L. 
alt., net-veined, often arrow-shaped; infl. racemose; fls. reg,, usu. 
dioec., inconspic. P (6), tubular at base; A 6, or 3 and 3 stds.; G (3) 
usu. 3-loc. with axile, rarely i-loc. with parietal, plac. ; ov. usu. 2 
in each loc., anatr. one above the other. Capsule or berry ; embryo 
in horny endosp. The tubers of Dioscorea are valuable as food 
stuffs; those of Testudinaria are also used. Chief genera: Dioscorea, 
Testudinaria, Tamus. 

Dioscoreophyllum Engl. Menispermaceae. 5 trop. Afr. 

Dioscoreopsis O. Ktze. = Dioscoreophyllum Engl. (Menisp.). 

Diosma L. Rutaceae (i). n S. Afr. Heath-like xerophytes. 

Diosphaera Buser. Campanulaceae (i. r). 3 E. Medit. 

Diospyrinae (Warming). The 2nd cohort of Sympetalae. 

Diospyros L. Ebenaceae. 200 trop. Many sp. yield the valuable 
wood ebony (y-v.). The sapwood is white and soft, the heart-wood 
hard and black. D. reticnlata Willd. (Mauritius) and D. Ebemtm 
Koen. (Ceylon) yield the finest ebony. D. quaesita Thw. (Ceylon) 
yields calamantler wood. D. Embryopteris Pers. (gaub ; India) fr. 
contains a sticky pulp, used for caulking. D. Kaki L. f. (Chinese 
date plum, persimmon) fr. is used as a sweetmeat when dried, D. 
Lotus L. (date-plum, temp. As.). D. virginiana L. (N. Am. ebony 
or persimmon, U.S.) cult, for both wood and fr. (cf. Kew Bull. 1911, 

P- 234). 
Diota.cantlrus Benth. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 2 Indomal. 


Diothonea Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 5 W. trop. S. Am. 

Diotis Desf. Compositae (7). i coasts of Brit., W. Eur., Medit. 
D. camlidissima Desf. (D. marttii/ia Sm.), cotton-weed. 

Dipanax Seem. (Pterotropia Ilillebr.). Aral. (r). i Hawaii. 

Dipcadi Medic. Liliaceae (v). 40 Afr., Medit., trop. As. Cult. orn. fl. 

Dipelta Maxim. Caprifoliaceae. 4 China. 

Dipentaplandra O. Ktze.= Pentadiplandra Baill. (Tili.). 

Dipentodon Dunn. Celastraceae. i China (Kew Bull. 1911,310). 

Diphaca Lour. (Ormocarpum Beav.). Legum. (in. 7). 9 j# warm. 

Diphalangium Schau. Liliaceae (iv). i Mexico. 

Diphasia Pierre. Rutaceae (iv). i trop. Afr. 

Dipholis A. DC. Sapotaceae (i). 5 W. Indies. 

Diphylax Hook. f. (Habenaria p.p.). Orchid, (n. i). i Sikkim. 

Diphyllarium Gagnep. Leguminosae (in. 10). i Cochin-China. 

Diphylleia Michx. Berberidaceae. 2 All. N. Am., Japan (umbrella- 

Diphysa Jacq. Leguminosae (ill. 6). 12 Mexico, Cent. Am. 

Dipidax Laws, ex Salisb. Liliaceae (i). 28. Afr. 

Diplachne Beauv. Gramineae (10). 30 trop. and subtrop. 

Diplacrum R. Br (Scleria BH.). Cyperaceae (n). 3 trop. 

Diplacus Nutt. = Mimulus L. p.p. (Scroph.). 

Dipladenia A. DC. Apocynaceae (11. i). 25 S. Am. Most are 
lianes climbing by hooks. Cult. orn. perf. fl. 

Diplandra Hook, et Arn. Onagraceae (2). i Mexico. 

Diplanthemum K. Schum. Tiliaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Diplanthera Banks et Soland. ex R. Br. Bignon. (2). 4 Austr., 

Diplanthera Thou. (Halodule Endl.; Cymodocea BH}. Potamogeton- 
aceae. 2 trop. 

Diplarche Hook. f. et Thorns. Ericaceae (i. 3). 2 Sikkim. 

Diplarpea Triana. Melastomaceae (i). i Colombia. 

Diplarrhena Labill. Iridaceae (11). 2 S. Austr., Tasm. 

Diplasia Rich. Cyperaceae (n). 2 trop. S. Am., W. Ind. 

Diplaspis Hook. f. {Huanaca Cav.). Umbell. (i. 2). 2 Austr., Tasm. 

Diplaziopsis C. Chr. Polypodiaceae. \ E. As., Polynesia. 

Diplazium S\v. Polypodiaceae. 280 trop., Chi., Jap. 

Diplectria Rchb., O. Ktze. Melast. (i). 17 Malaya. Cult. orn. fl. 

Diplocalymma Spreng. Inc. sed. i, habitat? 

Diplocaulobium Kranzlin (Dendrobium p.p. EP.). Orchidaceae (11. 15). 
30 Malaya to Fiji. 

Diplocentrum Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 3 Indomal. 

isx^uuuojuiiu. iuu ijiijuj. vyiciuucu_ca.c ^11. zu;. 3 ii 

Diplochita UC. = Miconia Rhiz et Pav. (Melast.). 
Diploclinium Lindl. = Begonia L. p.p. (Begon.). 
Diploclisia Miers (Cocruhts p.p. BH.}. Menisp. 4 E. As. 
Diplocrater Hook. f. (7Yica/ysiap.p. EP.}. Rubiac. (i. 8). 2 .. 
Diplocyatha N.E. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i S. Afr. 
Diplocyathium H. Schmidt (Ituphorbia p.p.). Euph (A. n. 8). 
Diplodiscus Turcz. Tiliaceae. i Phil. Is. 

Diplodiscus Turcz. Tiliaceae. i Phil. Is. 
Diploglottis Hook. f. Sapindaceae (i). 2 Austr. 
Diplokeleba N.E. Br. Sapindaceae (i). i Argentina. 
Diploknema Pierre. Sapotaceae (i). i Borneo. 

trop. Afr. 
i Eur. 


Diplolaena R. Br. Rutaceae (i). 4 W. Austr. 

Diplolegnon Rusby. Gesneriaceae (i). i S. Am. 

Diplolepis R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 2 S. Am. 

DiplolopMum Purcz. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). 2 trop. Afr. 

Diplomeris D. Don. Orchidaceae (n. i). 4 Himal., China. 

Diplopappus Cass.= Aster Tourn. p.p. (Comp.). 

Diplopeltia Endl. Sapindaceae (n). 3 Austr., Madag. 

Diplophractum Desf. Tiliaceae. i Java. 

Diplopogon R. Br. Gramineae (8). i W. Austr. 

Diploprora Hook. f. Orchidaceae (n. 10). i trop. As. 

Diplopterys A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (i). i Guiana. 

Diplopyramis Welw. (Oxygonum p.p. EP.). Polygon, (n. 2). i 
trop. Afr. 

Diplora Baker. Polypodiaceae. 2 S.E. As. 

Diplorrhynclms Welw. Apocynaceae (I. 3). 5 trop. Afr. 

Diplospora DC. (Tricalysia p.p. EP.). Rubi. (i. 8). 15 trop. As., 

Diplosporopsis Wernham. Rubiaceae (r. 8). 2 S. Nigeria. 

Diplostephium II. B. et K. Compositae (3). 20 trop. S. Am. 

Diplostigma K. Schum. Asclepiadaceae (II. i). i E. Afr. steppes. 

Diplotaenia Boiss. (Peucedanum p.p. BH,). Umbell. (in. 6). i Persia. 

Diplotaxis DC. Cruciferae (2). 20 Eur., Medit. (2 Brit.). 

Diplothemium Mart. Palmaceae (iv. 2). 4 S- Am. 

Diplotropis Benth. Leguminosae (in. i). 7 trop. Am. 

Diplusodon Pohl. Lythraceae. 50 Brazil. 

Diplycosia Blume. Ericaceae (n. 2). 20 Indomal. 

Dipodium R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 17). 5 Austr., Malaya. 

Dipoma Franch. Cruciferae (2). i Yunnan. 

Diporidium Wencll. f. ex Bartl. et Wendl. f. = Ochna L. (Ochn.). 

Diposis DC. Umbelliferae (i. 2). 2 temp. S. Am. 

Dipsacaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Aggregatae ; . Asteiales 
BH.}. 10 gen., 150 sp., chiefly N. temp., =fc, and trop. and S. Afr. 
Most are herbs with opp. exstip. 1. (connate in Dipsacus), and cymes 
(Triplostegia, Morina) or heads of fls. That the heads are also 
cymose is indicated by the fact that the fls. do not open in strictly 
centripetal order. The outer fls. have the corolla more or less drawn 
out on one side (cf. Compositae, Crucilerae, &c.); bracteoles of the 
ordinary kind are rare (Triplostegia). Most have an epicalyx, a 
cup-shaped organ springing from the base of the ovary, and usu. 
regarded as composed of the two united bracteoles. K and C 
5-merous or 4-merous by union of two members; A 4, epipetalous; 
G (2), i-loc. with one pend. anatr. ov. Fls. usu. protandr. of the 
flower class B'. Fr. an achene (cf. Compositae) usu. enclosed in the 
epicalyx ; endosperm. Several are cult. orn. fl. ; Dipsacus yields 
teasels. Chief genera: Knautia, Dipsacus, Scabiosa. 

Dipsacales (Warming). The 7th cohort of Sympetalae. 

Dipsacus L. Dipsaceae. 12 Medit., Eur., Afr. D. sylreslris Mill, 
(teasel), Brit. The connate leaves form troughs round the stem in 
which rain-water collects. The protandr. fls. are chiefly visited by 
bees. D. fullonum L. (fuller's teasel) has hooked bracts; the fr. -heads 
are used for raising the nap upon cloth {Kew Bull. 1912, p. 345). 



Dipteracanthus Nees = Ruellia L. p.p. (Acanth.). 
Dipteranthemum F. Muell. Amarantaceae (2). i Austr. 
Dipteranthus Barb. Rodr. (Zygostates EP.). Orchid, (n. 19). 2 Brazil. 

Dipteris Keinvv. Polypodiaceae. 5 As., Polynesia. 
Dipterocarpaceae ( EP., BH. incl. Ancistrocladaceae]. Dicols. (Archichl. 
Parietales; Gutliferales BH.}. 16 gen., 320 sp., trop. Afr. and As., 
chiefly in India, mostly tall, little branched trees with entire leathery 
stip. 1., and racemose infls. of 5 , reg., pentamerous fls. Receptacle 
flat or slightly concave. K 5 ; C * conv. ; A 5, 10, 15 or more; 
G (3), 3-loc., with 2 ov. in each loc. Fr. usu. a i-seeded nut en- 
closed in the K, some of whose 1. grow out into wings serving as an 
aid in wind-carriage of the seeds. No endosp. All contain resin- 
passages. Some gregarious in growth. Many are very valuable as 
timber trees, and in other ways. Chief genera: Dipterocarpus, 
Dryobalanops, Shorea, Vatica, Valeria. (BH. cbars. incl. those of 

Dipterocarpus Gaertn. Dipterocarpaceae. 65 India, Ceylon to Phil. 
Is. The large amplexicaul stipules protect the young bud (cf. 
Magnolia, &c.). Several yield wood-oil or Gurjun balsam, a resin 
obtained by tapping, used as a varnish. Many yield useful timber. 

Dipterocome Fisch. et Mey. Compositae (9). i Persia. 

Dipterodendron Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). 2 Costa Rica. 

Dipteronia Oliv. Aceraceae. 2 Centr. China. Mericarp winged all 

Dipteropeltis Hallier f. Convolvulaceae (i). i Cameroons. 

Dipterosiphon Huber. Burmanniaceae. i Para. 

Dipterostemon Rydberg (Brodiaea p.p.). Liliaceae (iv). 4 W. N.Am. 

Dipterygium Decne. (Pteroloma Hochst.). Capparidaceae (Cruciferae 
BH.}. 5 Punjab to 'Nubia. 

Dipteryx S'chreb. (Coumaroiina Aubl.). Leguminosae (ill. 8). 8 trop. 
Am. Fr. one-seeded indeh. D. odorata Willd. furnishes Tonka 
or Tonquin beans (the seeds) used in snuff, perfumery, &c. Wood 

Diptychandra Tul. Leguminosae (n. 8). 3 Brazil, Bolivia. 

Diptychocarpus Trautv. Cruciferae (4). i Centr. As. 

Dipyrena Hook. Verbenaceae (i). i temp. S. Am. 

Dirachma Schweinf. Geraniaceae. i Socotra. 

Dirca L. Thymelaeaceae. 2 N. Am. 

Dircaea Decne. =Gesnera Mart. (5//.). = Corytholoma Decne. 

Dirichletia Klotzsch. Rubiaceae (I. 2). 12 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Disa Berg. Orchidaceae (ll.i). looS. and trop. Afr. ; Masc. Cult.orn.fl. 

Disaccanthus Greene (Streptanthus p.p.)- Cruc. (i). 6 W. N.Am. 

Disachaena Zoll. et Mor. Umbelliferae. Nomen. 

Disakisperma Steud. Gramineae (inc. sed.). i Mexico. 

Disanthus Maxim. Hamamelidaceae. i Japan. 

Disarticulate, to separate at a joint. 

Disc, a flattening of the receptacle above the K, Anacardiaceae, Celas- 
tracc>it\ Rtttaceae; -flower, Compositae; -old, like a disc. 

Discaria Hook. Rhamnaceae. 20 Andes, N.Z. , Austr. 

Dischidia R. Br. (incl. Conchophyllum Blume). Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). 
70 Indomal., Polynes., Austr. Epiphytes, climbing by adv. r., and 


with fleshy 1. covered by wax. The curious pitcher-plant, D. Raffle- 
siana Wall., besides the ordinary 1., has pitcher-1. Each is a pitcher 
with incurved margin, about 10 cm. deep. Into it grows an adv. r. 
developed from the stem or petiole just beside it. The pitcher may 
hang with its mouth upwards or may stand horizontally or upside 
down. It usu. contains a lot of dtbris, largely carried into it by 
nesting ants. Most contain rain water, so that perhaps they act 
as humus collectors and water reservoirs. The inner surface is 
waxy, so that the water cannot be absorbed by the pitcher itself, 
but must be taken up by the roots. 

Developmental study shows the pitcher to be a 1. with its lower 
side invaginated. The existing sp. illustrate all stages. Many, e.g. 
D. bengalensis Colebr., have bi-convex 1.; others have the under 
surface concave, e.g. D. (C.) Colly ris Wall., and the roots are de- 
veloped under and sheltered by the concave 1. A further invagination 
would lead to D. Rafflesiana. (Treub in Ann. Buitenz. III. 1883, 
Haberlandt's Tropenreise, p. 168, and two papers in Ann. of Bot. 


DiscMdiopsis Schlechter (Dischidia p.p.)- Asclep. (n. 3). 2 N. G., 

Dischisma Choisy. Scrophulariaceae (n. 7). 10 S. Afr. 

DiscMstocalyx (Distichocalyx) Lindau. Acanth. (iv. A). 7 trop. Afr. 

Disciflorae (RH.}. The 2nd series of Polypetalae. 

Disciphania Eichl. Menispermaceae. 8 trop. S. Am. 

Discocactus Pfeiff. (Echinocactits p.p. E.P.). Cact. (ill. i). 3 trop. 
Am., W.I. 

Discocalyx Mez. Myrsinaceae (n). 8 Malaya, Polynesia. 

Discocarpus Klotzsch Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 3 Brazil, Guiana. 

Discoglypremna Prain. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). i trop. Afr. 

Discogyne Sciilechter. Saxifragaceae (v). i New Guinea. 

Discolobium Benth. Leguminosae (in. 7). 6 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Discoluma Baill. (Chrysophylhtm p.p.). Sapot. (i). i Brazil. 

Discontinuous distribution, cf. Geographical Distribution. 

Discophora Miers (Kutnmeria Mart.). Icacin. 2 trop. S. Am. , 

Discopleura DC. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 2 N. Am. 

Discopodium Hochst. Solanaceae (2). i trop. Afr. 

Discostigma Hassk. = Garcinia L. p.p. (Guttif.). 

Discrete, separate. 

Disella Greene (Si da p.p.)- Malvaceae (2). 4 N. Am. 

Diselma Hook. f. (Fitzroya p.p.). Coniferae. i Tasmania. 

Disemma Labill. = Passiflora L. p.p. (Passifl.). 

Disepalum Hook. f. Anonaceae (i). 4 Indomal. 

Disparage Gaertn. Compositae (4). 5 S- Afr. 

Dispersis Sw. Orchidaceae (n. i). 30 trop. Afr., Madag., As. 

Disperma C. B. Clarke. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 7 trop. Afr. 

Dispersal of seeds may be occasional, as by floating trees, ice, &c., 
tornados, mud on birds' feet, the voiding of the crops of carnivorous 
birds, &c. (see Origin of Species, chap, xil), or regular, by ways 
which may be classed in four heads. By wind are carried directly 
the spores of ferns, &c., seeds of Pyrola, Orchidaceae, some Caryo- 
phyllaceae, &c., by censer-mechanisms (see Aconitum), Campanula, 


Caryophyllaceae, Delphinium, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Papaver; winged 
seeds in Bignoniaceae Bromeliaceae, Casuarina, Millingtonia, Pinus, 
Zanonia; winged fruits in Abronia, Aceraceae, Bignoniaceae, Car- 
pinus, Dipterocarpaceae, Fraxinus, Liriodendron, Malpighiaceae, 
Ptelea, Pterocarpus. Rumex, Serjania, Terminalia, Tripteris. Ulmus, 
Ventilago ; hairs, forming a parachute mechanism, in seeds of Apo- 
cynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Epilobium, Gossypium, Salix, &c., in 
fruits of Anemone, Clematis, Compositae, Eriophorum, Typha, 
Valerianaceae, &c. 

By animals are carried, as inside passengers, the seeds in edible 
fruits (</&.), and as outside passengers the hooked fr. of Asperula, 
Bidens, Blumenbachia, Cenchrus, Circaea, Daucus, Galium, Geum, 
Harpagophytum, Martynia, Medicago, Tragoceros, Triumfetta, 
Xanthium, &c., the glandular fr. or seed of Allionia, Boerhaavia, 
Pisonia, Plumbago, Siegesbeckia, &c. By water Cerbera, Cocos, 
Crinum, Nuphar, Nymphaea, Potamogeton, &c. By explosive 
mechanisms are scattered the seeds of Alstroemeria, Balsaminaceae, 
Biophytum, Buxus, Cardamine, Cyclanthera, Dorstenia, Ecballium, 
Elaterium, Eschscholtzia, Geranium, Hura, Impatiens, Ricinus, 
Ulex, Viola, &c. As a general rule, the dispersal of seed by any 
of these mechanisms is only to a very small distance, but they may 
at any time be of great importance by enabling transport over long 

Disporopsis Hance. Liliaceae (vn). i S.E. China. 

Disporum Salisb. Liliaceae (vn). 15 N. temp. As. and Am. 

Dissanthelium Trin. Gramineae (10). 4 California to Mexico. 

Dissected, deeply divided. 

Dissepiment, septum. 

Dissiliaria F. Muell. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 3 warm Austr. 

Dissochaeta Blume. Melastomaceae (i). 25 Indomal. 

Dissochondrus O. Ktze. (Set aria BfJ.). Gramineae (5). i Hawaii. 

Dissomeria Hook. f. Flacourtiaceae (9) (Samyd. Bff.). i W. Afr. 

Dissothrix A. Gray. Compositae (2). i N.E. Brazil. 

Dissotis Benth. Melastomaceae (i). 50 Afr. 

Distal, furthest from axis. 

Distasis DC. (Chaetopappa DC.). Compositae (3). 2 Texas, Mexico. 

Disteganthus Lem. Bromeliaceae (4). 2 Guiana. 

Distegia Klatt {Didclta EP). Compositae (10). i Austr. 

Dietegocarpus Sieb. et Zucc. =Carpinus L. (Betulac.). 

Distemma Lem. = Passiflora (L.) (Passifl.). 

Distemon Wedd. Urticaceae (3). i Indomal. 

Distemonanthus Benth. Leguminosae (II. 5). i Guinea. 

Disterigma Niedenzu ex Drude (Vacciniuin p.p.). Ericaceae (ill. [). 
3 trop. Am. 

Distiacanthus Linden (Bromelia p.p.)- Bromeliaceae (4). 2 S. Am. 

Distichella Van Tiegh. (Dendrophtkora p.p.). Lorauth. 3 W.I. 

Distichia Nees et Meyen. Juncaceae. 3 Andes. 

Distichlis Rann. Gramineae (10). 4 Am. D. maritima Rafin. also 
Austr., used for binding sandy soil (cf. Ammophila, Carex). 

Distichocalyx (Dischistocalyx) T. Anders. Acanth. (iv. A). 7 trop. 


Distichostemon F. Muell. Sapindaceae (11). i N. Austr. 

Distictella O. Ktze. =Distictis Bur., non DC. (Bignon.). 

Distictis Bur., Mart. Bignoniaceae (i). 5 Brazil, Guiana. 

Distoecha Phil. Compositae (13). i Chili. 

Distomanthera Turcz. Saxifragaceae (inc. sed.). i S. Am. 

Distribution, geographical, see Geog. Dist.; of seeds, see Dispersal ; 
of sexes, see Dioecism, Monoecism, Andro- and Gyno-mon- and 
di-oecism, Polygamy. 

Distylium Sieb. et Zucc. Hamamelidaceae. 4 E. As. 

Dita bark, Alstonia scholaris R. Br. 

Ditassa R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 75 S. Am. 

Ditaxis Vahl ex A. Juss. (Argithamnia BH.). Euph. (A. n. 2). 20 
Am., W.I. 

Ditch-grass (Am.), Ruppia maritima L. 

Dithyrea Harv. (Bisaitella p.p. BH.}. Cruc. (3). 2 S.W. U.S. 

Dithyrocarpus Kunth. = Floscopa Lour. (Commel.). 

Ditta ijriseb. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). i Cuba. 

Dittander, Lepidium latifolinm L. 

Dittoceras Hook. f. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i Sikkim. 

Dittostigma Phil. Solanaceae (4). i Chili. 

Diuranthera Hemsl. (Paradisea p.p.). Lili. (in). 2 China. 

Diuris Sm. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 20 Austr. 

Divi-divi, Caesalpinia Coriaria Willd. 

Division of labour Ista.), Cassia, Commelina, Heeria. 

Dizygostemon Radlk. (Beyrichia p.p. BH.}. Scroph. (n. 6). i Brazil. 

Dizygotheca N.E. Br. Araliaceae (i). 5 New Caledonia. 

Dobera fuss. Salvadoraceae. 3 trop. Afr., As. 

Dobinea Buch.-Ham. Anacardiaceae (5) (Sapindaceae BH. ). i Hima- 
laya. 9 fl. naked. 

Dobrowskya Presl = Lobelia L. (Z?.f.) = Monopsis Salisb. p.p. 

Dock, Rumex. 

Docynia Decne. Rosaceae (11). 3 Himal., Burma. 

Dodartia (Tourn ) L. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i S. Russia, W. As. 

Dodder, Cnsacia. 

Dodecadenia Nees. Lauraceae (i). 3 Himal. 

Dodecadia Lour. Flacourtiaceae (inc. sed.). i China. 

Dodecaspermum Forst. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Dodecatheon L. Primulaceae (2). 15 N. Am., N.E. As. Like Cycla- 
men. Cult. orn. fl. (American cowslip). 

Dodonaea L. Sapindaceae (li). 50 trop., esp. Austr. 

Doellingeria Nees (Aster L. p.p.). Compositae (3). 6 N. Am. 

Dog-bane (Am.), Apocynum ; -daisy, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum 
L. ; -rose, Rosa canina L. ; -'s tail grass, Cynosurus ; -'s tooth 
grass, Cynodon Dactyhn Pers. ; -violet, Erythronium ; -wood, 
Corniis sanguined L., (W.I.) Phcidia. 

Dolia Lindl. Nolanaceae. 18 W. S.Atn. 

Dolianthus C. H. Wright. Loganiaceae. i New Guinea. 

Dolichandra Cham. (Macfadyena BH.}. Bignon. (2). i S. Brazil. 

Dolichandrone Fenzl. Bignoniaceae (2). 10 Madag. to Malaya. 

Dolichanthera Schlechter et Krause. Rubi. (i. 7). i New Caled. 

Dolichodelphys K. Schum. et Krause. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Peru. 

W. is 


Dolichogyne DC. =Nardophyllum Hook, et Am. (Comp.). 
Dolicnolobium A. Gray. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 5 Fiji to New Guinea. 
Dolicholus Medic . = Rhynchosia Lour. (Legum.). 
Dolicliometra K. Schum. Rubiaceae (i. 2). i E. trop. Afr. 
Dolichopsis Hassler. Leguminosae (ill. 10). i Paraguay. 
Dolichos L. Leguminosae (in. 10). 40 trop. D. Lablab L. largely 
cult, in the trop. for its ed. pods D. biftorus L. (horse-gram) cult. 

in India, &c. for feeding horses and cattle. 
Dolichosiphon Phil. Solanaceae (inc sed.). i Chili. 
TMicliOBtyVsTuKZ.(StenonemaP.). Crucif. (inc. sed.). i Colombia. 
Doliocarpus Roland. Dilleniaceae. 25 trop. S. Am. 
Dollee-wood (W.I.), Rlyristica surinamensis Roland. 
Dolophragma Fenzl (Arenaria p.p. BH.}. Caryoph. (i. i). 2 Nepal. 
Dolosanthus Klatt ( Vernonia p.p.). Compositae (i). i trop. Afr. 
Domatia, cf. Acarodomatia. 

Dombeya Lav. Sterculiaceae. 80 Afr., Madag. 
Domeykoa Phil. Umbelliferae (i. 2). i Chili. 
Dominant, very abundant and widespread. 

Domingoa Schlechter (Epidmdrum p.p.). Orch. (n. 6). 2 W. Ind. 
Donacodes Blume = Amomum L. p.p. (Zingib.). 
Donaldsonia Baker f. Passifloraceae. i trop. Afr. 
Donatia Forst. Stylidiaceae, formerly Saxifragaceae (i). 2 Chili, 

New Zealand. 

Donax Lour. (CKnogyne BH.}. Marantaceae. 2 Indomal. 
Dondia Adans. (Sitaeda Forsk.). Chenopodiaceae (B). 15 N. Am. 
Dondia Spreng. = Hacquetia Neck. 

Donella Pierre (Chrysophyllnm p.p.). Sapot. (i). 3 trop. Afr. 
Donia G. Don (CHanthus p.p.). Leguminosae (in. 6). 2 Austr., 

N. Zealand. Cult. orn. fl. under the name C. Dampicri Cunn. 
Doniophyton Wedd. Compositae (12). 3 Chili, Argentina. 
Donnellia C. B. Clarke (Callisia p.p.). Commelin. i C. Am. 
Donnellsmitnia Coulter et Rose. Umbell. (in. 4). i Guatemala. 
Dontostemon Andrz. Cruciferae (4). 8 Centr. As- 
Donzellia Tenore. Euphorbiaceae (inc. sed.). i Brazil. 
Doob grass, Cynodon Dactylon Pers. 

Doodia R. Br. Polypodiaceae. 5 Ceylon to Austr. and N.Z. 
Boon (Ceylon), Doona. 

Doona Thw. Dipterocarpaceae. 1 1 Ceylon. Timber, resin. 
Doorweed (Am.), Polygonum aviculare L. 

Dopatrium Buch. -Ham. ex Benth. Scrophul. (n. 6). 10 palaeotrop. 
Doratoxylon Thou. Sapindaceae (11). i Mascarenes. 
Dorema D. Don. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 4 W. Centr. As. D. ammo- 

niacum D. Don is the source of the gum-resin gum-ammoniacum 

(medic.), obtained by puncturing the stem. 
Doria Thunb. = Othonna L. (BH. ) - Senecio Tourn. (Comp.). 
Doritis Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 20). ,s Indomal. 
Dormant buds, buds which do not develop with the rest. 
Doronicum Tourn. ex L. Compositae (8). 25 N. temp. 
Dorothea Wernham. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i S. Nigeria. 
Dorsal (surface), lower, away from axis, but not very consistently used ; 

dorsi-fixed (anther), jointed to filament by its whole length ; -ventral. 


with upper and lower sides differing in structure, leaves, creeping 
shoot, many fl., e.g. Aconitum, Delphinium. Labiatae, Legitminosae, 
Orchidaceae. Cf. esp. Podostemaceae, and see Boraginaceae. 

Dorstenia Plum, ex L. Moraceae (i). 80 trop. Herbs or shrubs 
with peculiar cymose infl. The common recept. of the fls. is a flat 
or hollowed fleshy structure, often > an inch wide. Fls. unisexual, 
sometimes all of one sex on one receptacle, sometimes intermingled 
with several <? round one ?, sunk in the receptacle round whose edge 
project a number of bracts. P-segments completely united. Sta. in 
the $ usu. 2. The fr. when ripe is shot out of the receptacle; the 
latter becomes very turgid and presses on the fr. and at length ejects 
it as one might fillip away a bit of soap between finger and thumb. 

Dortmanna L.= Lobelia L. (Campan.). 

Doryalis (Dovyalis} E. Mey. Flacourtiaceae (4). 15 Afr., Ceylon. 
Some (ff. Aberia) have ed. fr. 

Doryantlies Correa. Amaryllidaceae (n). 3 Austr. 

Dorycnium L. Leguminosae (in. 5). 10 Medit. 

Doryopteris ]. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 45 trop. and subtrop. 

Doryphora Endl. Monimiaceae. i New S. Wales. 

Dorystephania Warb. Asclepiadaceae (u. 3). i Phil. Is. 

Dorystoechas Boiss. et Heldr. Labiatae (vi). i W. As. 

Dossinia C. Morr. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i Borneo, cult. orn. 1. under 
the name Anoectochilus Lowii Hort. 

Dossinimaria x Rolfe. Orchidaceae. Hybrid of last and Haemaria. 

Douarrea Montr. Inc. sed. 2 New Caled. 

Double coconut, Lodoicea Sechellamm Labil. ; -flower, fl. with sta. 
changed to petals (in Compositae, with disc fl. changed to ray fl.); 
-needles, cf. Coniferae. 

Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga Donglasii Carr. 

Douglasia Lindl. Primul. (i). 3 arct. N. Am., i S. Eur. (alpine). 

Doum palm, Hyphaene. 

Dove-orchid, Peristeria elata Hook.; -wood (VV.I. ), Alchornea. 

Dovea Kunth. Restionaceae. to S. Afr. Used for thatch. 

Dovyalis (Doryalis} E. Mey. Flacourtiaceae (4). 15 Afr., Madag., 
Ceylon. Cf. Aberia. 

Downingia Torr. (inch Clintonia Dougl.). Campanul. (in). 3 Pac. 
Am. D. pidchdla Torr. has no twisting of the floral axis, or not 

Down tree (W.I.), Ochroma Lagopus Sw. 

Downy, covered with fine soft hairs. 

Doxantha Miers (Bignonia p.p. BH.}. Bignon. (i). i U.S. 

Doyerea Grosourdy ex Bello (Corallocarpus p.p. EP.). Cucurbitaceae 
(2) (Myrtaceae BH.). 2 W.I., Venezuela. 

Draba Dill, ex L. Cruciferae (4). 150 N. temp, and arctic, and 
south-west. N. Am.; 5 in Brit, (whitlow-grass), incl. D. verna L. 
which occurs in Eur. in a vast number of vars. which breed true, 
and were distinguished as sp. by Jordan (cf. works on Mendelism). 
Most are tufted, xero. with hairy or fleshy 1. 

Dracaena Vand. Liliaceae (vi). 40 Old World trop. Mostly trees, 
whose stems branch and grow in thickness (extra-fascicular cambium). 
The famous dragon-tree of Teneriffe (D. Draco L.), blown down in 


1868, was 70 ft. high and 45 ft. in girth and was supposed to be 

6000 years old. A resin exudes from the trunk of this sp. (dragon's 

blood); the original dragon's blood appears to be that of D. < inna- 

baH Half. f. (Socotra). \Cf. Pleomela, and see N. E. Brown in Kew 

Bull. 1914, p. 273.] 

Dracamina Nieuwland (Cardamine p.p.). Crucifer. (2). i Atl. U.S. 
Dracocephalum L. Labiatae (iv). 40 N. temp. 
Dracontioides Engl. Araceae (iv). i S. Brazil. 
Dracontium L. Araceae (iv). 10 trop. Am. The sympodial rhiz. 

gives rise yearly to one enormous 1. and an infl. The 1. has 3 chief 

divisions, and the lat. ones develope dichot. at first. Fl. ? with P. 
Dracontomelum Blume. Anacardiaceae (2). 6 Malaya to Fiji. 
Dracophyllum Labill. (excl. Sphe.notoma R. Br.). Epacridaceae (2). 

25 N.Z., Austr., New Caled. The sheathing 1. leave ring-scars 

when they fall. 
Dracunculus (Tourn.) Adans. Araceae (vn). 2 Medit. Fert. like 


Dragon-root (Am.), Arisaema; -'s blood, -tree, Dracaena. 
Drakaea Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 4 Austr. 
Drake-Brockmania Stapf. Gramineae (10). i Brit. Somaliland. 
Draperia Torr. Hydrophyllaceae. i California. 
Drapetes Banks. Thymelaeaceae. 6 S. Am , N.Z. to New Guinea 
Drebbelia Zoll. Olacaceae. i Bali. 

Dregea E. Mey. Asclepiadaceae (11. 3). 5 S. Afr. to China. 
Prejera Nees (Jacobinia Bff.}. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 trop. Am. 
Drejerella Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 W. Indies. 
Drepananthus Maingay ex Hook. f. Anonaceae (4). 2 Malay 

Drepanium, a monoch. cyme with each successive branch on same side 

of relatively main axis, and in same plane, Juncus, Marantaceae. 
Drepanocarpus G. F. W. Mey. Leguminosae (in. S). 8 trop. Am., 

A IV. 

Drepanolobus Nutt. ex Torr. et Gray=Hosackia Dougl. p.p. 
Drepanostemma Jumelle et Perrier. Asclep. (n. i). i Madag. 
Driessenia Korth. Melastomaceae (i). 5 Malaya. 
Drimia Jacq. Liliaceae (v). 25 Afr. 
Drimiopsis L. et Paxt. Liliaceae (v). 5 S. and trop. Afr. Cult. 

orn. fl. 

Drimycarpus Hook. f. Anacardiaceae (4). i E. Hiinnl. 
Drimys Forst. Magnoliaceae. 10 S. Am., and N.Z. to Borneo. 

There is a distinction between calyx and corolla (cj. Illicium). The 

bark of D. IVinteri Forst. (Winter's bark) is medicinal. 
Drimyspermum Reinw. = Phaleria Jack (Thymel.). 
Drinks, cj. Alcohol ; infusion drinks from seeds of Coffee, T/iea, Theo- 

broma, Cola, Paitllinia, 1. of Thea, Ilex, Cat ha, Priva, Stachytarpheta, 

and root of Cichotium. 
Driodium (Cl.), a dry thicket formation. 

Drip-tip, </. Acer, and Artocarpus, Begonia, Boehnieria, Ficus. 
Droguetia Gaudich. Urticaceae (5). 4 trop. As., Afr., Madag. 
Droogmansia De Wild. (Desmodium p.p.). Legu. (in. 7). '4 trop. 



Drooping 1 of young' 1., Aesculus, Bauhinia, Cinnamomum, Dryoba- 
lanops; of young shoot, A/nherstia, Brownea, Saraca. 

Dropper, young immature bulb. 

Dropseed grass (Am.), Sporobohts, Muhlenbergia. 

Dropwort, Filipendttla vitlgaris Moench. ; water-, Ocnanthe. 

Drosera L. Droseraceae. 90 trop. and temp. 3 in Brit, (sundew). 
D. rotund if olia L. abundant in bogs. Herbs usu. with creeping 
rhiz. and rosettes of 1., insectivorous. The blade of the 1. is circular 
in some sp., elongated in others, and is set with curious tentacles; 
these are emergences containing vascular bundles and ending in 
swollen reddish heads which secrete a sticky glistening fluid. Flies 
and other insects mistaking it for honey are held by it. The tentacles 
are exceedingly sensitive to continued pressure even by the lightest 
bodies ; the result is to cause an inward and downward movement 
of the head of the tentacle, finally placing the fly upon the blade 
of the 1. At the same time the stimulus passes to the surrounding 
tentacles causing them also to bend downwards to the same point. 
The victim is thus smothered and now the glandular heads of the 
tentacles secrete a ferment which acts upon the proteitls and brings 
them into solution, when they are taken up by the 1. Afterwards 
the tentacles expand once more and recommence the secretion of 
the sticky fluid. The food thus obtained is of benefit to the pi., 
though it can live without it. D. is able to live in very poor soil. 
The extra materials obtained are devoted chiefly to seed-production. 
If the stimulus produced by the capture of an insect be very power- 
ful, the 1. itself may bend into a cup form, and this feature is very 
marked in some sp. , the 1. bending almost double over the prey. 
The fls. of the Brit. sp. rarely open, but self-pollinate in bud. 

Droseraceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Sarraceniales ; Resales 
BH.}. 5 gen., too sp. , Drosera cosmopolitan, the rest more local. 
Herbs, usu. with perenn. rhiz. and rosettes of 1. ; Aldrovanda a 
water-plant. All are insectivorous ; Dionaea and Aldrovanda have 
sensitive 1. which shut up when touched, the others catch their 
prey by sticky tentacles upon the 1. (see genera). Us. usu. in cin- 
cinni, rarely in racemes or sol., $, reg. , 5 4-merous, usu. hypog. 
K (5) ; C 5, imbr. or conv. ; A usu. 5, pollen in tetrads (cf. Erica- 
ceae); G (2, 3, or 5) ; plac. usu. parietal, rarely axile or free-central ; 
style long ; stigmas simple or branched ; ov. 3 oo , anatr. Loculic. 
caps. ; seed with endosp. and small basal embryo. Genera: Dionaea, 
Aldrovanda, Drosophyllum, Drosera, Roridula. 

Drosophyllum Link. Droseraceae. D. liisitanicum Link, Morocco, 
Portugal, S. Spam. The 1. have glands of two kinds stalked, 
secreting a sticky fluid (cf. Drosera), and sessile, which only secrete 
when stimulated by nitrogenous matter, and then secrete a digestive 
ferment. Insects alight on the glands and are entangled; they 
struggle for a while and finally sink down and die, and are digested 
by the ferment. The taller glands have no power of movement, 
but are able to secrete a ferment as well as the sessile ones. 

Drudea Griseb. Caryophyllaceae (i. 3). i Peru. 

Drudeophytum Coulter et Rose (Arracacia p.p.). Umb. (in. 4). 
? N. Am. 



Drugs are obtained from oo pi. : cf. e.g. Abrus, Aconitum, Aegle, Aloe, 
Alpinia, Alstonia, Anckusa, Aralia (ginseng), Atropa (belladonna), 
Bamboos, Brayera, Brucea, Canella, Cannabis (hemp), Capsicum, 
Carica, Carum (caraway), Cascarilla, Cassia (senna), Cinchona 
(quinine, c.), Cinnamomum (camphor), Cistus, Citrullus (colocynth), 
Citrus, Coix, Cola, Colchicum, Colutea, Commiphora, Convolvulus 
(scammony), Croton, Curcuma, Datura, Digitalis (digitalin), Dorema 
(gum-ammoniacum), Dracaena, Drimys, Elettaria (cardamom), 
Erythroxylon (cocaine), Eucalyptus, Eugenia, Ferula (asafoetida), 
Gentiana, Glycyrrhiza (liquorice), Guaiacumjpomoea ( jalap), Lewisia, 
Lindera, Mentha, Menyanthes, Myroxylon, Papaver (opium), Pence- 
dan urn (dill), Picraena, Pilocarpus, Piper, Podophyllum, Polygala, 
Pringlca, Rhammts (cascara), Rheum (rhubarb), Ricinus (castor-oil), 
Ruta (rue), Santalina, Sassafras, Schoenocaulon, Smilax (sarsa- 
parilla), Strophanthus, Strychnos (strychnine), Styrax, Tamarindus, 
Toluifera, Trigonella (fenugreek), Uragoga (ipecacuanha), Urginea 
(squill), Veratrum, Verbascum, Zingibcr (ginger), &c. See Dragen- 
dorff, Die Heilpflanzen, Stuttgart, 1898. 

Drummondita Harv. (Philotheca EP.). Rutaceae (i). Austr. 

Drupaceae ( Warming) = Rosaceae (sub-order v). 

Drupaceous, drupe-like; drupe, a fleshy fr. with hard endocarp, within 
which is the seed, Cornaceae,Juglans, Prunus. 

Drupatris Lour. Inc. sed. i Cochin-China. 

Drusa DC. (Bowlesia BH.}. Umbelliferae (i. 2). 3 Am., Canaries. 

Dry fr., esp. achenes and nuts (indehiscent), follicles, legumes and 
capsules (dehiscent); and schizocarps ; -ing pi., cf. Collecting. 

Dryadaea L. = Dryas L. (Ros.). 

Dryadorchls Schlechtei. Orchidaceae (n. 10). 2 New Guinea. 

Dryandra R. Br. Proteaceae (n). 50 Austr. Like Banksia. 

Dryas L. Rosaceae (in. 2). 2 arctic. D. octopetala L. (alpine in 
Brit.) is androdioec. in the Alps. Style feathery after fert. (cf. 
Clematis, Geum). 

Drymaria Willd. Caryophyllaceae (i. 3). 30 trop. and S. temp. 

Drymocallis Fourr. (Potentilla p.p. ). Rosac. (in. 2). 20 N. Am. 

Drymoda Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 16). i Burma. 

Drymoglossum Presl. Polypodiaceae. 10 palaeotrop., Jap. , Chi. D. 
carnosum (Wall.) J. Sm. has succulent leaves. 

Drymonia Mart. Gesneriaceae (i). 15 trop. Am., W. Ind. 

Drymophila R. Br. Liliaceae (vn). 2 E. Austr., Tasm. 

Drymophloeus Zipp. Palmaceae (iv. i). 15 Malaya, N. Austr. 

Drymotaenium Makino. Polypodiaceae. 2 Japan, Formosa. 

Drynaria (Bory) J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 20 palaeotrop. D. querci- 
folia (L.) J. Sm. has dimorphic 1., some projecting, assimilating 
and spore-bearing, the others small, close to rhiz., collecting 

Dryobalanops Gaertn. f. Dipterocarpaceae. 4 Borneo, Sumatra. D. 
aromatica Gaertn. &c. yield Borneo or Sumatra camphor, used 
chiefly in China. The young 1. are red, and hang down. 
Dryopetalon A. Gray. Cruciferae (2). i Mexico. 
Dryopteris Adans. (incl. Cyclosorus, Lastrca, Leptogramma, Mcniscium, 
Phegopteris). 1000 cosmop. D. Filix-mas (L.) Schott 

DURO1A 231 

(shield-fern) and others Brit. This sp. has a stout nearly erect rhiz. 
with large pinnate 1. The var. cristatum Moore shows apospory. 

Dryostachyum J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 5 Malay Archipelago. 

Drypetes Vahl. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 15 N. Brazil to W.I. 

Drypis L. Caryophyllaceae (n. i). r E. Medit. 

Duabanga Buch.-Ham. Sonneratiaceae. 2 Indomal. 

Dubautia Gaudich. Compositae (5). 6 Hawaiian Is. 

Duboisia R. Br. Solanaceae (5). 2 Austr., New Caled. 

Duboscia Bocq. Tiliaceae. i trop. W. Afr. 

Dubouzetia Panch. Elaeocarpaceae. 6 New Caled. 

Dubrueilia Gaudich. = Pilea Lindl. p.p. (Urtic.). 

Duchesnea Smith (Fragaria p.p. BH.}. Rosac. (in. 2). 2 S. As. 

Duck's meat, duckweed, Lemna. 

Ducosia Vieill. ex Guillaumin (Dubouzetia p.p.). Elaeo. i N. Cal. 

Ducrosia Boiss. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 3 VV. As. 

Dudleya Britton et Rose (Cotyledon p.p. EP.). Crassul. 60 Calif. 

Duffin bean, Phaseohis lunatus L. 

Dugesia A. Gray. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 

Dugezia Montr. Inc. sed. i New Caledonia. 

Duguetia A. St. Hil. (Aberemoa Aubl.). Anonaceae (i). 30 trop. 
S. Am., W.I. D. quitarensis Benth. &c. furnish Jamaica and Cuba 
lancewood. Fr. formed of the individual berries or achenes united 
to the fleshy recept. 

Dulacia Veil. (Liriosma BH.). Olacaceae. 15 trop. S. Am. 

Dulcis (Lat.), sweet. 

Dulichium Pers. (Websteria Wright). Cyper. (i). i All. N. Am. 

Dumasia DC. Leguminosae (ill. 10). 3 trop. As., Afr., Madag. 

Dumb-cane, Dieffenbachia Seguine Schott. 

Dumerilia Lag. ex DC. Jungia L. (Comp.). 

Dumoria A. Chevalier. Sapotaceae (i). i trop. Afr. Good wood. 

Dumose, shrubby. 

Dunalia H. B. et K. Solanaceae (2). 8 W. S.Am. to Mexico. 

Dunbaria Wight et Arn. Leguminosae (ill. 10). 15 trop. As., 

Dune-plants, cf. Ammophila, Carex, Etyuts, Hippophae, &c. 

Dunnia Tutcher. Rubiaceae (i. 4). i China. 

Duparquetia Baill. (Oligostemon BH.}. Legumin. (n. =,). i W. Afr. 

Dupontia R. Br. (Graphcphonun BH.). Gramin. (10). 2 Arctic. 

Duramen, the heart-wood. 

Durandea Planch. (Hiigonia EP.). Linaceae. 5 New Guinea, Polynes. 

Durandia Boeck. Cyperaceae (n). i Costa Rica. 

Duranta L. Verbenaceae (i). 10 trop. Am., W.I. Cult. orn. shrubs. 

Duravia Greene (Polygonum p.p.)- Polygon, (n. 2). 4 Calif. 

Durian, Durio zibelhinus Murr. 

Durieua Boiss. et Reut. = Daucus Tourn. p.p. (Umbell.). 

Durio Adans. Bombacaceae. 7 Indomal. D. zibet hinns Murr. pro- 
duces the durian fr., with delicate flavour and disagreeable smell. 
Seed with fleshy aril. 

Duroia L. f. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 10 S. Am. Myrmecophilous (cf. 
Acacia). D. petiolaris Hk. f. and D. hirsuta K. Sch. have stems 
swollen just below the infl. The swollen part is hollow and entrance 


is obtained by two longitudinal slits ; it is inhabited by ants, which 
bite through the thin tissue of the slits. D. saccifera Benth. et Hk. f. 
has 'ant-houses' on the 1. At the base, on the under side, are two 
pear-shaped organs formed by outgrowth of the 1. The entrance is 
upon the upper side, protected from rain by a little flap. 

Dusenia O. Hoffm. (Duseniella EP.}. Compos (12). i Patagonia. 

Duseniella K. Schum. Compositae (12). i Patagonia. 

Dussia Krug et Urb. Leguminosae (ill. i). i Martinique. 

Dutaillyea B.iill. Rutaceae (i). i New Caled. 

Dutch clover, Tn 'folium repens L. ; -grass (W.I.), Paniaim molle 
Sw.; rushes, Equist-tum. 

Dutchman's breeches, Dicentra; -pipe, Aristolochia. 

Duthiea Hackel. Giamineae (10). 2 Kashmir, Afghanistan. 

Duvalia Haw. Asclepiadaceae (il. 3). 15 S. Afr. 

Duvaliella Raill. Dipterocarpaceae. i Penang. 

Duvaljouvea Palla. (Cyperus p.p.) Cyperaceae (i). 2 As., Eur. 

Duvaua Kunth = Schinus L. p.p. (Anacard.). 

Duvaucellia Bowditch. Oleaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Duvernoya E. Mey (Adhatoda p.p. BH.}. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 25 Afr. 

Dwale, Atropa Belladonna L. 

Dyckia Schult. f. Bromeliaceae (2). 57 S. Am. 

Dyera Hook. f. Apocynaceae (I. 3). 3 Malaya. 

Dyerophyton O. Ktze. ( Vogella Lam.). Plumbaginaceae 3 palaeotrop. 

Dyer's greenweed, Genista tinctoria L. ; -weld, Reseda liitea, L. 

Dyes (vegetable), cf. esp. Alkainia, Baphia (cam wood), Bixa (an- 
natto), Caesalpinia (sappan), Carthamits (rouge), Chlorophora (fustic), 
Cladrastis, Crocus (saffron), Crozofihora, Curcuma (turmeric), Gar- 
rtnia, Haetnatoxylon (logwood), Indigo/era (indigo), Isatis (woad), 
LctK'SMn'a, Madura (tiistic), Morinda, Nopalea, Peganum (turkey 
red), Pterocarpiis, Reseda, Rhamitus, Rkiis, Rubia (madder). 

Dypsidium Bail!. (Dypsis p.p.) Palmae (iv. i). 3 Madagascar. 

Dypsis Noronha ex Thou. Palmae (iv i). 10 Madag. 

Dyschoriste Nees (Calophanes BH.}. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 50 trop. 

Dysodia Cav. Compositae (6). 35 Am. 

Dysodiopsis Rydberg (Dysodia p.p.). Compositae (6). i. S.W. U.S. 

Dysolobium Prain. Leguminosae (ill. 10). 4 Indomal. 

Dysophylla Blume. Labiatae (vi). 20 E. As., Austr. 

Dysopsis Baill. Euphorbiaceae (B. n). i Andes, Juan Fernandez. 

Dysoxylum Blume. Meliaceae (ill). 120 Indomal. D. Fraseranum 
Benth. (E. Austr.; Austr. mahogany) and others, good timber. 

Dysphania R. Br. Caryophyllaceae (I. 5). 3 Austr. L. alt. 

Dyssochroma Miers. Solanaceae (3). 4 trop. Am. 

E- (Lat. pref.), without : -bracteate, -calcarate, -costate, -dentate, 
-glandulose. -marginate (notched), -rostrate, -strophiolate, -val- 
vate, &c. And cf. Ex. 

Eagle-wood. Aijuilaria, Agallocha Roxb. (Burma). 

Earina Lindl. Orchidaceae (n a. mi. 6 N.Z., Polynesia. 

Earth-nut, Arachis hypogaca L , Conopodium demidatuni Koch. 

East Indian arrowroot, Curcuma, Tacca; -hemp, Crotalariajuncea'L.; 
-rosewood, Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.; walnut, Allrizzia Lebbtk Benth. 

Eastwoodia Brandegee. Compositae (3). i Lower California. 


Eatonella A. Gray. Compositae (6). 2 Nevada, California. 

Eatonia Kafin. Gramineae (10). 5. N. Am. 

Eau de Creole, Mammea. 

Ebenaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Ebenales P., BH.). 5 
gen., 320 trop. (esp. Indomal.), trees and shrubs with alt., opp. or 
whorled, simple, leathery, usu. entire 1. Fls. axillary, sol. or in small 
cymes, reg. , usu. dioec., bracteolate, 3 y-merous. (K) persistent; 
(C) convolute ; A epipet. at base of tube, usu. in 2 whorls but fre- 
quently so by branching; stds. usu. present in ? fls., (G) 2 i6-lpc., 
with i 2 anatr. ov. pend. in each loc. ; styles 2 8, free or united 
below. Fr. usu. a berry with fewer seeds than there were ovules, 
sometimes dehiscent. Embryo straight or slightly curved, in abun- 
dant cartilaginous endosp. Many yield valuable wood, e.g. Diospyros. 
Genera: Royena, Euclea, Maba, Diospyros, Tetraclis. 

Ebenales. The 4th order of Sympetalae (EP.), the 6th (Bff.). 

Ebeneous, black as ebony. 

Ebenus L. Leguminosae (in. 7). 14 Medit. to Beluchistan. 

Ebermaiera Nees (Staurogyne P.). Acanthaceae (i). 40 trop. exc. 

Ebony, wood of many Ebenaceae, esp. Diospyros, blackened by a 
deposition of a gum-resin in the heartwood ; Gtirke gives a list of 
forms, Nat. Pfi. IV. i, p. 164; Ceylon and S. Indian ebony, the 
most important, is from D. Ebenum Koen. ; American-, green-, 
Jamaica-, W. Indian-, Brya Ebenus DC. 

Eburopetalum Becc. Anonaceae (4). i Borneo. 

Eburophyton A. A. Heller (Chloraea p.p.). Orch. (n. 2). i Calif. 

Ecad (Cl.), a habitat form due to origin by adaptation. 

Ecastaphyllum P. Br. (Dalbergia p.p. EP-). Legum. (in. 8). 6 trop. 
Am., W.I 

Ecballium A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae (3). i Medit., E.Elaterium A. Rich, 
(squirting cucumber). The ripe fr. is highly turgid; as it drops 
from the stalk, a hole is made in its lower end, and through this the 
contraction of the pericarp squirts the seeds, mixed with a watery fluid. 
A purgative (eiaterium) is prepared from the fr. 

Ecbolium Kurz. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 8 trop. Afr. 

Ecbolium Riv. ex L.=Justicia L. (Acanth.). 

Ecclinusa Mart. Sapotaceae (i). 6 N. Brazil. 

Eccremocarpus Ruiz et Pav. Bignoniaceae (3). 3 Peru. See fam. 
The valves of the fr. hang together at the top. 

Ecdeiocolea F. Muell. Restionaceae. i S.W. Austr. 

Ecdysanthera Hook, et Arn. Apocynaceae (n. i). 10 Indomal., 

Echeandia Ortega. Liliaceae (in). 6 Mexico to Guiana. 

Echenais Cass. =Cnicus Tourn. p.p. (j5//.) = Cirsium Adans. p.p. 

Echetrosis Phil. Compositae (7). t temp. S. Am. 

Echeveria DC. (Cotyledon p.p.). Crassulaceae. 70 Am. 

Echidiocarya A. Gray (Plagiobotrys p.p. EP.). Borag. (iv. 2). i. 

Echidnium Schott. Araceae (iv). 2 trop. S. Am. 

Echidnopsis Hook. f. Asclepiadaceae (11. 3). 4 E. Afr. Xerophytes 
with succulent stems. 

234 ECHfN- 

Echln- (Gr. pref.), spiny. 

Echinacanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 8 Himal., Java. 

Echinacea Moench. (Rudbeckia p.p.). Compositae (5). 2 N. Am. 

Echinantnus Cerv. (Tragus EP.}. Gramineae (3). None described. 

Echinaria Desf. Gramineae (10). i Medit. 

Echinocactus Link et Otto. Cactaceae (in. i). 250 Texas to Chili. 

Ribbed cacti (see fam.). 

Echinocarpus Blume (Sloanea p.p. EP.}. Tiliaceae. 6 E. As., Austr. 
Ecbinocephalum Gardn. (Melanthera p.p.). Comp. (5). 3 Brazil. 
Echlnocereus Engelm. (Cereus Haw. BH.}. Cactaceae (in. i). 50 Am. 
Echinochlaenia Borner. (Carex p.p .). Cyper. (in). 3 Tasm., N.Z. 
Echinochloa Beauv. = Panicum L. p.p. (Gramin.). 
Echinocystis Torr. et Gray. Cucurbitaceae (4). 25 Am. Tuberous 

climbing herbs. E. lobata Torr. et Gray often cult. Its tendrils 

are very sensitive and nutate rapidly ; they become straight and erect 

as they come round towards the main axis, thus avoiding contact. 
Echinodorus Rich. Alismaceae. 20 Am., Afr. 
Echinolaena Desv. (Panicum p.p. EP.). Gramineae (5). 2 S. Am., 

Echinopanax Decne. et Planch. (Fatsia BH.}. Araliaceae (i). i 

N. Am., Japan, E. horridus D. et P., an obstacle to travellers. 
Echinopepon. Naud. (Echinocystis Torr. et Gray). Cucurb. (4). 15 

N. Am. 
Echinophora Tourn. ex L. Umbelliferae (in. i). 8 Medit. One 

cpl. is aborted. The umbel has one ? fl. in the centre, surrounded 

by s fls. The spiny stalks of the latter enclose the fr. 
Echlnopogon Beauv. Gramineae (8). i Austr., N.Z. 
Echinops L. Compositae (n). 75 E. Eur., Afr., As. The spherical 

head is really cpd., formed of oo small i-fld. heads, each with its 

own invol. The fls. are largely visited by bees. 
Echinopsilon Moq. =Chenolea Thunb. (j5//.). = Bassia All. p.p. 
Echinopsis Zucc. (Cereus p.p.). Cactaceae (in. i). 25 S. Am. 
Echinopterys A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (i, but forming a link between 

i and 2, as it has a flat torus), i Mexico. Mericarp spiny. 
Echlnospermum Sw. (Lappula p.p. EP.}. Bnraginaceae (iv. 2). 50 

temp. E. Lappula Lehm. cult. The fls. change from white to red 

and blue (see fain.). Fr. hooked. 
Echinostachys Brongn. (Aechmea p.p.). Bromel. (4). 6S.Am. Cult. 

orn. infl. 

Echinothamnus Engl. Passifloraceae. i S.W. Afr. 
Echiochilon Desf. Boraginaceae (iv. 5). 2 N. Afr., Aden. 
Echioglossum Blume (Cleisostoma BH.}. Orch. (n. 20). 3 Indomal. 
Echioides (Tourn.). Desf. =Nonnea Medic. (Borag.). 
Echirospermum Saldanha da Gama. Leguminosae. Nomen. 
Echltes P. Br. Apocynaceae (n. i). 40 Am., W.I. 
Echium Tourn. ex L. Boraginaceae (iv. 5). 30 Eur., Medit. E. 

vulgare'L. (viper's bugloss) Brit, (offic.). FL )-, protandr., gynodioec., 

bee -visited. 

Echyrospermum Schott. Leguminosae (inc. sed.). Nomen. 
Ecklonea Steud. (Trianoptiles EP.}. Cyperaceae (n). 2 Austr., 

S. Afr. 


Eclipta L. Compositae (5). 4 Austr. , S. Am. 

Eclopes Gaertn.= Relhania L'Herit. p.p. (Comp.). 

Ecology, relations of plants to their environment. 

Economic Botany, the study of pi. from the point of view of their uses 
to man ; -products, of value in the arts as food, &c., may be divided 
into groups: (i) gums, resins, rubbers or caoutchoucs, gutta-perchas, 
&c. , (2) oils, (3) dyes and tanning stuffs, (4) fibres, (5) drugs, (6) 
edible products, (7) timbers, and (8) miscellaneous, such as cork, 
vegetable ivory, weights, beads, &c. For more detail see under 
each of these heads, and consult Wiesner, Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzen- 
reichs, Vienna, 1903 ; Watt, The Commercial Products of India ; 
De Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants ; Kew Bulletin and other 
technical journals. 

Ecphymacalyx Pohl. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Ecpoma K. Schum. Rubiaceae (i. 7). i trop. Afr. 

Ecpomanthera Pohl. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Ectadiopsis Benth. Asclepiadaceae (i). 6 trop. and S. Afr. 

Ectadium E. Mey. Asclepiadaceae (i). 2 S. Afr. 

Ectasis D. Don= Erica L. p.p. (Eric.). 

Ectinocladus Benth. Apocynaceae (n. i). i W. Afr. 

Ectotropic, hyphae running between epidermal cells. 

Ectrosia R. Br. Gramineae (ro). 4 Austr. 

Edaphic, of the soil. 

Eddoes (W. I.), Colocasia antiqitorum Schott. 

Edelweiss, Leontopodiuvi alpinum Cass. 

Edgaria C. B. Clarke. Cucurbitaceae (2). i Sikkim. 

Edgeworthia Meissn. Thymelaeaceae. 2 Himalaya, China. 

Edible products, or foodstuffs in a wide sense, are obtained esp. from 
stores of reserves in pi., e.g. the seeds of cereals, Avena (oat), Coix, 
Eleusine, Euchlaena, Hordeum (barley), Oryza (rice), Panicum 
(millet), Paspalum, Pennisetum (bulrush millet), Secale (rye), Setaria, 
Sorghum (Guinea corn), Triticum (wheat), Zea (maize), Zizania, &c.; 
the seeds of many JLeguminosae, e.g. Arachis (peanut), Cajanus 
(cowpea), Cicer (chickpea), Uolichos, Glycine (soy), Lathyrus, Lens 
(lentil), Phaseolus (beans, &c. ), Pisum (pea), Psophocarpus, Vicia 
(bean), Voandzeia, &c. ; the seeds of Araucaria, Bertholletia (brazil- 
nut), Brosimum, Carya, Caryocar, Castanea (chestnut), Castano- 
spermum, Cocos (coconut), Corylus (hazelnut, filbert), Dioon, Fago- 
pyrum (buckwheat), Juglans (walnut), Lecythis, Nelumbium, Pistacia 
(pistachio), Telfairia, Trapa, &c. ; the underground reserves of Allium 
(onion, &c.), Alocasia, Araceae, Arracacia, Arum, Beta (beetroot), 
Brassica (turnip, &c.), Canna, Colocasia (taro), Commelina, Daucus 
(carrot), Dioscorea (yam), Helianthus (Jerusalem artichoke), Ipomoea 
(sweet potato), Manihot (cassava, tapioca), Maranta (arrowroot), 
Ophiopogon, Oxalis, Pachyrhizus, Peucedanum (parsnip), Plec- 
tranthus, Priva, Raphanus, Scilla, Scorzonera, Selinum, Stachys, 
Solanum (potato), Tragopogon, Tropaeolum, Ullucus, Xanthosoma, 
&c. ; from reserves in the stems of many trees, esp. palms, Acer 
(sugar), Alsophila, Arenga (sugar), Borassus (sugar, sago), Caryota 
(sugar, sago), Cycas, Cocos (sugar), Encephalartos, Metroxylon (sago), 
Oreodoxa, Saccharum (sugar), &c.; from reserves in I. and injl. in 


Brassica, Cynara, many palms, &c. Other 1. are also eaten, e.g. 
Apium (celery), Ceratopteris, Clienopodium, Crambe (sea-kale), 
Eremurus, Foeniculum (fennel), Lactuca (lettuce), Lepidium (ciess), 
Myrrhis, Rheum (rhubarb), Scorzonera, Spinacia (spinach), Tetra- 
gonia, &c.; similarly the young shoots of Asparagus, Bambusa, &c. 
This leads on to condiments or spices (see Condiments). 

ManyyiVj/y/r. are also eaten ; the greatest food value attaches to 
Artocarpus (bread-fr., jak), Musa (banana, plantain), and Phoenix 
(date), but others are Aberia, Achras, Anacardium (cashew), Ananas 
(pine-apple), Anona (custard-apple, &c.), Artaboirys, Averrhoa, 
Bactris, Benincasa, -Blighia, Borassus (palmyra- palm), Byrsonima, 
Carica (papaw), Celtis, Cereus, Chrysobalanus, Chrysophylhim, 
Citrullus, Citrus (orange, lemon, &c.), Coccinia, Coccoloba, Cucumis 
(melon, cucumber), Cucurbita (pumpkin, marrow), Debregeasia, 
Decaisnea, Dialium, Diospyros (kaki), Durio (durian), Eriobotrya 
(loquat), Eugenia (rose-apple, &c.), Feronia, Ficus (fig), Fragaria 
(strawberry), Garcinia (mangosteen), Gaylussacia (huckleberry), 
Glycosmis, Hymenaea, Juniperus, Lantana, Lapagevia, Litchi 
(litchi), Macadamia, Maclura, Mammea, Mangifera (mango), Mimu- 
sops, Monstera, Morus (mulberry), Myrtus, Nephelium (rambutan), 
Opuntia(pncklypear),Osmanthus, Pappea, Passiflora(granadilla,&c.), 
Pereskia, Persea (avocado), Peumus, Prunus (plum, cherry, apricot, 
peach, &c.), Psidium (guava), Punica (pomegranate), Pyrus (pear, 
apple, &.C.), Ribes (gooseberry, currant), Rubus (raspberry, &c.), 
Sechium, Spondias, Tamarindus (tamarind), Vaccinium (cranberry, 
bilberry, &c.), Vitellaria, Vitis (grape), Zanthoxylum, Zizyphus, &c. 

Drinks (q.v., and Alcohol), narcotics (y.v.), &c. may also be men- 
tioned here. For food for animals cf. Fodder, and Bee-flowers. 

Edithcolea N. E. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i E. Afr., Socotra. 

Edmondia Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (3). i Venezuela. 

Edraianthus A. DC. = Wahlenbergia Schrad. (BH.) = Hedraianthus 
A. DC. 

Eflulis (Lat.), edible. 

Edwardsia, Salisb. = Sophora Linn. 

Edwinia A. A. Heller (JTamesia p.p.). Saxifnigaceae (in). 2 N. Am. 

Eel-grass, Zostera ; -trap pi. , Biovularia, Genlisea, Polypompholyx, 

Eenia Hiern et Sp. Moore. Compositae (4). i Damaraland. 

Effete, function less from age. 

Effigurations, outgrowths of receptacle, Capparidaceae, Orchidaceae, 

Effuse, expanded. 

Efulensia C. H. Wright (Deida/nia EP.). Passifloraceae. i trop. Afr. 

Eganthus Van Tiegh. Olacaceae. i Brazil. 

Egassea I'ierre ex Wildem. Scyiopetalaceae. 3 trop. Afr. 

Egeria Neraud. Rubiaceae. Nomen. 

Egg -apparatus, the ovum and synergidae ; -fruit, -pi., Solan um 
Melongena L. 

Eggersia Hook. f. (Neca p.p. El\}. Nyctaginaceae. i W. Indies. 

Eglantine, Rosa l'.^!antei ia L. 

Egletes Cass. Compositae (3). 6 trop. Am., Mexico. 


Egyptian bean, lotus, Nclubium, Nyinphaea ; -lily, Richardia. 

Ehretia L. Boraginaceae (n). 40 trop., chiefly %.. Timber. 

Ehrharta Thunb. Gramineae (7). 25 S. Afr., .Ylasc., N.Z. Useful 
pasture grasses for sandy soil. 

Eichhornia Ivunth. Pontederiaceae. 5 S Am., W.I. The sympodium 
is very complex. Each shoot in turn is pushed to one side by the 
axillary shoot of its last 1. but one ; with this shoot it is combined, 
however, up to the last 1. of the axillary shoot. After leaving the 
axillary shoot, each shoot bears another 1. , and then ends in the infl., 
which is enclosed in a spathe, and at first glance appears to spring 
from the stalk of the last 1. In E. azarea Kunth. the fls. are di- 
morphic, in E. crassipes Solms trimorphic heterostyled. This last 
sp. has, when floating freely, large bladder-like swollen petioles, 
but in soil these are not nearly so large. They cause the plant to 
float high and it is easily blown about by wind, and has become a 
very troublesome weed (water hyacinth) in Florida, Java, Australia, 

Eichleria Progel. Oxalidaceae. 2 S. Brazil. 

Eichlerodendron Briquet (Xylosma p. p.). Flacourt. (4). i Brazil. 

Eicosia Lilume. Orchidaceae. Nomen. 

Ekebergia Sparrm. Meliaceae (in). 12 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 

Elachanthera F. Muell. Liliaceae (x). i Austr. 

Elachanthus F. Muell. Compositae (7). i temp. Austr. 

Elacholoma F. Muell. et Tate. Pedaliaceae. i Austr. 

Elaeagla Wed. Rubiaceae (i. 3). 2 N. Andes. 

Elaeagnaceae (EP., Bff.). Dicots. (Archichl. Myrtiflorae; Daph- 
nales /?//.). 3 gen., 25 sp. , chiefly on steppes and coasts, % ; much 
branched shrubs, often with leathery L, entire, opp. or alt., and 
covered, as are all parts, with scaly hairs. There are frequently 
thorns on the surface (reduced shoots). Infl. racemose; fls. or 
unisexual, 2- or 4-merous. In the 3 the recept. is often flat, but in 
the ? or ? fl. it is tubular as in Thymelaeaceae, and may be fused 
with the ovary. No petals. Sta. as many, or twice as many, as 
sepals. G i with one erect anatr. ov. Pseudo-drupe. Seed with 
little or no endosp. Chief genera: Hippophae, Elaeagnus. 

Elaeagnus (Tourn.) L. Elaeagnaceae. 20 As., Eur., N. Am. (oleaster). 
The fr. of some is ed. Cult. orn. shrubs. 

Elaeis Jacq. Palmae (iv. 2). 2, one trop. Am., the other, E. guine- 
ensis [acq. trop. Afr. (oil-palm) from whose fr. the palm-oil, used 
for railway axles &c., is obtained by boiling. 

Elaeocarpaceae (EP. ; Tiliaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Mai- 
vales). 7 gen., 1 20 sp. trop. and subtrop., trees and shrubs with 
alt. or opp., stip. 1., and racemes, panicles or dichasia of fls. Disc 
usu. present. K 4 or 5, free or united, valvate ; C 4 or 5, rarely 
united, often o, the petals often much divided at the ends, valvate 
or imbr. but never conv.; A oo , free, on the disc, which is some- 
times developed to an androphore ; anthers 2-loc. usu. opening by 
two pores (sometimes confluent) at the apex ; G sessile, with 2 oo 
(rarely i) loc.; ovules in each loc. oo or 2, anatr., pend. with ventral 
raphe; style simple, sometimes lobed at apex. Capsule or drupe; 
embryo straight, in abundant endosp. Chief genera: Elaeocarpus, 


Sloanea, Aristotelia. The grounds upon which they are separated 
from Tiliaceae are chiefly anatomical. 

Elaeocarpus Burm. ex L. Elaeocarpaceae. 70 trop. 

Elaeodendron Jacq. f. (Cassine p.p. EP.). Celastraceae. 30 trop. and 
subtrop. E. croceum DC. (saffranhout, S. Afr.) good timber. 

Elaeogene Miq. Euphorbiaceae (inc. sed.). i Sumatra. 

Elaeoluma Baill. (Myrsine p.p. BH., Chrysophylhim p.p. EP.}. 
Sapotaceae (l). i Brazil 

Elaeophorbia Stapf. (Euphorbia p.p.). Euphorb. (A. n. 8). i trop. 

Elaeoselinum Koch ex DC. Umbelliferae (in. 7). 8 W. Medit. 

Elaphoglossum Schott. Polypodiaceae. 330 trop. and subtrop. 

Elaphrium Jacq. = Bursera Jacq. (Burs.). 

Elater, Equisetnni. 

Elaterioides O. Ktze. (Elateriospermum Bl.). Euph. (A. n. 3). 
2 Malaya. 

Elateriopsis Ernst (Cyclanthera BH.}. Cucurb. (4). 6 S. Am. 

Elaterium [acq. Cucurbitaceae (4). 12 trop. Am. The fr. is explosive 
like that of Ecballium. 

Elaterium, Ecballium. 

Elatinaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Parietales; Guttiferales 
BH.). 2 gen., 30 sp. , trop. and temp. Undershrubs, herbs, or 
annual water-pi. ; the latter are able to live on land, altering their 
structure to suit the changed conditions (cf. Littorella). L. opp. or 
whorled, simple with interpet. stip. Fls. $ , reg., solitary or in 
dichasia, 2 6-merous. K hypog. , free or united ; C imbr. ; A in 
2 whorls, or inner aborted; G syncarpous, multiloc., with simple style; 
plac. axile ; ov. oo , anatr. Capsule septifragal ; seed straight or 
curved; endosp. thin or none. Genera: Bergia, Elatine. 

Elatine Linn. Elatinaceae. 15 trop. and temp. E. hexandra DC. 
and E. Hydropiper L. (water pepper or pipe-wort) in Brit. 

Elatineae (BH.) = Elatinaceae. 

Elatinoides Wettst. (Linaria p.p .). Scroph. (n. 3). 24 Eur., As., Afr. 

Elatostema Forst. Urticaceae (2). 90 trop. As. E. acuminatitm 
Brongn. is apogamous. Some show water secretion from the 1. 

Elatostematoides C. B. Robinson. Urticaceae (2). 5 Phil. Is. 

Elattostachys Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). 10 Indomal., Polynesia. 

Elatus (Lat), tall. 

Elcismia Robinson (Celniisia p. p.). Compositae (4). 158. temp. 

Elcomarhiza Barb. Rodr. Asclepiadaceae (inc. sed.). i Brazil. 

Elder, Sambucus nigra L. ; American witch-, Fothergilla; dwarf- 
(W.I.), Pilta grandis Wedd. 

Elecampane, Inula Helenium L. 

Elegia L. Restionaceae. 20 S. Afr. 

Eleiotis DC. Leguminosae (in. 7). i India, Ceylon. 

Elemi, balsams, Burseraceae, Commiphora, Copaifera, Dipferocarpus, 
Litjiiidainkar, Pistacia, Styrax, Toluifera, etc. 

Eleocliaris R. Br. Cyperaceae (i). 90 cosmop. E. palustris R. Br. 
(spike-rush) on turfy moors in Brit. The green tissue is centric. The 
tubers of E. tuberosus Schult. (E. As.) are used as food. 

Eleogiton Link = Scirpus L. p.p. (Cyper.). 

E LODE A 239 

Elephant-apple, Feronia Elephantum Correa; -'s ear, Begonia ; -'s foot 
(Am.), Ekphantopus. 

Elephantella Rydberg(P*a&V/ar/jp.p.). Scrophul. (in. 3). i N. Am. 

Elepliantopus L. Compositae (i). 20 trop. E. scaber L. is an 
abundant and troublesome weed. 

Elephantorrhiza Benth. Leguminosae (i. 5). 2 trop. and S. Afr. 

Elettaria Maton. Zingiberaceae (i). i Indomal., E. Cardamomum 
Maton. Fls. on leafless shoots from the rhiz. Cult, in the mountains 
of Ceylon and S. India (cardamoms). The ripe fr. are picked and 
dried ; the seeds form a strongly flavoured spice, mainly used in India. 

Elettariopsis Baker. Zingiberaceae (2). 8 Malaya. 

Eleusine Gaertn. Gramineae (u). 10 trop. and subtrop. E. coracana 
Gaertn. (ragi, kurakkan) is cult, as a cereal in Ceylon, India, Africa, 
&c., and others are useful fodders. 

Eleutheranthera Poit. ex Bosc. Compositae (5). i trop. Am. 

Eleutheranthus (ELuthranthes) F. Muell. Rubi. (n. 7). i W. Austr. 

Eleutherine Herb. Iridaceae (n). 3 trop. Am., W.I. 

Eleutherococcus Maxim. (Acanthopanax p.p. EP.}. Aral. (i). 2 China. 

Eleutheropetalous, polypetalous. 

Eleutherospermum C. Koch (Plettrospermitm p.p. EP.). Umbel, 
(in. 4). 2 W. As. 

Eleutherostemon Herzog. Ericaceae (in. 2). i Bolivia. 

Eliaea Cambess. Guttilerae (n). i Madagascar. 

Elichrysum, cf. Helichrysum. 

Elionurus Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Gramineae (2). 20 trop. and 

Elisena Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 3 Peru. 

Elisma Buchen. Alismaceae. i Eur. (incl. Brit.), E. tiatans Buchen. 

Elissarrhena Miers (Anomospermum EP.). Menisperm. i Brazil. 

Elizabetha Schomb. Leguminosae (II. 3). 2 Brit. Guiana. 

Elk-horn fern, Platyceriiun. 

Elleanthus Presl. Orchidaceae (n. 7). 50 trop. Am., W. Ind. 

Ellertonia Wight. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 4 trop. As., Madagascar. 

Elliottia Muehlb. ex Nutt. Ericaceae (i. i). i S. All. U.S. 

Ellipanthus Hook. f. Connaraceae. 8 Indomal. 

Ellipeia Hook. f. et Thorns. Anonaceae (i). 10 Malaya. 

Elliptical, narrowish, tapering equally to both ends. 

Ellisia L. Hydrophyllaceae. 4 N. Am. 

Ellisiophyllum Maxim. Hydrophyllaceae. i Japan. 

Elm, Ulmus canipestris L. &c. ; Spanish- (W.I.) , Cordia, Hamelia. 

Elmera Ryclberg (Heuchera p.p.). Saxifragaceae (i). i N. Am. 

Elmeria Ridl. (Hornstedtia Retz.). Zingiberaceae (i). 2 Phil. Is. 

ElOdea Michx. Hydrocharitaceae. 6 Am. ; E. canadensis Michx. 
(American water- weed) arrived in Brit, about 1842 and rapidly spread 
over the inland waters of Eur. Only the ? plant is known in Eur., 
and the spreading is therefore due to veg. repr. chiefly by the breaking 
off of twigs. Submerged pi., slightly rooted, with whorls of 1., in 
whose axils are the usual squamulae. i fl. P 6, A 9; it breaks off 
as a bud and comes to the surface (cf. Vallisneria), where it opens. 
The ovary of the ? fl. grows to such a length_as to bring the fl. to the 
surface, where it is pollinated. P 6, stds. 3, G (3) ; enclosed below in 

2 40 E LODE A 

a 2-leaved spathe. The pi. does not form a true winter bud; the 1. 

are merely a little more closely grouped together. 
Elongate, drawn out. 

Elsholtzia Willd. Labiatae (vi). 20 As., Eur., Abyss. 
Elutheria M. Roem. Meliaceae (n). 2 Peru to Venezuela. 
Elvasia DC. Ochnaceae. 5 N. Brazil, Guiana. 
Elvira Cass. Compositae (5). 3 trop. Am. 
Elymus L. Gramineae (12). 50 N. temp. S. Am. E. arenarius L. 

(lyme grass) on dunes in Brit. (cf. Ammophila); its 1. are coated with 


Elyna Schrad. (Kobresia Willd. p.p.). Cyper. (in). 5 N. palaeotemp. 
Elynanthus Beauv. Cyperaceae (n). 30 %. 
Elynanthus Nees = Tetraria P. Beauv. (Cyper.). 

Elytranthe Blume (Loranthus p.p. BH.}. Loranth. (i). 50 Indomal. 
Elytraria Michx. (Tubiflora (imel.). Acanth. (i). 5 trop., subtrop. 
Elytropappus Cass. Compositae (4). 6 S. Afr. E. Rhinocerotis L. is 

a char. pi. of the karroo. 

Elytrophorus Beauv. Gramineae (10). 2 palaeotrop. 
Elytropus Muell -Arg. Apocynaceae (n. i). i Chili. Many bracts. 
Emarginate, notched. 

Embelia Burm. f. Myrsinaceae (il). 95 trop. and subtrop., exc. Am. 
Emblic myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica L. 
Emblingia F. Muell. Capparidaceae (iv). i W. Austr. 
Embolanthera Merrill. Hamamelidaceae. i Phil. Is. 
Embothrium Foist. Proteaceae (n). 5 Andes, Chili, E. Austr. 
Embryo, the young pi contained in the seed; adventitious-, Alchornea, 

Funkia, Nothoscordntu. 

Embryopteris Gaertn. = Diospyros L. (Eben.). 
Emeorhlza 1'ohl. Rubiaceae (n. 10). 2 S. Am. 
Emergences, surface outgrowths arising from other tissues as well as 

epidermis, Cactaceae, Diosera, A'osa, /fides. 
Emerus Tourn. ex Mill. = Corqnilla L. (Legum.). 
Emex Neck. Polygonaceae (i. 2). i Medit., S. Afr., Austr. The fr. 

is surrounded by the P, 3 of whose 1. are spiny. 

Emicocarpus K. Schum. et Schlechter. Asclep. (n. i). i S.E. Afr. 
Emilia Cass. (Settee io Tourn. p.p. EP.}. Compositae (8). 5 palaeo- 
Emiliomarcelia Th. et H. Durand (Trichoscypha p.p.). Anacardiaceae 

(3). 4 Congo. 
Eminia Taub. (Rhynckosia p.p. ttH.}. Leguminosae (in. 10). 2 E. 

trop. Afr. 

Eminium Schott. Araceae (vn). 5 W. As. 
Emmenanthe Benth. Hydrophyllaceae. 6 N.W. N. Am. 
Emmenopteryx Oliv. Rubiaceae (i. 5). i China. 
Emmenosperma F. Muell. Rhamnaceae. 2 Austr. 
Emmeorrhiza Pohl. Rubiaceae (n. 10). 2 trop. S. Am. 
Einmer, Triticnm dicoccum Schrank. 
Emmotum Desv. Icacinaceae. 5 Brazil. 
Emorya Torr. Loganiaceae. i Texas. 

Empedoclea A. St. Hil. ( Tetracera p.p. EP.}. Dilleniaceae. i Brazil. 
Empetraceae (EP., fiff.). Dicots. (Archichl- Sapindales; anomalous 

ENDO- 241 

Monochlamydeae Bff.). 3 gen., 4 sp., *. and Andes, occupying 
similar positions to Ericaceae; heath-like habit. The 1. are incurved 
backwards, forming a cavity on the under side partly filled up by hairs 
into which the stomata open. Infl. racemose, usu. dioec. In all but 
Corema the fls. are on 'short shoots' which arise lat. from the main 
axis and bear only scales below the infl. K 3, C 3, A 3, G (2 9). 
Loculi = cpls. ; ovules i in each, anatr. or nearly campylotr., erect on 
axile plac., with ventral raphe. Drupe with 2 9 stones; seed 
albuminous with no caruncle. Genera: Corema, Empetrum, Ceratiola. 

Empetrum (Tourn.) L. Empetraceae. i, E. nignun L. (crow-berry), 
on moors, N. temp. (incl. Brit.) and Andes. For habit, fl., &c. see 
fam. The flr. is dioec. and anemoph., but is sometimes $ and 

Emplectanthus N.E. Br. Asclepiadaceae (u: 3). 2 S. Afr. 

Emplectocladus To IT. (Primus p.p. EP.}. Rosaceae (v). r N.W. Am. 

Empleuridium Sond. et Harv. Rutaceae (i). i S. Afr. 

Empleurum Ait. Rutaceae (i). i S. Afr. L. officinal (buchu). 

Empogona Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 E. trop. and S. Afr. 

Enallagma Baill. Bignoniaceae (4). 4 C. Am., W.I. 

Enalus L. C. Rich. Hydrochar. i Indian and Pac. Oceans. See 

Enantia Oliv. Anonaceae (4). 3 W. Afr. 

Enantioblastae (Warming). The 4th cohort of Monocotyledons. 

Enantiophylla Coulter et Rose. Umbelliferae (in. 6). i Guatemala. 

Enantiostyly, Cassia (q-v.), Khugia, Leguminosae, Marantaceae, 
Saint f'aulia. 

Enargea Banks (Luzuriaga Ruiz et Pav.). Lili. (x). 3 S. Am., N.Z. 

Enarthrocarpus Labill. Cruciferae (2). 7 E. Medit., N. Afr. 

Encelia Adans. Compositae (5). 40 W. U.S. to Chili. 

Enceliopsis A. Nelson (Encelia p.p.). Compositae (5). 5 N. Am. 

Encephalartos Lehm. Cycadaceae. 5 Afr. The Kaffirs prepare a 
meal from the pith (cf. Cycas). 

Encephalosphaera Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Colombia. 

Enchanter's Nightshade, Circaea. 

Encholirium Mart. (Dyckia BH.). Bromeliaceae (2). 6 Brazil. 

Enchosanthera King et Stapf (Anplectrum p.p.). Melastomaceae (i). 
i Indo-China. 

Enchylaena R. Br. Chenopodiaceae (A), i Austr. 

Enchysia Presl = Laurentia Neck. (Campan.). 

Enckea Kunth= Piper L. p.p. (Piper.). 

Encopa Griseb. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i Cuba. 

Encyclia Hook. = Epidendrum L. (Orchid.). 

Endacanthus Baill. Icacinaceae. i Madagascar. 

Endemic, confined to a small section of country, island, &c. 

Endiandra R. Br Lauraceae (n). 20 Indomal., Austr., Polynesia. 

Endive, Cichoriitm Endivia L. 

Endlicheria Nees (Ayendron BH. Aniba EP.}. Laur. (n). 3 trop. Am. 

Endo- (Gr. pref. ), within; -carp, the innermost layer of fr. in a drupe, 
&c.; -chylous, with internal water-storing tissue; -gamy, fusion of 
? gametes; -genous, arising from internal tissues; -gens, Mono- 
cotyledons; -parasite, pi. living within the tissues of the host; 

w. 16 

2 4 2 ENDO- 

-phytic, living within another; -pleura, inner seed coat, Cycadaceae; 
-rhizal, monocotyledonous; -sperm, the nutrient tissue outside 
1-mbryo in sred, fleshy in Berbens, &c., bony in Phoenix, Phytelephas, 
horny in Coffea, &c., mealy in Frankeniaceae, ruminate in Anonaceae, 
and cf. Gymnospermae; -tropic, with hyphae entering the cells. 

Endoceilion Turcz. ex Herd. Compositae (inc. sed.). i Russia. 

Endodesmia Benth. Guttiferae (in), i W. trop. Afr. 

En.dolitn.odes Bartl. = Synisoocn Baill. (Rubiaceae). 

Endomallus Gagnep. Leguminosae (in. 10). i Cochin-China. 

Endonema A. Juss. Penaeaceae. 2 S. Afr. 

Endopogon Nees = Strobilanthes Blume p.p. (Acanth.). 

Endopogon Rafin. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). i N. Am. 

Endorima Rafin. (Baldnina Nutt.). Cbmpositae (5). 3 N. Am. 

Endosiphon T. Anders, ex Benth. et Hook. f. Acanth. (iv A), i trop. 

Endospermum Benth. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 6). 5 Malaya, China. 

Endosteira Turcz. Tiliaceae. i St Vincent. 

Endostemon N.E. Br. (Ocimuni p.p. ). Labiatae (vn). i S. and trop. 

Endressia J. Gay (Ligusticum p.p. BH.}. Umbellif. (ill. 5). i Pyrenees. 

Endusa Miers. Olacaceae. T. Peru. 

Enetophyton Nieuwland (Utricularia p.p.). Lentibular. i U.S. 

Engelhardtia Leschen. Juglandaceae. 10 Indomal., China. 

Engelmannia Torr. et Gray. Compositae (5). i S.W. U.S., Mex. 

Englerastrum Briquet. Labiatae (vn). 2 trop. Afr. 

Englerella Pierre. Sapotaceae (inc. sed.). i French Guiana. 

Engleria O. Hoffm. Compositae (3). 2 W. trop. Afr. 

Englerocharis Muschler. Cruciferae (4). 2 Peru. 

Englerodaphne Gilg. Thymelaeaceae. i E. Afr. 

Englerodendron Harms. Leguminosae (n. 3). i E. trop. Afr. 

Englerodoxa Horold. Ericaceae (in. 2). i Ecuador. 

Englerophytum Krause. .^apotaceae (i). r Cameroons. 

Englypha Chod. et Hassler. Aristolochiaceae. i Paraguay. 

Engrain, record produced on the organism. New Phyt. v. 200. 

Enhalus Rich. Hydr charitace^e. i In'omal., in salt water. The 
? fls float horiz. at low water, and ca'ch the $ Us. which (cf. Vallis- 
neria) break off and float. As the tide rises, the ? fls. stand vertically, 
and the pollen, heavier than water, sinks down upon the stigmas. 
The testa bursts when the seed is ripe, and the embryo is freed. 

Enhydra {Enydraj Lour. Compositae (5). 9 trop. and subtrop. 

Enhydrias Ridl. Hydrocharitaceae. i Malaya. 

Enicosanthum Becc. Anonaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Enicostema Blume. Gentianaceae (i). i trop. Xero. and coast. 

Enkianthus (Enkyanthus) Lour. Ericaceae (n. i). 10 Himal. to 

Enkleia Griff. (Linostoma Wall.). Thymel. i Further India. 

Ennealophus N.E. Br. Iridaceae (n). i Amazon valley. 

Enneapogon Desv. ex Beauv.= Pappophorum Schreb. p.p. (Gram.). 

Enomegra Aven Nelson (Argemone p.p.). Papav. (n). 2 Rockies. 

Ensate, ensiform, sword -shaped. 

Enslenia Nutt. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 3 N. U.S. to Colombia. 



Entada Adans. (Pitsaetha L.). Leguminosae (l. 5). 12 trop. The seeds 
of E. scandens Benth. (nicker beans), a common trop. climber, are 
carried to Eur. by the Gulf Stream. 

Entandropliragma C. DC. Meliaceae (n). 6 Angola. 

Entelia R. Br. Tiliaceae. i N. Z. Wood very light. 

Enterolobium Mart. Leguminosae (i. i). 5 trop. Am., W.I. 

Enteropogon Nees. Gramineae (ti). 4 trop. Afr. and As." 

Enterosora Baker. Folypodiaceae. i Centr. Am., Jamaica. 

Enterospermum Hiern. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i E. Afr. coast. 

Enthomanthus Mo9- et Sesse ex Ramirez. Caprifol. 2 Mexico. 

Entire, without marginal notches. 

EntomopMly (fl.), insect-pollination; Mtiller has divided fl. into 8 fl.- 
classes (q.v.) according to their degrees of specialisation in regard to 
the visits of insects. 

Entoplocamia Stapf. Gramineae (n). 28. and trop. Afr. 

Entrecasteauxia Montr. Inc. sed. i New Caledonia. 

Enydra (Enhydrd) Lour. Compositae (5). 9 trop. and subtrop. 

Enzyme, an unorganised or soluble ferment. 

Eomecon Hance. Papaveraceae (n). 2 China. 

Epacridaceae (EP.\ Epacrideae BH.}. Dicotyledons (Sympet. Eri- 
ca\esEP.,BH.}. 21 gen., 350 sp., chiefly Austr. and Tasm., where 
they repres. the Ericaceae of other continents, but extending also to 
India, N.Z., Hawaii, and S. Am. They resemble Ericaceae ( iv) 
closely in habit and appearance, being mostly small shrubs (a few small 
trees), the stems growing obliquely, sparingly branched, with narrow, 
entire, rigid 1., usu. alt. , rarely opp. or whorled. Sometimes the 1. are 
sheathing, in which cases either no scar is left on the stem when the 
1. falls, or a ring mark is left, as in Dracophyllum. 

Fls. usu. in term, racemes or spikes. , actinom. K 5, C (5), 
A 5, hypog. at edge of disc, or more often epipet. ; the anthers 
opening by one central longitudinal slit and without horns or other 
appendages; pollen simple or in tetrads; G (5) cpls. opp. petals, 
plac. axile; ov. in each loc. i x , anatr., usu. pend.; style simple, 
sometimes in depression of top of ovary, with a capitate stigma. 
Capsule or stony drupe. Embryo straight, in copious endosp. 
Classification and chief genera (after Drude) : 
Each loc. with several seeds ; caps, loculic. 

1. Prionoteae (sta. hypog., free; anther-loc. divided): Prio- 

notes, Lebetanthus (only gen.). 

2. Epacrideae (sta. usu. epipet.; anther-loc. without separation 

after dehiscence): Sprengelia, Richea, Dracophyllum, 
Sphenotoma, Epacris. 
Each loc. with i seed: fr. indehiscent. 

3. Styphelieae: Styphelia, Acrotriche, Pentachondra. 
Epacrideae (BH.} Epacridaceae. 

Epacris Forst. Epacridaceae (2). 40 S.E. Austr., Tasm.. N.Z., New 

Caled. Cult. orn. fls. 
Epactium Willd. Inc. sed. i Peru. 
Epallage DC. Compositae (,s). 5 Madagascar. 
Epaltes Cass. Compositae (4). 12 trop. 
Epatitis Rafin. Compositae (inc. sed.). i Oregon. 

16 2 


Eperua Aubl. Leguminosae (n. 3). 6 N. Braz., Guiana. E.purpurea 
Benth., a showy tree of the caatingas. E. fakata Aubl. (wallaba, 
Br. Guiana) yields a good timber. 

Ephebepogon Nees et Meyen (Pollinia p.p. EP.). Gram. (2). i China. 
Ephedra Tourn. ex L. Gnetaceae. 25 warm temp. Shrubs, much 
branched, with opp. connate 1. reduced to scales, so that the stem 
performs the work of assim. Fls. diclinous, with no trace of cpls. in 
<? , or of sta. in ? ; cf in spikes, ? in pairs or solitary, usu. bracteate. 
The <J has a P of 2 antero-post. united 1., beyond which the axis is 
prolonged and bears 2 8 sessile 2-loc. anthers. The ? has a tubular P 
and one erect orthotr. ovule with a long micropyle projecting at the top 
of the fl.; the fl. or fls. are enclosed by bracts which become red and 
fleshy after fert. and enclose the fr. The seed is enclosed in the P, 
which becomes woody, and the fleshy bracts cover this again. There 
are two cots, in the embryo ; seed album. 
Ephedranthus Sp. Moore (Guatteria EP.). Anonaceae (i). i Brazil. 

Ephemeral, lasting a day; fruiting two or three times a season. 

Ephippiandra Decne. Monimiaceae. i Madagascar. 
Ephippianthus Rchb. f. (Liparis p.p. BH.). Orchid, (n. 4). i 

Epi- (Gr. pref.), upon; -basal, in front of basal wall; -calyx, an extra 
calyx of apparent stip. nature, Bombacaceae, Dipsacaceae, Fragaria, 
Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Potentilla, Rhodotypos, Rosaceae; -carp, the 
outer layer of a fleshy fr. ; -Chil, end of labellutn of orchid, when 
distinct from base; -cotyl, stem of seedling above cotyledons; -dermis, 
outer skin of plant; -geal (germination), with cotyledons above 
ground ; -gyny (-gynous), fl. when ovary is immersed in hollow 
receptacle, and other organs are epigynous, Begoniaceae, Co/npositae, 
Iridaceae, Rubiaceae, Umbelliferae, &c. ; -petalous (sta.), inserted 
upon petal, Labiataf, &c. ; -phyllous (infl.), Chailletia, Chirita,, 
Erythrochiton; (sta.), inserted upon perianth, Proteaceae, &c. ; -phy- 
sis, a protuberance round the hilum of a seed; -phytes, see separate 
article below; -sepalous, inserted upon a sepal; -sperm, outer coat 
of seed ; -spore, Marsiliaceae, Salviniaceae; -tropous (ovule), with 
raphe towards axis. 

Epiblastus Schlechter (Dendrobiitm p.p.). Orchid, (n. is)- 2 Austr., 

Epiblema R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). S.W. Austr. 

Epicampes J. et C. Presl. Gramineae (8). 15 Calif, to Argentina. 

Epicattleya x Rolfe. Orchid. Hybrid Epidendrum Cattleya. 

Epicbaris Blume (Dysoxyhim p.p. EP.). Meliaceae (in). 4 E. As. 

Epicladium Small (Epidendrum p.p.). Orchid, (n. 6). i Florida. 

Epiclastopelma Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i E. Afr. Blume (Bulbophylium p.p. BH.). Orchid, (n. 16). 
2 Malaya. 

Epidendrum L. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 4ootrop. Am. Labellum often 
united to column; a canal runs from the junction down into the 
ovary. Cult. orn. fl. 

Epidiacrum x Rolfe. Orchid. Hybrid of last with Diacrium. 

Epifagus Nutt. (Epiphegus EP.). Orobanchaceae. i N. Am. 

Epigaea L. Ericaceae (n). 2 sp., E. asiafica Maxim. Japan, E. 


repens L., the (trailing arbutus, mayflower) atl. U.S. Fls. tetra- 
morphic (Darwin, Forms of Firs. p. 297). 

Epigynae (BH.}. The 2nd series of Monocotyledons. 

Epigynium Klotzsch = Vaccinium L. p.p. (Eric.). 

Epigynum Wight. Apocynaceae (u. i). 8 Indomal. 

Epilaelia x Rolfe. Orchid. Hybrid Epidendrum Laelia. 

Epilasia Benth. et Hook. f. (Scorzonera p.p. RH.). Compositae (13). 
5 Centr. and W. As. 

Epilobiaceae, Onagraceae. 

Epilobiurn Dill, ex L. Onagraceae (2). 160 temp, and arctic; 9 in 
Brit, (willow-herbs). Fl. reg. , but in some slightly ) by the bending 
of sta. and style, which project and make a landing-place for insects. 
Of Brit. sp. several may be noticed, as the fls. form a series in regard 
to cross- pollination, &c. In R. angustifoliitin L. the fls. are large 
and autogamy almost impossible. Honey is secreted by the upper 
surface of the ovary. The sta. are ripe when the fl. opens, and 
project horiz., while the style, with its stigmas closed, is bent down- 
wards. Afterwards the sta. bend down and the style up, and the 
stigmas open. This is the plant in which C. K. Sprengel (1793, 
see biography in Nat. Science, 1893) made the first discovery of 
dichogamy. In E. hirsutum L. sta. and stigma are ripe together, 
but the stigma projects beyond the sta.; if not pollinated it bends 
back and touches the anthers. E. parvifloruni Schreb. is a small- 
flowered homogamous sp. rarely visited by insects ; 4 sta. are shorter, 
4 longer, than the style; the former are useful for cross-pollination, 
the latter for self. The seed has a tuft of hairs aiding wind- 

Epiluma Baill. (Chrysophyllum p.p.)- Sapotaceae (i). i New Caled. 

Epimatium, ovuliferous scale (Coniferae). 

Epimedium (Tourn.) L. (incl. Vancouveria C. Morr. et Dene.). Ber- 
beridaceae. 10 N. temp. E. alpinum L. nat. in BrU. It has, like 
most E., a 2-merous fl., which is pend., with glandular hairs on the 
stalk. It is protog. , and after a time the valves of the anthers bend 
upwards and roof over the stigma and the cT stage begins. Finally 
self-pollination occurs by the elongation of the style carrying the 
stigma among the valves. The nectaries are of a curious shoe-like 
pattern. The seeds have a membranous aril. 

Epinetrum Hiern. Menispermaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Epipactis Adans. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 10 N. temp.; 2 Brit., E. latifolia 
All., and E. palustris Crantz (helleborine). There are two stds. at the 
sides of the column; the anther is acrotonic. The labellum has a hinged 
term, portion, which by its rebound causes the insect to fly somewhat 
upwards in leaving the flr. In so doing it rubs the rostellum, which 
instantly becomes very viscid and cements the pollinia (which have 
no true caudicles) to the insect. The chief visitors are wasps. See 
Darwin's Orchids, p. 93. 

Epipetrum Phil. (Dioscorea p.p. BH.}. Dioscoreaceae. 3 Chili. 

Epiphegus Sprang. Orobanchaceae. i N. Am. 

Epiphora Lindl. (Polystachya BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 5). i S. Afr. 

Epiphronitis x Veitch. Orchid. Hybrid, Epidendrum Sophronitis. 

EpiphyUantLus Berger (Cercus p.p.). Cact. (in. i). i Brazil. 


Epiphyllum Haw. Cactaceae (in. i). i Brazil, often cult. 
Epiphyte, a plant which clings to another for support, but is not para- 
sitic, and is not usu. attached to the soil. Abundant in the wetter 
trop., esp. S. Am. The group is made up of pi. which possess in 
common 3 general adaptations: (i) a good seed-dispersal mechanism 
for wind or birds, (2) a capacity to attach themselves at once to the 
support on germination, usu. by clasping roots, and (3) fairly well- 
marked xero. chars, to enable them to stand the droughts to which 
their situation renders them esp. liable; Aesckynanthus, Araceae, 
Bromeliaceae, Bulbopkyllum, Clitsia, Columned, Di>chidia, Filices, 
e.g. Asplenium, Platycerium, Polypodium, &c., Ficus, Hydnophytitm, 
Marcgravia, Myrmecodia, Oncidin//i, Orchidaceae, Phalaenopsis, 
Phyllocaclus, Piper, Rhipsalis, Rhododendron, Scitticaria, Tillandsia, 
Vanilla, &c. See Schimper, Die epiph. Vegetation Amerikas, Jena, 
1888, and Plant Geography; Goebel, Pfianzenbiol. Schilderungen. 
Epipogum S. G. Gmel. Orchidaceae (11." 2). i Eur. (incl. Brit.), As., 
E. aphvllnin Sw. a leafless saprophyte with branched rhiz. and no r. ; 
endotropic mycorhiza. Fl. as in Epipactis, but without twisting of 
the recept. 

Epipremnopsis Engl. Araceae (i). i Indomal. 
Epipremnum Schott. Araceae (n). 15 Indomal. 
Epiprinus Griff. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). i Further India. 
EpirrMzantlies Blume = Salomonia Lour. p.p. (Polygal.). 
Episcia Mart. Gesneriaceae (i). 30 trop. Am., W.I. 
EpistepMum Kunth. Orchidaceae (n. ). 7 trop. S. Am. 
Epistylium Sw. = Phyllanthus L. p.p. (Euph.). 
Epitaberna K. Schum. Rubiaceae (i. 8). Cameroons. 
Epithema Blume. Gesneriaceae (i). to Indomal., trop. Afr. 
Epithymum Lunell (Citscuta p.p.). Convolv. (n). 5 W. U.S. 
Epitrachys C. Koch = Cnicus L. (5A r .) = Cirsium Tourn. (Comp.). 
Equisetaceae. Pteridophyta (Equisetineae). An order with one sur- 
viving genus (Equisetum q.v.}, formerly well repres. Many large fossils. 
Equisetales (Eqnisdineae}. A main division of Pteridophyta (e/.v.), 

containing the single living fain. Equisetaceae. 

Equisetum L. Equisetaceae (only genus). 25 cosmop. ; 9 in Brit. 
(horsetails), chiefly in swampy places. Perenn. herbs with symppdial 
rhiz. which send up aerial shoots each year, of one or two kinds; 
in some sp. the ordinary green shoot bears the repr. spike at the end, 
while in the others there is a special rt-pr. shoot, usu. appearing early 
in the year, and often without chlorophyll, the ordinary shoots per- 
forming assim. work only. The stem is very distinctly jointed, and 
at the nodes are borne whorls of united 1. closely pressed against the 
stem, and of little or no use in assim. The branches emerge through 
the leaf-sheath and thus appear at first sight endogenous; in reality 
they are exogenous, but formed so much later than the 1. that their 
points of origin are already covered by the leaf-sheath, and so they 
are compelled to burrow through it. Stages in this process may easily 
be observed. The surface of the stem is grooved ; the ridges are 
occupied by mechanical tissue, whilst the green tissue and stomata 
are at the base of the furrows. This is a marked xero. structure and 
is repeated very closely in Casuarina. In several sp. the internodes 


of the rhiz. are swollen into tubers, which serve for hibernation and 
veg. repr. 

The spike is very like the 3 fl. of a Conifer, and has as much right 
to the title of flower. It is an axis with short internodes, bearing 
a dense mass of sporophylls. Each is shield-shaped and bears a 
number of sporangia upon the under side of the head (i.e. towards 
the stem), arranged like the horses of a 'merry -go-round.' The 
spores are of one kind only; each has, running round it, two spiral 
cuticularised bands of membrane, formed from the outer wall and 
termed elaters. These are hygroscopic, unfolding in damp air. In 
the rolling up again on drying, the elaters of one spore become 
entangled with those of others and cause them to adhere together, 
so that several prothalli may be formed near to one another when 
they germinate. This is advantageous, for the prothalli are dioec., 
though so far as we can tell the spores are all alike. The prothallus 
is fairly large, the 3 being smaller than the ? . 

The stems of E. hyemale L. (Dutch rushes) are used for polishing, 
the mechanical tissues contain much silica, as do those of most. 

Equitant (vernation), cf. Vernation. 

Eragrostis Host. Gramineae (10). 150 cosmop., mostly subtrop. 

Eranthemum L. (excl. Psenderanthemum Radlkt.). Acanthaceae 
(iv. A). 25 trop. As. 

Eranthis Salisb. Ranunculaceae (2). 7 N. palaeotemp. E. hyemalis 
Salisb. (winter aconite, nat. in Brit.) has a thick rhizome or row of 
tubers, one formed each year. The sol. term. fls. appear in February, 
before thel.; each has an invol. of three green 1., a 'calyx' of 6 seg- 
ments, and several honey-1. or petals. 

Brasilia R. Bruniaceae. Nomen. 

Ercilla A. Juss. Fhytolaccaceae. 2 Chili, Peru. E. voiubilis A. 
luss., climbs by adhesive discs, endogenous just above the axils. 

Erechtites Rafin. Compositae (8). 15 Am., Austr., N.Z. 

Erect (ovule), erect with stalk at base (fl. held erect). 

Eremaea Lindl. Myrtaceae (n. 2). 6 W. Austr. 

Eremaeopsis O. Ktze. = Eremaea Lindl. (Myrt). 

Eremalche Greene (Malvastrum p.p.). Malvaceae (2). 3 W. U.S. 

Eremantbus Less. Compositae (i). 20 Brazil. 

Eremia D. Don. Ericaceae (iv. 2). 30 S. Afr. 

Eremiastrum A. Gray. Compositae (3). 2 Calif., Arizona. 

Eremiopsis N.E. Br. Ericaceae (iv. 2). i S. Afr. 

Eremium (Cl.), a desert formation. 

Eremobium Boiss. (Alalcolmia BH.). Cruciferae (4). 3 N. Afr. 

Eremocarpus Benth. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. i). 2 Pac. N. Am. 

Eremocarya Greene. Boraginaceae (iv. 2). 3 Pac. N. Am. 

Eremocrilaena Baill. Chlaenaceae. i S. Madagascar. 

Eremochloa Buese. Gramineae (2). 6 SE. As. 

Eremochloe S. Wats. Gramineae (ro). 2 W. N.Am. 

Eremocitrus Swingle ( I'ripkasia p.p.) Rutaceae (v). i N. Austr. 

Eremocrinum M. S. Jones. Liliaceae (in), i California. 

Erernogxtfie Fenzl. = Arenaria L. p.p. (Carophyll.). 

Eremolaena Baill., cf. Eremochlaena. 

Eremolepis Griseb. Lonmthaceae (n). 5 trop. A., W.I. 


Eremolithia Jepson. Caryophyllaceae (i. 6). i California. 
Eremoluma Baill. (Lucuma p.p. EP.}. Sapotaceae (i. 6). i Guiana. 
Eremomastax Lindau (PaitloivillidmiaBH.}. Acanth. (iv. A), i W. Afr. 
Eremopanax Baill. Araliaceae (i). 3 New Caledonia. 
EremopMla K. Br. (Pholidia EP.}. Myoporaceae. 30 Austr. 
Eremophyton Beguinot. Cruciferae (2). i N. Afr. 
Eremosis Gleason ( Vernonia p.p.). Compositae (i). 15 Mex., C. Am. 
Eremosparton Fisch. et Mey. Leguminosae (ill. 6). i W. and C. As. 
Eremospatha G. Mann et H. Wendl. Palmaceae (ill. 2). 5 trop. Afr. 
Eremostachys Bunge. Lahiatae (vi). 40 mid. and W. As. 
Eremosyne Endl. Saxifragaceae (i). i S.W. Austr. 
Eremothamnus O. Hoffm. Compositae (8). i S. Afr. 
Eremurus Bieh. Liliaceae (ill). 20 alpine W. and Cent. As. Fl. 

protog. ; the petals crumple up before the essential organs are ripe. 

The 1. of E. aitrantiactis Baker are eaten in Afghanistan. 
Eria Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 15). 240 trop. As. Epiphytes; cult. 
Eriachaenium Sch.-Bip. Compositae (9). i Tierra del Fuego. 
Eriachne R. Br. Gramineae (y). 25 trop. As., Austr. 
Eriadenia Miers. Apocynaceae (n. i). i trop. S. Am. 
Eriander H. Winkler. Rutaceae (iv). i trop. Afr. 
Eriandrostachys Baill. Sapindaceae (i). i Madagascar. 
Eriantlius Michx. Gramineae (2). 25 trop. E. Ravennae Beauv. orn. 
Eriastrum Wooton et Standley (Giiia p.p.)- Polemon. 2 New Mexico. 
Eriaxis Rchh. f. (Galeola BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i New Caledonia. 
Eribroma Pierre (Slerculia p.p. EP.}. Sterculiaceae. i trop. Afr. 
Erica (Tourn.) L. Ericaceae (iv). 500 Eur. (esp. Medit.) and S. Afr. 

(see fam.). 5 in Brit.; the two common heaths, E. cinerea L. and 

E. Tetralix L., cover great areas of moor. In habit like Calluna. 

Fl. bell-shaped and pendulous, visited and fert. mainly by bees. 

Honey is secreted by the disc, and insects hanging on to the fl. and 

probing for it must shake the sta. and receive a shower of the loose 

powdery pollen from the pores in the tips of the anthers. In the 

wider mouthed sp. the anthers have horn-like projections at the hack, 

which ensure contact with the insect's proboscis. The stigma pro- 
jects beyond the sta. so as to be touched first. 

Many S. Afr. sp. cult. E. scoparia L. is the heath of S. France, 

&c. (bruyere), several feet high; its rootstocks furnish 'briar' wood 

pipes. The roots of heaths possess endotropic mycorhiza. 
Ericaceae ( EP., BH. excl. Vacciniaceae, incl. Pyrolaceae p.p., CUthraceae. 

Dicots. (Sympet. Ericales EP., BH.}. 

50 gen., 1 350 sp. Owing to their numbers 

and their social habit they form very 

char, parts of the veg. in many portions 

of the globe. Cosmop. except in deserts 

and in hot damp trop. regions. The 

Ericoideae are confined to Africa, Medit. 

and Europe, the two great masses of 

them being however separated by the 

Sahara, though sp. of Erica, &c. occur 

in each (see Drude in Nat. Pfl. or 

Pflanzengeog. for full discussion of the 


interesting distr. of E. See also gen., esp. Rhododendron, Vaccinium, 
Calluna, Erica). 

The distr. of E. on arctic moors and swamps and on dry moors 
in warmer regions (almost all grow in peaty soil) would lead us to 
expect, and we find, esp. in Ericoideae, xero. char. Woody plants 
from small undershrubs to large shrubs or even trees. Two types 
of habit that of Ericoideae and that of the remaining tribes. In 
the latter there are usu. true winter-buds formed (e.g. Rhododendron), 
even though the 1. may last over the winter. The bud is covered with 
scale-]., and when its elongation occurs these drop off and a gap is 
left on the stem; the foliage 1. tend to form rosettes at the ends of 
the twigs. The 1. are generally elliptical, entire or nearly so, and 
leathery, frequently hairy. The upper epidermis is stoutly cuticu- 
larised, and there is often water storage tissue between it and the 
green tissue. In the Ericoideae there are no true winter-buds or 
scale-1. ; the plants are evergr., and the whorled 1. needle-like, often 
through being rolled back on themselves to form a groove or even a 
chamber on the under side (cf. Empetrum). 

The inrl. commonly terminates a strongly growing shoot, and 
a sympodial growth tends to be formed. The fls. may be sol., but 
are more often in racemose groupings, each with a bract and two 
bracteoles, g , actinom. or slightly zygom. K 4 5 ; C (4 5) or 
4 5 (Ledeae}, usu. bell-shaped; A 8 10, obdipl., hypog. or rarely 
slightly epipet.; anthers intr., often with projecting appendages, the 
thecae often spreading at top, and opening by apical pores; pollen 
grains in tetrads. Below the gynoeceum is a fleshy disc secreting 
honey; G (4 5) sup. or inf., 4 5-loc., with axile plac. ; ov. in each 
loc. I oo, anatr. ; style simple with capitate stigma. Capsule, 
drupe or berry. Embryo cylindrical, in copious endosp. 

The fls. of the Brit. sp. are mostly bee-rls. with 'loose-pollen' 
mechanism. The hanging position and the size are suited to bees. 
The stigma projects so as to be first touched, and in probing for the 
honey at the base of the fl the bee touches the sta. or their projecting 
horns, and by thus shaking them causes a shower of pollen to fall 
from the tips of the anthers. Calluna is partly anemoph. ; Kalmia 
has a curious explosive mechanism (see C., K., and Erica, &c.). 

[BH. chars. Shrubs and trees, 1. alt., opp., or whorled, exstip , 
usu. persistent. Infl. various. Fls. reg. $ . K (4 5) or 4 5; C usu. 
(45), A usu. 8 10, sometimes adnate to base of C., usu. dehisc. 
by pores; disc various or o ; G (i 12), multi-loc., with style and 
peltate, capitate or lobed stigma; ov. usu. oo in each loc., anatr., on 
axile plac. Caps., rarely drupe or berry, with small seeds. Endosp.] 
Classification and chief genera (after Drude). 

I. RHODODENDROIDEAE (septicidal caps.; seed with 
ribbed loose coat, often winged; C falling after flowering ; sta. 
with upright or long adnate anthers, with no appendages): 
i. Ledeae (polypet. ) : Leclum. 
i. Rhododendreae (zygomorphic) : Rhododendron, Menzie- 


3. Phyllodoceae (actinomorphic) : Loiseleuria, Kalmia, Phyl- 
lodoce, Daboecia. 


II. ARBUTOIDEAE (berry or loculic. caps.; seed triangular 
or ovate, not winged; C falling; anthers much folded, with 
peg-like appendages, or prolonged into tubes, shedding the 
pollen upwards; ov. sup. ): 

1 . Androinedeae (dry capsule with small calyx at base) : Cas- 
siope, Andromeda, Epigaea. 

2. Gaultherieae (caps, or berry; K fleshy round caps., or 
leafy; anthers blunt at tip or with two short processes): 
Gaultheria, Pernettya. 

3. Arbuteae (K as small disc at base of berry; anthers with 
two long processes) : Arbutus, Arctostaphylos. 

III. VACCINIOIDEAE (as II., but ov. inf.): 

i. Vatcinieae (ovary sharply denned from peduncle) : Gay- 

lussacia, Vaccinium. 
i. Thibaudieae (K decurrent on ovary and going over into 

peduncle): Pentapterygium, Agapetes, Paphia, Macleania, 


IV. ERICOIDEAE(h. usu. loculic. caps , or nut ; seeds round, 
not winged ; C persistent after flowering ; anther with short 
connective, thecae spreading above, frequently appendaged): 

1. Ericeae ( > i seed in each loc.) : Calluna, Erica. 

2. Salaxideae (i seed in each loc., capsule or nut) : Eremia, 

Ericaceous, heath-like. 

Ericala Renealm. ex S. F. Gray = Gentiana Tourn. (Gent.). 

Ericales. The ist order of Sympetalae. The 4 th cohort (BH.) of 

Ericameria Nutt. (Aplopappus BH.}. Compositae (3). 12 W. U.S. 

Ericetal, growing on moors. 

Erichsema Hemsl. Leguminosae (in. 2). i Austr. 

Ericinella Klotzsch. Ericaceae (iv. i). 4 S. and W. Afr. 

Ericoid (1.), narrow, nee 'le-like, rolled back. 

Erigenia Nutt. Umbelliferae (m. 4). i E. U.S. 

Erigeron L. Compositae (3). 150 cosmop., esp. N. Am.; 2 Brit, 

Erinacea (Tourn.) Adans. Leguminosae (in. 3). i S.W. Eur. 

Erinna Phil. Liliaceae (iv). i Chili. 

Erinocarpus Nimmo ex J. Grah. Tiliaceae. i S. India. 

Erinus L. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). i Pyrenees, Alps. 

Erio- (Gr. pref.), woolly ; -phorous, very cottony, or woolly. 

Eriobotrya Lindl. Rosaceae (n). 12 subtrop. As. E. Japonica 
Lindl. has ed. fr. (loquat), largely cult, in As. 

Eriocaucanthus Chiov. Malpighiaceae (i). 3 trop. and S. Afr. 

Eriocaulaceae (EP., BH.). Monocots. (Farinosae, Glumaceae BH.). 
6 gen., 540 sp. mostly trop. and subtrop. Perenn. herbs with grass- 
like 1. Fls. in heads (involucrate), inconspic., unisexual, 2- or 3- 
mcrous, reg. or -I- . P usu. sepaloid, in 2 whorls. <f with 4 or 6 sta. 
(3 or 2 in Paepalanthus); anthers di- or mono-thecous. with sup. 
ov. of (2 3) cpls. , with one orthotr. pend. ov. in each loc. Caps. 
Endosp. Chief genera: Eriocaulon, Paepalanthus. 

Eriocauleae (BH.) = preceding. 


Eriocaulon L. Eriocaulaceae. 210 trop. and suhtrop. E. septangu- 
lar? With, in the eastern U.S. and also in the Scottish Hebrides and 
the west coast of Ireland (the only repres. of the fam. in Eur.). 

Eriocephalus L. Compositae (7). 20 S.W. Afr. (capok-bosch). 

Eriocereus Riccob. (Cereus p.p.). Cactaceae (in. i). 9 warm Am. 

Eriochilus R. Br. Orchidaceae (II. 2). 6 Austr. 

Eriocnlamys Sond. et F. Muell. Compositae (4). 2 S. Austr. 

Eriochloa H. B. et K. Gramin. (5). 5 trop., subtrop. Fodders. 

Eriochrysis Beauv. = Saccharum L. p.p. (Gramin.). 

Eriocnema Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 2 Minas Geraes. 

Eriocoelum Hook. f. Sapindaceae (i). 3 Guinea. 

Eriocoma H. B. et K. (Montanoa LI. et Lex.). Compos. (5). 20 
trop. Am. 

Eriodendron DC. (Ceil/a Medic.). Boinbacaceae. 9 trop., chiefly Am. 
E. anfractiiosnm DC. (silk-cotton, kapok) has its seeds enveloped in 
silky hairs, which are used for stuffing cushions, <&c. [See Kingsley's 
WestTvard Ho, c. xxi.] 

Eriodes Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. 9). t Khasias. 

Eriodictyon Benth. Hydrophyliaceae. 5 W. N.Am. 

Erioglossum Blume. Sapindaceae (i). 2 S.E. As. 

Eriog-onum Michx. Polygonaceae (I. i). 170 N. Am., esp. W. U.S. 
Differs from most of the fam., having no ocreae, and cymose umbels 
or heads of fls. The partial inns, (of a few or many fls. with special 
invol. of united br.) are combined into heads, &c. 

Eriogynia Hook. (Spiraea p.p .). Rosaceae (i. i). i N.W. Am. 

Eriolaena DC Sterculiaceae. 8 Indomal. 

Eriolithis Gaertn. Rosaceae (inc. sed.). i Peru. 

Erioneuron Nash ( Triodia EP. ). Gramineae (10). r N. Am. 

Erionia Nor. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Eriope Humb. et Bonpl. Labiatae (vn). 20 trop. and subtrop. S. Am. 

Eriopetalum Wight (Brachystelma BH. ). Asclepiad. (n. 3). 4 Indomal. 

Eriophorum L. Cyperaceae (i). 15 N. temp, chiefly on wet moors. 
4 in Brit, (cotton-grass, cotton-sedge). The ? fls. are massed 
together; each has a P of bristles which after fert. grow out into long 
hairs acting as a means of clistr. for the fr. The hairs are sometimes 
used in stuffing pillows, &c. 

Eriophyllum Lag. Compositae (6). 15 N.W. Am. 

Eriophyton Benth. Labiatae (vi). i Himalaya. 

Eriopsis Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 14). 4 trop. S. Am. Cult. orn. fl 

Eriosema DC. Leguminosae (ill. 10). 90 trop. and subtrop. 

Eriosolena Blume = Daphne L. p.p. (Thymel.). 

Eriospermum Jacq. Liliaceae (in). 50 S. Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 

Eriosphaera Less. Compositae (4). i S. Afr. 

Eriospora Hochst. Cyperaceae (n). 5 trop. Afr. 

Eriostemon Sm. Rutaceae (i). 16 Austr., New Caled. 

Eriosyce Phil. {Echinocactits p.p. EP.). Cactaceae (in. i). i Chili. 

Eriothrix Cass. Compositae (8). i Bourbon. 

Erioxylum Rose et Standley. Malvaceae (4). 2 W. Mexico. 

Erisma Rudge. Vochysiaceae. 7 N. Brazil, Guiana. 

Erismadelphus Mildbraed. Vochysiaceae. i Cameroons. 

Erismantrius Wall. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 6). 2 Penang, Sumatra. 


Erithalis P. Br. Rubiaceae (n. 3). 6 Florida, W. Indies. 

EritricMum Schrad. (BH. inch Cryptantha Lehm.). Boraginaceae 
(iv. 2). 50 temp. 

Erlangea Sch.-Bip. Compositae (i). 12 trop. Afr. 

Ernestia DC. Melastomaceae (i). 3 trop. S. Am. 

Ernestimeyera O. Ktze. = Alberta E. Mey (Rubiac.). 

Ernodea Sw. Rubiaceae (n. 10). 3 W.I., S.E. U.S. 

Erocallis Rydberg (Claytonia p.p.). Portulacaceae. i Rockies. 

Eroded, erose, slightly, irreg. toothed, as though gnawed. 

Erodendrum Salisb. = Protea L. (Proteac.). 

Erodiophyllum F. Muell. Compositae (3). 2 Austr. 

Erodium L'Herit. Geraniaceae. 50 temp. (2 Brit. Stork's-bill). 
Like Geranium. The awn twists into a corkscrew with free end and 
is very hygroscopic (used for weather indicators, &c.). The mericarp 
has a sharp point with backward-pointing hairs. When it falls, the 
free end of the awn often catches against surrounding objects. If 
dampness supervene, the awn untwists and lengthens, and the fr. is 
driven into the soil. When dry the awn curls up, and the process 
may be repeated (cf. Stipa). 

EropMla DC. (Draba p.p. EP.). Cruciferae (4). 4 Eur., Medit., t Brit. 

Erosion Lunell (Rragrostis p.p.). Gramineae (10). 2 W. N.Am. 

Erpetion DC. = Viola Tourn. (Viol.). 

Erubescens (Lat.), blush-red. 

Eruca Tourn. ex Adans. Cruciferae (2). 10 Medit. Oil is obtained 
from the seed of E. sativa Mill. 

Erucago Tourn. ex Adans. =Bunias L. p.p. (Crucif.). 

Erucaria Cerv. (Bouteloua EP.). Gramineae (11). 7 Mexico. 

Erucaria Gaertn. Cruciferae (2). 6 Medit. 

Erucastrum Presl (Brassica p.p. BH.}. Crucif. (2). 15 Medit., Eur. 

Erucastrum Schimp. et Spann. Cruciferae (2). 15 Medit., Mid-Eur. 

Ervatamia Stapf. (Tabernaemontana p.p.). Apocyn. (i. 3). 30 palaeo- 

Ervilia Link = Vicia Tourn. p.p. (Legum.). 

Ervum Tourn. ex L. =Vicia Tourn. p.p. For E. Lens L. see Lens. 

Erycibe Ruxb. Convolvulaceae (i). 1 1 Indomal. 

Erycina Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 19). i Mexico. 

Eryngiophyllum Greenman. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 

Erynglum (Tourn.) L. Umbelliferae (n. i). 220 trop. and temp, 
(exc. S. Afr.). 2 Brit, (eryngo or sea-holly) on coast, prickly herbs 
with thick r. and fleshy 1. coated with wax. Fls. in cymose heads, 
blue, visited by bees. Fibre (Caraguata fibre) is obtained from the 1. 
of E. pandanifolinni Cham, et Schlecht. 

Eryngo, Eryngium. 

Erysimum (Tourn.) L. Cruciferae. 80 Medit., Eur., As. (E. cheir- 
(i)ithoides L., treacle mustard, in Brit.) 

Erythaea S. Wats. Palmaceae (i. 2). 2 S. California. 

Erythraea Renealm ex Borck. Gentianaceae (i. 2). 30 temp. E. 
Centanrium Pers. (centaury), Brit. 

Erythrina L. Leguminosae (in. 10). 35 trop. and subtrop. E.crista- 
ga/li L. cult. Its bright red fls. are inverted; the wings are nearly 
aborted; the keel forms at its base a honey sac. E. indica Lam. 


largely planted as shade for coffee, &c. , and as support for pepper. 

E. caffra Thumb. (Kaffir-boom) very light timber. 
Erythro- (Gr. pref.), red. 

Erytnrocephaluin Benth. Compositae (12). 10 trop. Afr. 
Erythrochiton Nees et Mart. Rutaceae (i). 5 trop. Am. The infl. 

springs from the surface of a 1., owing to adnation. 
Erythrochlamys Guerke Labiatae (vn). i trop. Afr. 
Erythrococca Benth. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 5 trop. W. Afr. 
Erythrocoma Greene. Rosaceae (in. 2). 5 W. N. Am 
Erythrodes (Physurus Rich.). Orchid, (n. 2). 10 Polynes., Malaya. 
Erythronium L. Liliaceae (v). 7 N. temp. 
Erythropalum Blume. Olacaceae. 3 Himalaya to Malaya. 
Erythrophleum Afzel. ex R. Br. Leguminosae (n. i). 5 Afr., China, 

N. Austr. E.gitineense G. Don is the red-water tree of Sierra Leone. 

The bark is poisonous and is used by the native tribes as an ordeal. 
Erythrophysa E. Mey. Sapindaceae (n). 2 S. Afr., Madagascar. 
Erythropyxis Pierre. Scytopetalaceae. i Gaboon. 
Erythroselinum Chiov. Umbelliferae (in. 6). i Ethiopia. 
Erythrospermum Lam. Flacourtiaceae (i). 5 Madagascar to Samoa. 
Erythroxylaceae (EP. , Linaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Gera- 

niales). 2 gen., 195 sp. trop. Shrubs or trees with alt., entire, 

slip. 1. Fl. reg., usu. heterostyled ; K 5, C 5, A 5 + 5 united at 

base, G (3 or 4), usu. i-loc.; ov. i or 2, pencl. Drupe. Endosp. 

Chief genus: Erythroxylum. 
Erythroxylum P. Br. Erythroxylaceae. 190 trop. and subtrop., chiefly 

Am., incl. E. Coca Lam. (Peru; coca). Coca 1., infused like tea or 

chewed with lime, enable the user to undergo great fatigue. Cocaine, 

a local anaesthetic, is prepared from them. Many have heterostyled fls. 
Escallonia Mutis ex L. f. Saxifragaceae (v). 55 S. Am., chiefly 

Andine. Shrubs with alt., leathery, gland-dotted 1. Ov. inf., 

2 3 loc., with twice as many placentae and oo ovules. 
Escalloniaceae (Warming). Saxifragaceae, v. 
Escape, a plant escaped from cult., and maintaining itself, 
-escens (Lat. suffix), -ish, becoming. 

Eschatogramme Trevisano. Polypodiaceae. i trop. Am. 
Eschscholzia Cham. Papaveraceae (n). 120 western U.S., often cult. 

orn. fl. Recept. concave, fl. perig. In dull weather each petal rolls 

up on itself, enclosing some of the sta. The ripe fr. explodes and 

scatters the seeds ; each valve as it dries has a tendency to roll up 

spirally and thus tension is set up. 

Eschweilera Mart. (Lecythis p.p. BH.}. Lecythidaceae. 80 trop. Am. 
Eschweileria Zipp. (Schefflera, Boerlagiodendron, EP.). Araliaceae (i). 

10 Malay Archipelago. 

Escobedia Ruiz et Pav. Scrophulariaceae (ill. 2). 2 trop. Am. 
Escontria Rose (Cereus p.p.). Cactaceae (in. i). t Mexico. 
Esculentus (Lat), edible. 
Esenbeckia H. B. et K. Rutaceae (i). 15 trop. Am., W.I. The 

bark of some Braz. spp. (angostura brasiliensis, quina) is like ango- 

stura bark. 
Esmeralda Reichb. f. (Arachnanthe BH.). Orchidaceae (n. 20). 

i Sikkim. 


Esmeraldia Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. i\]. i Venezuela. 
Espadaea A. Rich. Solanaceae (4). (Verhen. BH.} i Cuba. 
Esparto, ^tipa tenacissima L., Ampelodesma, Lygtum. 
Espeletia Mutis. Compositae (5). n Andes. Char. pi. of the alpine 

region (Paramo). Aloe-like xero. with dense hairs. 
Espinal (formation), spiny woodland (S. Am.). 
Esquirolia Leveille. Oleaceae(P). i China. 
Essence of violets, Iris florentina L. 
Essential oils, cf. oils; -organs of fl., sta. and cpls. 
Esterhazya Mikan. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). 3 Brazil. 
Estival, pertaining to summer. 
Esula Rupp. = Euphorbia L. p.p. (Euph.). 

Etaballia Benth. (Inocarpus BH.}. Leguminosae (in. 8). i Guiana. 
Etaerio, aggregate (of fruit). 

Eteriscius Desv. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). i Guiana. 
Ethulia L Compositae (i). 2 palaeotrop. 
Etiolation, yellowing and attenuation for want of light. 
Etiology, the study of causes. 
Ettow (W.I.), Cordia Sebestana L. 

Eu- (Gr. pref.), true, typical; -cyclic, whorled with same number of 
organs in every whorl; -geogenous, weathering readily; -tropous 
(insects), long-tongued bees and hawk-moths. 
Euadenia Oliv. Capparidaceae (n). 2 trop. Afr. 
Eubrachion Hook. f. Loranthaceae (n). 2 S. Am. 
Eucalyptus L'Herit. Myrtaceae. 230 Austr., 2 or 3 Indomal. (blue-gum, 
iron-bark, stringy-bark, blood-wood, mallee, &c.). One of the most 
characteristic genera of the Austr. flora, easily known by the oper- 
culuin of the fl. bud. Trees and shrubby trees. Some sp. reach an 
enormous size; E. regnans F. Muell. is officially recorded as reaching 
326 ft. in height and 25 ft. 7 in. in girth at 6 ft., on Mt. Baw Baw near 
Melbourne (cf. Sequoia). The 1. at first formed are often opp. and 
dorsiv., the later ones alt. and isobil., more suited to the climate. 
The barks vary much, but being easily recognized, are a valuable 
aid in the classification. The most common is smooth bark (gum 
trees) which exfoliates in patches; other kinds are bark scaly 
all over the trunk (blood-woods, &c.) ; bark thick and fibrous, the 
fibres set longitudinally (stringy-barks), or I el ted ; bark hard and 
furrowed, often black with age (iron-barks). Infl. usu. an umbel 
which by lengthening of the axis passes to a panicle or corymb. The 
floral recept. is hollow and becomes woody in the fr. The K is 
thrown off as a lid when the fl. opens. 

On account of their rapid growth and economic value, these trees 
are now largely cult, in Algeria, &c. Many sp. yield valuable timber, 
e.g. E. rostiata Schlecht., E. marinata Sm. (jarrah), E. diversi- 
folia F. Muell. (karri), &c ; E. Globitlus Labill. (blue-gum) and 
others yield oil of eucalyptus; others yield oils, kino, &c. 
Bucephalus Nutt. (Aster p.p.). Compositae (3). 10 N. Am. 
Euceraea Mart. Flacourtiaceae (7). i Amazon valley. 
Euchaetis Bartl. et Wendl. Rutaceae (i). ,5 S. Afr. 
Eucharidium Fisch. et Mey. Onagraceae (2). 3 California. 
Eucharis I'lanch. et Linden. Amaryllidaceae (i). 6 trop. S. Am. 


The sta. spring from the margin of the corona (see fam.). Cult. 

orn. fl. 

Eucnilopsis F. Muell. Leguminosae (in. 2). i W. Austr. 
EucMlus R. Br. = Pulteneaea Sm. p.p. (Legum.). 
Euchlaena Schrad. Gramineae (i). i Mex., E. mexicana Schrad. 

(teosinte). Very like Zea in habit and infl. The ? spikelets are free 

from one another and do not form a 'cob.' It is used as a cereal in 

Cent. Am. and as a fodder in warm countries. 
Euchlora Eckl. et Zeyh. Leguminosae (in. 3). i S- Afr. 
Euchresta Bennett. Leguminosae (in. 8). 3 Himalaya to Japan. 
Euchroma Nutt. =Castilleja L. p.p. (Scroph.). 
Euclea Murr. Ebenaceae. 25 Afr. E.'Pseudebenus E. Mey (Orange R. 

ebony) and others, good wood. Fr. ed. 
Euclidiiun R. Br. Cruciferae (4). i E. Medit. 
Euclisia Greene (Streptanthns p.p.). Cruciferae (r). 15 Calif. 
Eucnide Zucc. (Mentzelia BH.}. Loasaceae. 6 Mex., S.W. U.S. 
Eucomis L'Herit. Liliaceae (v). 8 S. Afr. The dense spike of fls. 

is crowned by a tuft of bracts. 
Eucommia Oliv. Eucommiaceae. i China, E. ulmoides Oliv. Tree 

with alt. exstip. 1. and latex. Fls. naked, unisex., reg. Sta. 6 10. 

Cpls. (2), one aborting, with anatr. pend. ov. Samara. Endosp. 

Yields a medicinal bark, and rubber. 
Eucommiaceae (EP.\ Magnoliaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 

Resales). Onlygenus Eucommia, q.v. Formerly in Trochodendraceae. 
Eucorymbia Stapf. Apocynaceae (i. 3). i Borneo. 
Eucosia Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 2). Java. 
Eucrinum Nutt. ex Lindl. Liliaceae. Nomen. 
Eucrosia Ker. Amaryllidaceae (i). 3 Peru, Ecuador. 
Eucryphia Cav. Eucryphiaceae. 4 Chili, Austr., Tasm. Shrubs 

and trees with evergr. opp. slip. 1. and sol. fl. 5 , reg., hemicyclic. 

K 4, C 4, A oo , G (5 18), each with oo pend. ov. Ripe cpls. free. 

Eucryphiaceae (EP.; Rosaceae p.p., near Quillaja, BH.). Dicots. 

(Archichl. Parietales). Only genus Eucryphia, ij.v. 
Eudema Humb. et Bonpl. (Braya p.p. BH.). Cruciferae (4). 

4 Ecuador to Chili. 

Eufragia Griseb. = Bartsia L. (BH.} - Parentucellia Viv. 
Eugeissona Griff. Palmaceae (in). 2 Malacca to New Guinea. 
Eugenia Mich, ex L. (BH. incl. Jambosa DC., Myrciaria Berg., 

Syzygium Gaertn.). Myrtaceae (i). 625 trop. Many sp. have ed. 

fr., e.g. E. malaccensis L., the rose-apple or Malay apple, E. Mi- 

chelii Lam. (Brazil cherry) and others. The dried fl.-buds of E. 

caryophyllata Thunb. form the spice cloves. 
Eugeniopsis Berg. = Marlieria Cambess. p.p. (Myrt.). 
Euglypha Chod. et Hassler. Aristolochiaceae. i Paraguay. 
Euklisia Rydberg. Cruciferae (i). i S. E. U.S. 
Eulalia K.unth= Pollinia Trin. p.p. (Gram.). 
Eulenburgia Pax. Cucurbitaceae (3). i trop. Afr. 
Eulobus Nutt. Onagraceae (2). i California. 

EulopMa R. Br. (excl. Acrolophia). Orchid. (II. 10). 80 trop., S. Afr. 
Eulophidium Pfitz. Orchidaceae (ll. 18)'. i Brazil, trop. Afr., Maur. 


Eulophiella Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. 10). i Madagascar. Cult.orn.fl. 

EulopMopsis Pfitz. Orchidaceae (n. 17). 2 S. Afr., Madag., E. Ind. 

Eulophus Nutt. Umbelliferae (III. 5). =;N.Am. 

Eulychnia Phil. (Cereus p.p. EP.\ Cactaceae. 3 Chili. 

Eumorphia DC. Compositae (7). 4 S.Afr. 

Eunanus Benth. = Mimulus L. p.p. (Scroph.). 

Eunomia DC. (Aethionema p.p. BH.). Cruciferae (2). 10 Mts. of 
E. Medit. 

Euonymus L. Celastraceae. 80 N. temp., and S.E. As. E. enropaeus 
L., the spindle-tree, in Brit. Several sp. have curious outgrowths 
of cork upon their stems. The fls. are polygamous and protandrous. 
On the ripe seed is a bright red fleshy aril, serving in bird-dispersal. 
The development of the aril may easily be studied by examining 
seeds of various ages. The wood is used for spindles, pegs, &c., and 
furnishes good charcoal. 

Euosmia Humb. et Bonpl. Rubiaceae (i. 7). i Venezuela. 

Eupatoriastrum Greenman. Compositae (2). i Mexico. 

Eupatoriopsis Hieron. Compositae (2). i Brazil. 

Eupatorium (Tourn.) L. (incl. Conodinium DC.). Compositae (2). 
450 mostly Am., a few in Eur., As., trop. Afr. E. cannabinum L., 
hemp-agrimony, in Brit. Its fls. are largely visited by butterflies. 

Euphorbia L. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 8). 750 chiefly subtrop. and 
warm temp. (12 in Brit.). They differ very much in vegetative habit. 
The British sp. of spurge are herbs and so are many others, but 
shrubs are also frequent. The chief interest centres in those sp. that 
inhabit very dry places and have consequently a xerophytic habit. 
Most of these forms closely resemble Cactaceae (q v.}, and sometimes 
when not in flr. it is very difficult to decide from the outside appear- 
ance whether one has to do with a Euphorbia or a Cactus. The 
presence of latex of course distinguishes the former. It is very 
interesting to see how similar conditions of life have called forth, 
in three different fams. not nearly allied to one another, such 
a similarity of habit as is seen in Euphorbia, the Cactaceae, and 
Stapelia (Asclepiadaceae). As in the cacti, we get almost spherical 
forms, ridged forms, cylindrical forms, &c. Many are armed with 
thorns. In all cases it is the stem which is fleshy. The outer 
tissue is green and does the assimilating work of the plant; the inner 
portion of the stem consists mainly of parenchymatous storage tissue. 
For morphology cf. Goebel (Pflanzenbiol. Schild. p. 56). He 
divides the pi. into the following groups : 

I. L. normal, well developed, serving a long time as assim. 
organs, (i) Shoot not water-storing: e.g. the British sp. (2) Storage 
in tubers below ground : E. ttiberosa L. (3) Stem as reserve for 
water, &c., but not green: E. biipleurifolia Jacq. (cylindrical stem 
covered with corky scales=l. bases; 1. borne in wet season, drop in 
dry). (4) Stem fleshy, green, leafy in wet season only: E. neriifolia 
L., &c. 

II. L. abortive, dropping off early. Assim. and storage carried 
on in stem. Various types occur here (cf. Cactaceae) approaching 
nearly to perfectly spherical form. Some common ones are (i) E. 
Tirucalli L. (Zanzibar), with thin cylindrical shoots. E. pendul'a 



Link is very similar and resembles Rhipsalis in Cactaceae. (2) E. 
xylopkylloides Brongn. has flattened shoots (cf. Phyllanthus Xylo- 
phylla, and Epiphyllum in Cactaceae). (3) E. Caput- Medusae L. 
has a stout stock giving off a number of thinner branches at the top. 
These are covered with little cushion-like papillae, closely crowded, 
which are really 1. bases; the 1. proper is undeveloped. Many sp. 
show this structure. (4) E. matnillaris L. has a thorn in the axil of 
each cushion (=a metamorphosed infl.-axis). If the cushions, as in 
the cacti, become 'fused ' we get a ridged stem, as is seen in (5! E. 
polygona Haw. (cf. Echinopsis cereiformis in Cactaceae), E. grandi- 
cornis and many others. Most of these sp. exhibit pairs of stout 
thorns which are the slips, of the abortive 1. By the two horizontal 
thorns one can tell one of these pi. from a cactus, which has a group of 
thorns. (6) E. melofonnis Ait- is nearly spherical but ribbed, whilst 
in (7) E. globosa Sims (cf. Echinocactus) we have an almost perfect 
sphere. [Cf. Cactaceae, and Stapelia, and compare all these succulent 
forms with one another. See also Goebel, loc. cit.~\ 

Besides the above, note E. splendens Boj and E. Bojeri Hook., 
pi. with thick stems and green 1., the latter dropped in the dry season. 

The other chief point of interest in E. is the cyathium, or infl. 
condensed to simulate a single fl. The resemblance is almost perfect. 
The general branching of the plant is cymose (dichasial). The partial 
infl. forms a cyathium by the non-development of its internodes, the 
absence of the P of the individual fls. and the reduction of each 3 fl. 
to one sta. There is a perianth-like organ of 5 L, really bracts, 
and between these are 4 curious horn-like bodies (U-shaped in fig.), 
which are the combined slips, of the bracts. 
Then follow a number of sta. arranged with 
the oldest nearest to the centre and each 
with a peculiar joint half-way up the stalk. 
In the middle of the cyathium is a 3- 
carpelled ovary on a long stalk, usu. ripe 
for pollination before any sta. ripen. 

That this cyathium is an infl. and not a 
fl., consisting of a lot of 3 fls., each of 
i sta., round a single $ , is shown by the 
centrifugal (cymose) order of ripening of 
organs, and the joint on the sta. ; at this 
point in the allied gen. Anthostema, there 
is a P, which shows that the sta. is really a 
reduced i fl. 

In E. ^Poinsettia the infl. is rendered conspicuous by the bright 
red colour of the larger upper bracts. These sp. often cult. orn. infl. 

The fruit explodes when ripe ; the carpels split off from the cenlral 
axis and open at the same moment. 

Euphorbiaceae('/ > .,5A r . \ncl.Suxaceae}. Dicots.(Archichl.Geraniales; 
Unisexuales BH. ). 220 gen., 4000 sp., cosmop., except arctic. Few 
sp. have a very wide range ; the most widely-ranging genus is 
Euphorbia. Closely related to Geraniales by ihe structure of the 
gynoeceum, &c., although separated a good deal from the other fams. 
of the order by the amount of reduction in most of its fls. 

Diagram of central cya- 
thium of infl. of Euphorbia 
Peplus L. (after Eichler, 



Most are shrubs or trees, a few herbaceous (e.g. the Brit. sp.). 
Many are xero. ; a number of Australian sp. are of ericoid habit ; 
several, esp. S. Afr., Euphorbias are cactus-like; others resemble 
Lauraceae, or possess phylloclades (e.g. Phyllanthus sp.). A few are 
lianes. L. usu. alt.; some have opp. 1., some opp. 1. above and alt. 
below. Slips, usu. present, but may be repres. by branched hair- 
like bodies (Jatropha), glands, or thorns. Nearly all contain latex in 
special laticiferous cells. 

Infl. usu. complex ; almost every type occurs. Often the first 
branching is racemose and all subsequent ones cymose. In some 
cases, e.g. Dalechampia and Euphorbia (q-v-), the partial infls. are 
so condensed as to give the appearance of single fls. The fls. are 
always unisexual, monoec. or dioec. , reg., hypog. The P may be 
present as two whorls usu. j-merous; more often there is only one 
(calyx) and .frequently the fl. is naked. Sta. i oo , free or united 
in various ways. Ricinus has branched sta. Phyllanthus cydanthera 
has the sta. united, with a ring-like common anther. G usu. (3), 
with axile placentae, and 3 loc. Styles usu. 2-lobed. The ovules 
are constant throughout the family and form its best distinctive 
feature; they are i or 2 in each loc., collateral, pendulous, ana- 
tropous, with ventral raphe. The micropyle is usu. covered by a 
caruncle, which is also found on the seed. The fruit is almost 
invariably a ' schizocarp-capsule. ' It splits into cpls. often elastically, 
and at the same time each cpl. opens ventrally, letting the seed 
escape. See albuminous. [BH. chars, incl. those of Buxaceae, esp. 
dorsal raphe, and loculic. caps, or drupe.] 

Most E. are poisonous. Several are important economic plants, 
e.g. Manihot (rubber, cassava), Hevea (rubber), Croton, Ricinus, &c. 

Classification and chief genera (after Pax) : 

A. PLATYLOBEAE (cotyledons much broader than radicle) : 

I. PHYLLANTHOIDEAE (ovules 2 per loc. ; no latex) : 

i. Phyllantheae (embryo large, little shorter than endosp. ; $ 
calyx imbricate) : Phyllanthus. 

i. Briddieae (do., but 3 calyx valvate): Bridelia. 

3. Daphniphylleae (embryo short, 4 6 times shorter than en- 
dosp.) : Daphniphyllum. 

II. CKOTONOIDEAE (ovules i per loc. ; latex usu. present): 

1. Crotoneae (sta. bent inwards in bud) : Croton. 

2. Acalypheae (sta. erect in bud; fl. usu. apetalous; c? calyx 

valvate; infl. a raceme, spike, or panicle, axillary or term.): 
Mercurialis, Acalypha, Ricinus, Dalechampia, Tragia. 

3. Jatropheae (do. ; infl. a dichasial panicle): Hevea, Jatropha. 

4. Adnaneae (do.; infl. a simple term, spike or raceme): 


5. Cluytieae (s calyx imbr. ; i fls. with petals, in groups or 

cymes, these partial infls. axillary or in complex infls.): 
Codiaeum, Cluytia. 

6. Gtlonieae (do. but apetalous) : Gelonium. 

7. Hippomaneae (do.; apetalous; infl. axillary or term., spike- 

like, the partial infl. cymes) : Stillingia, Hura, Hippo- 


8. Eitphorbieae (cyathium) : Anthostema, Euphorbia. 
B. STENOLOBEAE (cotyledons as wide as radicle): 

I. PORANTHER01DEAE (ovules 2 per loc.) : Poranthera. 

II. KICINOCARPOIDEAE (ovules i per loc.): Ricinocarpus. 
Euphorbiodendron Millspaugh (Euphorbia p.p.). Euph. (A. n. 8). 

1 2 trop. Am., W I. 

Euphorbiopsis Leveille (Euphorbia p.p.). Euph. (A. n. 8). i S.E. As. 
Euphoria Comm. ex Juss. Sapindaceae (i). 6 trop. and subtrop. As. 
Eupnoriantlms Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Malay Archipelago. 
Euphoriopsis Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Indomal. 
Euphrasia L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 3). 100 sp. extra-trop. E.offi- 

cinalis L. (eyebright) in Brit. Semi-parasites with loose-pollen fls. 

(see fam.). The 4 anthers lie close under the upper lip of the fl. ; 

the two upper cohere and also the upper to the lower on each side; 

the lower lobe of each has a projecting spine. Insects probing for 

honey shake the spines and receive a shower of pollen from among 

the anthers. The stigma protrudes beyond the sta. in most fls. so as 

to be touched first, but every stage can be found from highly protog. 

fls. with very protruding stigmas to almost homog. fls. whose stigma 

does not protrude and with self-fert. 
Euphrona Veil. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 
Euphronia Mart. Rosaceae (i. 2). i Brazil. 
Euphrosine Allem. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Euphrosyne DC. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 
Euplassa Salisb. Proteaceae (il). 8 trop. Am. 
Eupomatia R. Br. Eupomatiaceae. 2 N.E. Austr., New Guinea. Fl. 

deeply perig., naked ; A oo , G oo . Oil cells. 
Eupomatiaceae (EP. Anonafeaep.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Ranales). 

Only genus Eupomatia, q.v. 

Euptelea Sieb. et Zucc. Trochodendraceae. 3 Japan to Bengal. 
Eureiandra Hook. f. Cucurbitaceae (3). 3 trop. Afr. 
EuroscMnus Hook. f. Anacardiaceae (3). 5 New Caled., E. Austr. 
Eurotia Adans. Chenopodiaceae (A). 2 Meclit., W. As., N. Am. 
Eurya Thunb. Theaceae. 4 o Mexico, S. Am., W. and E. Ind. 
Euryale Salisb. Nymphaeaceae (in), i S.E. As. Fl. epigynous. 

The seeds and roots are eaten in China. 
Eurybia Cass. = Olearia Moench. (Comp.). 
Eurybropsis DC. =Vittadinia A. Rich. (Comp.). 
Eurycentrum Schlechter (Cystorchis p.p.). Orch. (n. 2). 2 N. G., 


Eurycles Salisb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 N. Austr., Malaya. 
Eurycoma Jack. Simarubaceae. 3 S.E. As. 

Eurygania Klotzsch (Thibaudia p.p. EP.}. Eric. (m. 2). 8 Andes. 
Eurylepis D. Don = Erica Tourn. p.p. (Eric.). 
Eurylobium Hochst. Verbenaceae (2). i S. Afr. 
Euryloma D. Don = Erica Tourn. p.p. (Eric.). 
Euryops Cass. Compositae (8). 35 S. Afr. to Socotra. 
Eurypetalum Harms. Leguminosae (n. 2) i Guinea. 
Euryptera Nutt. (Peucedanum p p.). Umbellif. (in. 6). 6 N. Am. 
Eurysolen Prain Labiatae (in), i Indomal. 
Euryspennum Salisb. = Leucadendron R. Br. (Prot). 

17 2 


Eurystegia D. Don = Erica Tourn. p.p. (Eric.). 

Eurystyles Wawra (? = Stenoptera EP.). Zingib. or Orchid. I Brazil. 

Eurytaenia Torr. et Gray. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i Texas. 

Euscapbis Sieb. et Zucc. Staphyleaceae. i Japan. 

Easideroxylon Teijsm. et Binn. Lauraceae (i). i Borneo. 

Eusporangiatae. . s ee Filicales. 

Eustegia Rafin. Melastomaceae (inc. sed.). 3, habitat? 

Eustegia R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 5 S. Afr. 

Eustephia (."av. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 Peru, Argentina. 

EustepMopsis R. Fries. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 Argentina. 

EustigmaGardn. et Champ. Hamamelidaceae. 2 Hongkong, Tonquin. 

Eustoma Salisb. Gentianaceae (I. i). i Centr. Am., W.I. 

Eustrephus R. Br. Liliaceae (x). i E. Austr. 

Eutacta Link = Araucaria Juss. p.p. (Conif.). 

Eutaxia R. Br. Leguminosae (in. 2). 8 Austr. 

Euterpe Gaertn. Palmae (iv. i). 10 trop. Am. E. edit/is Mart. 

(Assai palm) ed. fr.; a beverage is prepared by soaking it in water. 
Eutetras A. Gray. Compositae (6). i Mexico. 
Euthamia Kll. (Solidago p.p.). Compositae (3). 10 N. Am. 
Euthemis Jack. Ochnaceae. 5 Indomal. 
Euthystachys A. DC. Verbenaceae (2). i S. Afr. 
Eutoca R. Br. = Phacelia Juss. p.p. (Hydrophyll. |. 
Eutrema R. Br. Cruciferae (2). 4 Siberia. 
Eutriana Trin. = Bouteloua Lag. (Gramin.). 
Euxena Calest. (Arabis p.p.). Cruciferae (4). t France. 
Euxolus Rafin. Amarantus L. (Amarant). 

Euxylophora Huber. Rutaceae (i). i Amazon valley. Good wood. 
Euzomodendron Coss. Cruciferae (4). i S. Spain. 
Evacidium Pomel (Fitngop.p. EP.). Compositae (4). i N. W. Afr. 
Evandra R. Br. Cyperaceae (n). 2 S.W. Austr. 
Evansia Salisb. = Iris Tourn. (Irid.). 
Evax Gaertn. Compositae (4). 15 Medit., N. Am. 
Evelyna Poepp. et Endl. = Elleanthus Presl (Orchid.). 
Evening primrose, Oenotliera. 

Everardia Ridl. Cyperaceae (n). i Roraima (Brit. Guiana). 
Everettia Merrill. Melastomaceae (n). i Phil. Is. 
Everettiodendron Merrill. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). i Phil. Is. 
Evergreen, bearing green 1. throughout the year. 
Everlasting, Achyrackaena, Ammobium, Anfi'niiiiria, Gnaphalhun, 

Helichrysum, Helipterum ; -grass (Am.), Eriochloa ; mountain-, 

Antfniiana; -pea (Am.), Lathyrus. 
Eversmannia Bunge. Leguminosae (in. 7). i Persia. 
Evodia Forst. Rutaceae (i). 45 trop., exc. Am. 
Evodiauthus Oerst. (Carludovica p:p. BH.\ Cyclanthaceae. 2 Costa 

Rica, W.I. 

Evolution, the development of new forms from old. 
Evolvulus L. Convolvulaceae (i). 90 trop. and subtrop. 
Evonymus (Euonymus tj.v.) L. Celastraceae. 60 N. temp, and 

S.E. As. 

Evota Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. i). 3 S.W. Cape Colony. 
Ewartia Beauverd. Compositae (4). 3 S.E. Austr., Tasmania. 

FAB A 261 

Ex- (Lat. pref.), not, without, outside, e.g. -albuminous, without 
albumen ; -centric ; -eluded, exserted ; -current, with single straight 
main stem, Finns ; -Ogamy, tendency of allied gametes to avoid 
pairing ; -ogenous, arising from the external layers ; -Ogens, Coniferae 
and Dicotyledons ; -otropism, tendency of lat. r. to grow away from 
main r. ; -serted, protruding ; -stipulate, &c. 

Exacum L. Gentianaceae (i). 30 sp. palaeotrop. The style is bent 
to one side or other of the fl. ; both occur on the same plant (enantio- 
styly, ij.v.). 

Exarrhena R. Br. = Myosotis L. p.p. (Borag.). 

Excelsus (Lat.), lofty. 

Excoecaria L. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 30 sp. trop., exc. Am. For 
E. sebifera Muell.-Arg. see Sapium. 

Excoecariopsis Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). i S.W. Afr. 

Excremis Willd. Liliaceae (in), i Andes. 

Exechostilus K. Schum. Rubiaceae (n. i). i trop. Afr. 

Exfoliate, to peel off. 

Exoacantha Labill. Umbelliferae (in. 8). i Syria. 

Exocarpus Labill. Santalaceae. 15 Austr., Malaya, Madag. Timber. 

Exocarya Benth. Cyperaceae (n). i S.E. Austr. 

Exochaenium Griseb. in DC. (Belmontia E. Mey.). Gent. (i). 3 trop. 

Exochogyne C. B. Clarke. Cyperaceae (n). i Amazon valley. 

Exochorda Lindl. Rosaceae (i. i). 3 Centr. As. Cult. orn. shrubs. 

Exogonium Choisy (Ifomoea p.p. BH.). Convolvulaceae (i). 18 trop. 
Am. E. Purga Benth. (jalap) cult, for medic, resin. 

Exolobus Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). 4 Brazil. 

Exomicrum Van Tiegh. = Ouratea Aubl. (Ochn.). 

Exomis Fenzl. Chenopodiaceae (A), i S. Afr., St Helena. 

ExorrMza Becc. (Kentia p.p. EP.). Palmaceae (iv. i). i Fiji. 

Exostemma Rich. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 20 W.I.. S. Am. Febrifugal 
alkaloids are contained in the bark. 

Exostyles Schott. Legnminosae (n. o)- 2 Brazil. 

Exotanthera Turcz. (Rinorea EP.}. Violaceae. i Madagascar. 

Exothea Macfadyen. Sapindaceae (n). 2 W.I. , C. Am. 

Exploding anthers, Broussonetia, Pilea, Urlica ; -pollen, &c., Cala- 
aenia, Compositae (Cynareae), Corytlalis, Cytisns. Genista, A'ahnia, 
Medicago, Posoqiteria, Pterostylis, Ulex, &c. ; -fruit, cf. Dispersal. 

Extra- (Lat. pref.), beyond; -axillary, outside the axil; -tropical, 
outside the tropics ; -floral nectaries, cf. Nectaries. 

Extrorse, opening away from centre of fl. 

Eye, a bud, Helianthus, Solatium ; -bright, Euphrasia officinalis L. 

Eylesia Sp. Moore. Scrophulariaceae (ill. 2). i trop. Afr. 

Eyrythalia Renealm. =Gentiana Tourn. (Gent.). 

Eysenhardtia H. B. et K. Leguminosae (in. 6). 5 Texas to Guate- 

Eystathes Lour. Inc. sed. i Cochin-China. 

F (fl. -class), fls. suited to Lepidoptera, Angraeciini, Cuphea, Dianthus, 
Labiatae, Lonicera, Lychnis, Oenothera, Primula, and cf. Butterfly 
and Moth fls. 

Faba (Tourn.) L. = Vicia L. (Legum.). 



Faberia Hemsl. Compositae (13). i China. 

Fabiana Ruiz et Pav. Solanaceae (4). 15 S. S.Am. Cult. orn. shrubs. 

Fabricia Gaertn. = Leptospermum Forst. (Myrt.). 

Fabricia Scop. (Afysicarfus F.P.). Leguminosae (in. 7). 16 palaeo- 


Facelis Cass. Compositae (4). 
Fades, external appearance. 
Facultative, incidental. 
Fadogla Schweinf. Rubiaceae (n. 
Fadyenia Hook. Polypodiaceae. 

3 temp. S. Am. 

W. Ind. The 

i). 20 Afr. 
i, F. prolifera Hook. 
sterile 1. produce buds at the tips. 
Fagaceae (EP.; Citpuliferae p.p. />'//.). Dicots. (Archichl. Fagales). 
5 gen., 350 sp. ; three chief centres of distr. Fagus, Castanea 
Eucastanea and Quercus N. extra-trop., Pasania and Castanopsis in 
trop. As. and Calif., Fagus Nothofagus in S. Am., N.Z., and 

Floral diagrams of Castanea vulgaris, after Eichler. A, diagram of $ cyme in axil 
of catkin-leaf, the sta. and rudimentary gynoeceum only shown in the first fl. 
The sequence of the fls. is indicated by the figures i, 2, 3. B, diagram of ? 
partial infl. b = bract, aS = bractejles, a' (3' a, j3, = bracteoles of second order. 

S. Austr. Most are trees with simple 1. and scaly stipules that drop 
off as the 1. expand. The fls. come out in the axils of the 1. of the 
current year and are diclinous and anemoph., arranged in catkins or 
small spikes (exc. Fagus i ). In general there is a close resemblance 
to Betulaceae, and, as in that fain., the fls. are usu. in dich. cymes 
in the axils of the catkin-1.; there are often, however, > three fls. 

P bract-like, (4 7). i fl. with as many to twice as many or 
oo sta. undivided, with or without rudimentary style. _ ? fls. usu. in 
dich. of 3 in Castanea, i in Fagus, i in Quercus, &c. G usu. (3) with 
3 styles (exc. sp. of Castanea) ; loculi 3, usu. visible before fert. Plac. 
axile, each bearing i pend. anatr. ov. with i integuments. Fr. a 
i -seeded nut. Seeds without endosp. 

The group of nuts is surrounded by a cup-like organ termed a 
cupule ; in the oak there is one nut in each cupule, in the beech two, 
in the chestnut three. About the morphology of this organ there has 
been much discussion. Eichler (see diagram above, fig. B, and Biii- 
thendiagr.) regards it as the combined bracteoles a' j8' a, /3, , Prantl 
(Engler's Bot. Jahrb. vm. 1887) as an axial outgrowth. See also 
Celukov>ky in Pringskeim's Jahrb. xxi. 1890, and cf. Betulaceae. 
The cupule only becomes clearly visible after fert. 


Some of the F. show signs of peculiar development of the embryo- 
sac, and other interesting features (see Chalazogamae). 

The order includes several important economic plants, chiefly 
valuable for their timber, e.g. oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), chestnut 
(Castanea), &c. 
Classification and genera (after Prantl) : 

1. Fageae (fls. in dich., rarely sol. in axils of foliage-1. ; lat. and 

single fr. 3-angled) : Fagus (^ fl. sol. or in dich. of 3 ; ? in 3 
or sol.) : Nothofagus ( $ in dich. of many ; ? in 2s). 

2. Castaneae ( ? fls. in dich. or single in the axils of catkin-1. ; 

fr. rounded at sides) : 
Style cylindrical, with pointed stigma, <? catkins erect. 

Cupule with spines or hard papillae. Castanea. 

Cupule with scales. Pasania. 

Style various, crowned by stigma, $ catkins pend. Quercus. 

Fagales (EP.), the i ith order of Dicots. Archichlamydeae. 

Fagara L. (Zanthoxylum Bff.). Rutaceae (i). 140 trop. 

Fagelia Neck. Leguminosae (in. 10). i S. Afr. 

Fagelia Schwencke = Calceolaria L. (Scroph.). 

Fagonia Tourn. ex L. Zygophyllaceae. 20 Medit., S. Afr., Calif., 

Fagopyrum Tourn. ex Hall. Polygonaceae (n. 2). 4 As. Fls. like 
Polygonum, but heterosyled, with long and short-styled forms. F. escu- 
lentum Moench. (buck-wheat) largely cult., esp. in N. Am., for its fr. 
(seed), in which there is a floury endosp. Also used as green fodder, 
and a good honey-plant. 

Fagraea Thunb. Loganiaceae. 20 E. Ind. to Austr., often epiphytic. 
Some sp. have nectaries at the outside of the base of the fl. 

Faguetia L. Marchand. Anacardiaceae (3). i Madag. 

Fagus (Tourn.) L. (BH. incl. Nothofagus Blume). Fagaceae (i). 
4 N. temp. F. sylvatica L. (beech, Brit, and large parts of Eur.) often 
forms homogeneous forests, and is accompanied by a peculiar under- 
growth, e.g. Asperula odorata, Lalkrea squamaria, &c. $ fls. in 
pendulous cymose heads, ? in pairs; each cupule encloses two nuts. 
The wood is hard, and much used in the arts ; an oil is expressed 
from the nuts. Beech hedges in many districts ; when growing low it 
does not drop its 1., as it does when it takes the tree form, and thus 

. affords good shelter in winter. A variety with red sap in the cells of 
the epidermis (copper-beech) is often cult. The beech only flowers 
every few years, and saves up material in the interval (cf. Agave). 

Falcaria Riv. ex Rupp. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 4 Medit., W. As. 

Falcate, sickle-shaped. 

Falconer-la Hook. f. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). i W. Himalaya. 

Falkia L. f. Convolvulaceae (i). 6 Afr. 

Fallugia Endl. Rosaceae (in. 2). i N. Am. 

False acacia, Robinia; -asphodel (Am.), Tofieldia; -bromegrass, Bra- 
chypodium; -fruit, the product of ovary with any other organ that 
developes, e.g. axis; -hellebore (Am.), Veratruin; -hemp, Dalisca', 
-indigo (Am.), Amorpha, Baptisia; -jalap, Mirabilis; -lettuce 
(Am.), Mulgediuni; -mallow (Am.), Mafoastriutr, -nettle (Am.), 
Boehrneria', -oat-grass, Arrkenatherum ; -septa, partitions chamber- 


ing ovary into abnormal or unusual loculi, Boraginaceae, Cruciferae, 

Gaylussada, Linaceae ; -whorl, Labiatae. 
Family, a group of allied genera, e.g. Compositae, Cruciferae. 
Fan-palm, Lhainaerops, Sabal, Tkrinax, &c. 
Fanninia Harv. Asclepiadaceae (11. i). i Cape Colony. 
Fans, cf. Andropogon, Bamboos, Borassus, &c. 
Faradaya F. Muell. Verbcnaceae (4). 6 Austr. , Polynes. 
Faramea Aubl. Rubiaceae (n. 8). too trop. S. Am., W. Ind. See 

M tiller's fart, of Fls. , p. 304 (dimorphic pollen). 

Farfugium Lindl. =Senecio Tourn. (BH.) = Ligularia Cass. (Comp.). 
Fargesia F ranch. (Phyllostachys^.^. EP.). Gramineae (13). i China. 
Farinaceous (endo>p. ), of starchy consistence. 
Farinosae (Engler). The 8th order of Monocotyledons. 
Farinosus (Lat.), covered with mealy powder. 
FarJjleberry (Am.), Vaccinium arboreum Marshall. 
Farmeria Willis. Podostemaceae. 2 Ceylon, S. India. 
Faroa Wehv. Gentianaceae (i). 12 Afr. 
Farquharia Stapf. Apocynaceae (u. i). i S. Nigeria. 
Farsetia Turra p.p. Cruciferae (4). 10 E. Medit., trop. Afr. 
Fasciation, lateral union of stems, branches, &c., Ce/osia. 
Fascicle, a tuft of branches [aA], fasciculate). 
Fascicularia Mez. Bromeliaceae (4). 4 Chili. 
Fastigiate, many branches || to stem, Populus (Lombardy poplar). 
Fatoua Gaudich. Moraceae (i). i Austr. to Japan, Polynesia. 
Fats, cf. oils. 
Fatsia Decne. et Planch, (excl. Echinopanax Decne. et Planch., and 

Tetrapanax C. Koch). Araliaceae. i Japan, cult. orn. fol. For 

F. papyrifera Benth. et Hook. f. see Tetrapanax. 
Faujasia Cass. Compositae (8). 3 Madagascar, Mascarenes. 
Faurea Harv. Proteaceae (i). 10 S. and trop. Afr., Madag. 
Fauria Franch. Saxifragaceae (i). i N. Japan. 
Fawcettia F. Muell. Menispermaceae. i S.E. Austr. 
Faxonanthus Greenman. Scrophulariaceae (i i). i Mexico. 
Faxonia T. S. Brandegee. Compositae (5). i Lower California. 
Faya Neck. = Crenea Aubl. (Lythrac.). 

Feather-foil (Am.), Hottonia: -grass, Stipa, (Am.) Leptochloa. 
Fedia Gaertn. p.p. Valerianaceae. i Medit. Other sp. cf. Valerianella. 
Fedtschenkoa Regel. Cruciferae (4). i Turkestan. 
Feeria Buser {Trachelium p.p.). Campanulaceae (i). i Morocco. 
Fegimanra Pierre. Anacardiaceae (i). 2 trop. Afr. 
Feijoa Berg (Ortkostemon EP.). Myrtaceae (i). 2 Brazil. 
Felicia Cass. Compositae (3). 60 S. Afr. to Abyssinia. 
Female fl. , Anctiba, Begonia, Brynnia, Rhamnus, Sagittaria. 
Fendlera Engelm. et Gray. Saxifragaceae (in), i Texas. 
Fendlerella A. A. Heller (Fendlera EP.). Saxifrag. (in), i N. Am. 
Fennel, Fofnicitlum ; -flower, Niella sativa L. ; giant-, Ferula. 
Fenugreek, Trigonella Foenum-qraecum L. 
Fenzlia Benth. = Gilia Ruiz et Pav. p.p. (Polemon.). 
Fenzlia Encll. Myrtaceae (i). 2 Austr. 
-fer (Lat. suffix), bearing. 
Feral, wild. 


Ferdinanda Lag. (Zaluzania Pers. p.p.)- Compositae (5). i C. Am. 

Ferdinandusa Pohl. Ruhiaceae (r. 5). 10 W.I., trop. S. Am. 

Feretia Delile. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 Upper Nile, trop. Afr. 

Fergusonia Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. 5). i Ceylon, S. India. 

Ferment, cf. Carica, Droseraccae. 

Fern, Filicineae; beech-, Drvopteris; bird's nest-, Aspleniitm\ bladder-, 
Cystopteris\ bristle-, THchomanes: elkhorn-, Platycerium; filmy, 
Hyinenophyllum (and fam.) ; hard-, Lomaria, Blechnum; hart's 
tongue, Pkyllitis; holly-, Polystichum ; lady-, Athyrium', maiden- 
hair-, Adiantiim ; northern-, Blechnum ; oak-, Dryopteris; parsley-, 
Cryptogramma; prickly shield-, Poly stic hum; royal-, Osmunda; 
shield-. Dryopteris; staghorn-, Platycerium; tree-, Cyathea, &c. ; 
walking-, Asplenium. 

Fernandezia Lindl. =Lockhartia Hook. (Orchid.). 

Fernandia Biill. Bignoniaceae (2). i Angola. 

Fernelia Comm. ex Lam. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 4 Mascarenes. 

Fernseea Baker. Bromeliaceae (4). t Itatiaia Mt (near Rio). 

Feronia Correa. Rutaceae (v). i India to Java, F. elephantum 
Correa (elephant-apple or wood-apple ; wood useful, and yields a 
gum ; fr. ed.). 

Feroniella Swingle. Rutaceae (v). i Indo-China. 

Ferraria L. Iridaceae (n). 10 Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 

Ferreirea Allem. Leguminosae (in. i). i Rio de Janeiro. 

Ferrugineus (Lat.), rust-coloured. 

Fertile, capable of giving fruit. 

Fertilisation, ihe union of $ and ? elements; cross-, between two fls. 
on different pi. ; self-, within the same fl. 

Ferula Tourn. ex L. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 60 Medit., Cent. As. 
F. communis L. cult, (giant-fennel). It only flowers after storing up 
materials for some years (cf. Fagus, Agave). F. Narthex Boiss. and 
F. Aisa-foetida L. are the sources of the drug asafoetida, obtained by 
notching the roots; used as a condiment in Pen-ia, &c. under the 
name 'food of the gods,' and as a stimulant in meHicine. F. galba- 
niflua Boiss. et Buhse and F. rubricaulis Boiss. are the sources of the 
medic, gum galbanum. 

Ferulago Koch. Umbelliferae (ill. 6). 40 Medit., S. Eur. 

Fescue-grass, Fcstuca. 

Festuca (Tourn. ). Gramineae (to). 100 cosmop. ; 5 in Brit, (fescue- 
grass). The 1. roll inwards in dry air (cf. Stipa). Many good pasture- 
grasses. When growing on mountains often viviparous (see fam.). 

Fever-bush (Am.), Lindera ; -few, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria ; -wort 
(Am.), Trios ten ni . 

Feuillea Gled. =Fevillea L. 

Fevillea L. Cucurbitaceae (i). 6 trop. Am. 5 sta. all alike. 

Fibigia Medic (Farsetia p.p. BH.}. Cruciferae (4). 12 E. Medit. 

Fibraurea Lour. Menispermaceae. 4 trop. and subtrop. As. 

Fibres, the strengthening tissues of plants, largely used in the arts for 
spinning, brush-making, plaiting, paper, rough weaving, tying, &c. ; 
those of the bast are most generally useful. The chief stem or leaf 
fibres are perhaps Abroma, Abutilon, Agave (sisal, &c.). Ampelo- 
desma, Arenga, Attalea (piassaba), Boehmeria (rhea, ramie), Borassus 


(palmyra), Broussonetia, Camelina, Cannabis (hemp), Carludovica, 
Caryota (kitul), Chlorogalum, Cocos (coconut, coir), Copernicia, 
Corchorus (jute), (Jordyline, Couratari, Crotalaria (Sunn-hemp), Cy- 
perus, Debregeasia. Eryngium (caraguata), Furcraea (Mauritius hemp), 
Hibiscus, Jubaea, l,aportea, Lardizabala, Leopoldinia (piassaba), 
Liiuim (flax), Lygeum, Maoutia, Marsdenia, Maurilia, Musa (Manila 
hemp), Pandanus, Phormium (NewZealandflax), Raphia(raffia), Sabal, 
Sansevieria (bowstring hemp), Spartium, Stipa (esparto), Tillandsia, 
Villebrunea, Yucca, &c. The chief surface fibres (on seeds, &c.) are 
Bombax, Calotropis, Chorisia, Cochlospermum, Eriodendron (kapok), 
Gossypium (cotton). Special or peculiar cases are Antiaris, Broussonetia, 
Lageita.Luffa, &c. See Dodge, Useful Fiber Plants, Washington, 1897. 

Fibrillose, with fibres. 

Fibrocentrum Pierre. Sapotaceae (inc. seel.), i Brazil. 

Fibrous root, one in tufts of uniform length, as in grasses. 

FJ.calb.oa Hiern. Ericaceae (n). i trop. Afr. 

Ficaria (Dill.) Hall = Ranunculus L. p.p. (Ranunc.). 

Ficinia Schrad. Cyperaceae (i). 50 S. and trop. Afr. 

Ficoidales (BH.}. The i4th cohort of Polypetalae. 

Ficoideae (BH.) = Aizoaceae. 

Ficus Tourn. ex L. Moraceae (n). 700 trop., chiefly E. Ind. and 
Polynes., &c. Trees and shrubs of the most various habit. In 
general alt. entire 1. with slips, which envelope the bud (acting as a 
protection to it against heat, &c.) and soon after their unfolding drop 
off. Adv. roots are very common. 

F. elastica Roxb. (indiarubber tree) grows as a stout independent 
tree, usu. commencing epiphytically, and often reaching a great size. 
At its base are developed buttress-roots, radiating out in all directions; 
their depth is often several feet, while their thickness is only a few 
inches. From the branches are given off adv. roots which grow 
downwards and enter the soil. These grow in thickness and form 
great pillars supporting the branches. The 1. are entire, and leathery, 
with a glossy surface. The slips, protecl the bud. Rubber is obtained 
by tapping (cf. Hevea). 

F. indica L. and F. benghalensis L. (banyan) show similar habit. 
The aerial roots form supporting pillars, and by their means the tree 
may reach immense size. (The banyan is sacred in India; the young 
roots are provided with tubes of bamboo to protect them, and the 
ground is prepared for them.) See plate in Nat. Pfi. of ihe famous 
Iree al Calculla. 

F. religiosa L. (Peepul or Bo-lree) is similar, bul ils 1. have 
a long acuminale apex, combined with an easily welted surface. 
From the apex (drip-tip] the rain drips off rapidly after a shower and 
the 1. is soon dry. In very wet trop. forests this property is of some 

F. Sycomorusl^. (sycomore or mulberry fig) N. Afr. and F. Carica 
L. (fig) Eur. , Medit., are also erect trees. 

F. repens Rottl. is a small climbing sp. which takes hold of its 
support by aerial roots (as in ivy) ; these secrete a gummy substance 
conlaining caoutchouc, and then absorb the fluid constituents, leaving 
the caoutchouc as a cement, fastening the roots to their support 

Fl L1C ALES 267 

(Darwin, Climbing Plants, p. 185). F. Thwaitesii Miq. and other 
climbing sp. are heterophyllous, the 1. on the climbing shoots small 
and different in shape. 

F. Benjainina L. and other sp climb up other trees giving off 
aerial clasping (negatively heliotropic) roots which surround the 
trunk. These roots thicken and unite into a network and finally often 
strangle the 'host' altogether. These sp. often become epiph. by the 
dying away of their lower portions, but like the Aroids they maintain 
communication with the ground by long aerial roots. Sometimes 
they commence as epiphytes and send down aerial roots to the soil. 

The infl. is hollowed out, and consists of a number of fls. inside 
a pear-shaped common recept., which opens by a narrow mouth at the 
top. Within the mouth, in most, are the <f fls., while the rest of the 
cavity is filled with ? fls. (Sachs, Physiol. p. 434). The $ has a P 
and i or 2 sta. , the ? a smaller P. Infl. as a whole protog. ; mode 
of pollination extraordinary (cf. Yucca), there being a special insect 
(Blastophaga, a small wasp) adapted to Ficus fls. The gravid ? 
enters a fig infl. and lays eggs in the ovary ; the i wasps thus 
formed fertilise the ? s and these as they emerge are pollinated by 
the <? fls. and carry the pollen to new figs. For further details and 
an account of the peculiar process of 'caprification,' see Midler's 
Pert, of Fls. p. 521, Nat. Pfl., Cunningham on F. Roxbnrghii (rev. 
in Bot. Centr. 45, p. 344), and papers in Bot. Jahrb. II. 1890, p. 245. 
Many sp. bear the fls. on old parts of the stem (cauliflory). Fr. 
multiple, composed of a lot of drupes inside the common fleshy 
recept. ; that of F. Carica L. is the common fig. 

Lac (shellac, &c.) is produced on several by the punctures of 
a small hemipterous insect (cf. Butea). Several, esp. F. elastica Roxb., 
yield caoutchouc. The buttress-roots are used as planks. 

-fid, fidus (Lat.), cleft. 

Fiddle-wood, Citharexylum. 

Fiebrigia K. Fritsch. Gesneriaceae (n). i Bolivia. 

Fiebrigiella Harms. Leguminosae (in. 7). i Bolivia. 

Field botanists, notes for, see Collecting ; -madder, Sherardia. 

Fieldia A. Cunn. Gesneriaceae (i). i Australia. 

Fig, Fiats Carica L. ; Hottentot-, Mesembryanthennini ; Indian-, Opun- 
tia ; mulberry-, Ficus Sycomorus L. ; -wort, Scrophularia. 

Figuierea Montr. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). i New Caled. 

Filago L. Compositae (4). 12 Eur., As., Am., N. Afr. ; 3 Brit. 

Filament, the stalk of a stamen. 

Filbert, Corylus. 

Filetia Miq. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 5 Sumatra, Malay Pen. 

Filicales. One of the main divisions of Pteridophyta, char, by well- 
developed 1. with vigorous growth, often large and much-branched ; 
stem usu. short in proportion to the 1. area, and not much branched. 
Sporangia borne on the 1., usu. very numerous. 
Classification (after Engler) : 

i. FILICALES LEPTOSPORANGIATAE. Sporangia from single 
superficial cells; prothallus above ground, usu. flattish (see 

i. Eufilicineae. 2. Hydropterideae. 


1. MARATTIALES. Sporangia from cell complex; prothallus 

flattish, antheridia on both sides, archegonia below. 
3. OPHIOGLOSSALES. Sporangia from cell complex ; prothallus 
wholly or partially subterranean, tuberous or cylindrical with 
sunken antheridia and archegonia; embryo often long sub- 
terranean. Fertile 1. with branches bearing the sporangia. 
For further details see next art., I'teridophyta, and the families. 
Cf. also Nat. Pj?.\ Hooker and Baker, Synopsis Filicnni ; Christensen, 
Index Filicum (for nomenclature) ; Christ, Die Farnkniitler der 
Erde, 1897; Bower, papers on morphology and phylogeny in Phil. 
Trans, and Ann. Bot. of the last 25 years, and Origin of a Land 
Flora; Seward, Fossil Botany, &c., &c. 

Filicales Leptosporangiatae. The first order of Filicales, grouped 
as follows : 

Sub-order i. EUF1LICINEA E. Sporangium wall usu. with a 
special ring or annulus of thickwalled cells, by whose means it opens ; 
homosporous, with mono- or di-clinous prothalli. 

1. Hytnenophyllaceae: herbs with mesophyll usu. one cell thick, 
and marginal sori term, on naked veins. 

2. Cyatheaceae: usu. tree or large ferns, with complete and 
oblique annulus. 

3. Polypodiaceae: usu. herbaceous, with imperfect, vertically 
placed annulus, not closed at base, rarely absent. 

4. Parkeriaceat:: water ferns, sporangia sol. on anastomosing 
veins, almost spherical, with perfect, sometimes wanting, 
vertical annulus, and no true indusium, but inrolled 1. margin. 

5. Matoniaceae: herbs with dichotomous 1., sporangia with 
complete oblique annulus, grouped at base of umbrella-like 

6. Gleicheniaceae: herbs with 1. repeatedly dichotomous, and 
sporangia with equatorial annulus; sori on the veins below. 

7. Schizaeaccae: mostly small herbs with sessile sporangia, with 
complete annulus at apex, sol. on 1. margin or in axils of bract- 
like segments. 

8. Osniundaceae: short-stemmed ferns with sterile and fertile 1. 
and naked sori, sporangia with annulus at one side of apex. 

Sub-order 2. HYDROP1ERIDINEAE. Sporangia usu. many 
in sori, enclosed in metam. 1. segments or indusium-like covers ; 
spores of two kinds ; macrosporangia with one macrospore, 
microsporangia with many. 

i. Marsiliaceae: sporocarps pluriloc.; sori 2 oo in 1. apex, 
c? and ? mixed ; ? prothallus with one archegonium, S of one 
veg. cell and 2 antheridia. 

i. Salviniaceae : sporocarps uniloc.; sori unisexual, on special 
water 1. (Salvinia) or submerged lobes of water 1. (Azolla) ; 
? prothallus with a few archegonia, $ as in Marsiliaceae. 
1. Eufilicineae. These plants with the Marattiaceae are generally 
known as Ferns. An outline of the general life history will be found 
under Pteridophyta. 

The fertilised ovum on the prothallus developes directly and with- 
out any resting period into a fern-plant. There is no intermediate 


period of rest as there is in flowering-plants when the seed is ripe. 
The prothallus continues to assimilate food and supply the young fern 
until the latter is able to do so for itself. The primary root remains 
small or withers away, and new ones are adv. formed from the stem 
or from the 1. bases, as the pi. grows. The mature pi. may be of 
almost any size from the tiny filmy ferns (Hymenophyllum) to the 
large tree ferns (e.g. Cvathea, Alsophila). The stem grows by an 
apical cell, 2- or 3-sided, cutting off segments alt. on each face. 
From these by further divisions arise the tissues and members. The 
1. form a little way behind the growing apex as in fl. pi. One segment 
(but not every one) gives one 1. ; the 1. grows by an apical cell also. 
The stem may be erect, or may climb (as in many epiph.), or creep 
on the surface, or below it as a rhiz. Its growth is slow and branch- 
ing infrequent. The 1. are borne upon it, the internodes being as a 
rule short in erect, long in creeping stems. The phyllotaxy is not so 
definite as in fl. pi., but the 1. are very commonly in ranks or straight 
lines dependent on the position of the segments cut off from the 
apical cell of the stem. The lat. buds arise either on the 1. (as in 
Dryopteris, Nephrodium) or on the stem ; in the latter case they 
are rarely axillary; but usu. beside the 1. The growing tips of stem 
and 1. are often protected by brown scales, which are mere trichomes 
or superficial outgrowths. 

The I. is usu. large with apical growth and circinate (coiled) 
vernation. The growth often lasts for a long time, or even perma- 
nently (Lygodium). The 1. blade is usu. branched pinnately. 

The repr. organs are borne upon the 1. The unit is the sporangium 
or spore capsule, a small rounded body, stalked in fams. 2, 3 and 8 
but sessile in the others. The caps, has a wall one cell thick, and in 
this is a group of cells with peculiarly thickened cell-walls, termed 
the annuhis, by whose agency (its cells being hygroscopic) the opening 
of the sporangium is effected. Sometimes, as in many Polypodiaceae, 
the opening is explosive. The mech. is in principle similar to that 
by which anthers dehisce. The annulus may have various forms (see 
fams.), but the commonest is that of a row of cells running round the 
sporangium for about f of its circumference. 

The sporangia are usu. collected into groups (sort). The sorus 
may be naked, but is more usu. covered by an indusium, some- 
times merely a fold of the 1. itself, but more commonly a special 
outgrowth from the ]., either epidermal or derived from the more 
deeply placed layers of tissue as well. The sori are usu. found on 
the veins of a 1., often in the angle where a vein forks. They do not 
as a rule occur on all the 1. Very often certain 1. are fertile, the 
others not. In this case the fertile 1. have usu. no green tissue at 
all, their pinnae being entirely covered with sori, e.g. Osmunda sp. 
In other cases, e.g. Aneimia sp., one part of a 1. is sterile, the other 
fertile. Or again the sori, and this is most common, may be borne 
simply on the ordinary 1. They are almost always on the lower 
surface only; they may entirely cover it, but more often are localised. 

The spores are all of one kind and if sown under suitable condi- 
tions give rise to prolhalli, flat green expansions living for a short or 
long period independently upon the soil (numbers may be seen where 


ferns are growing). On the under surface are borne the repr. organs 
anlheridia ( 3 ) and arehegonia ( ) The spermatozoids swim to the 
ova in the water which collects under the prothalli. The fert. ovum 
developes directly into a new fern-pi. 

Two interesting modifications of the life cycle as above described 
are known. In Pteris cretica, Dryopteris Filix-tnas, Aspidium 
falcatuni and Todea africana, there occurs apogamy or the omission 
of the sexual process from the life-history (see diagram in Pteri- 
dophyta). The new fern-plant is produced from the prothallus by a 
process of budding; a growing point developes from the cells of the 
prothallus. The cycle thus runs : 

Fern-plant -> sporophylls -* sporangia 

t I 

*- *- prothallus 

The other case, apospory, is found in Athyrium Filix-foemina var. 
clarissima, and in Polyslichmn augulare var. pulcherrimum, &c. 
Here spore-formation is replaced by a process of budding which gives 
rise to prothalli on the backs of the 1., so that the life-cycle runs 

Fern plant -* -* 

t I 

, ... , fspermatozoid - antheridium ) ., ,, 

fertilised ovum - { ^ _ arch egonium ( ^ P thall s 

The latter must not be confused with the 'vivipary' of Asplenium 
bulhifenun, &c., where the leaf-tissue buds directly into new pi., 
which for a time remain attached, but ultimately grow independently 
{cf. Bryophyllum, &c.). 

A very large number of ferns are shade- and moisture-loving 
plants. Many however are xero. and alpine forms with reduced 
transpiration, exhibiting the familiar char, of such plants reduced 
surface, thick cuticle, hairiness, incurving of leaves (cf. Ericaceae), 
and even, though rarely, succulence (Polypodium adnascens, Drymo- 
glossum carnosum, &c.). The tree ferns and many others have water 
storage tissue in the stem. Many are epiphytic, esp. in the trop., 
though they may be found growing in this way even in Britain. 
Cf- Platycerium, Polypodium, &c. The spores, consisting only of 
one cell, are much lighter than is possible for a seed, and may be 
carried by wind to enormous distances. 

2. Hydropteridineae or Rhizocarpae. The two fams. of this 
group, though they have much in common, are probably derived from 
different stocks. For details cf. fams. 

As in the homosporous forms, so here the embryo gives rise 
directly to a new leafy pi., usu. aquatic, and exhibiting a creeping 
stem with a dorsiv. arrangement of the 1. Roots may or may not 
be formed. The stem grows by an apical cell. The sporangia are 
enclosed in capsular structures termed sporocarps. In the Salv. this 
body contains one sorus only, in the Mars, more than one. The 
sorus in the former has one kind of sporangium only, in the latter 
usu. both. The spores germinate in water; the megaspore gives rise 
to a small green $ prothallus which remains enclosed in the burst spore. 
Its free surface bears a few archegonia. The microspore gives rise 


(sometimes without escaping from the sporangium) to a rudimentary 

<? prothallus and antheridia. From the latter the spermatozoids escape 

and swim to the ? organ. 

Filices, ferns proper, homosporous leptosporangiate Filicales. 
Filicineae= Filicales. 
Filicinean, relating to ferns. 

Filicium Thw. Sapindaceae (11). 3 trop. As. and Afr. 
Filiform, thread-like. 
Filipendula Tourn. ex L. (Spiraea p.p. BH. ; Ulmaria p.p., q.v.}. 

Rosaceae (in. 8). 10 N. temp. 

Fillaeopsis Harms. Leguminosae (i. 5). i trop. Afr. 
Filmy ferns, Hynienophyllaceae. 
Fimbriate, fringed. 

Fimbristemma Turcz. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). i trop. S. Am. 
Fimbristylis Vahl. Cyperaceae (i). 225 chiefly trop. 
Findlaya Bowdich. Inc. sed. i Madeira. 
Findlaya Hook. f. Ericaceae (in. 2). i Trinidad. 
Finger-grass (Am.), Panicum. 

Fingerhuthia Nees ex Lehm. Gramineae (10). i S. Afr., Afghanistan. 
Fingrigo (W. I.), Pisonia aculeata L. 
Finlaysonia Wall. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Further India. 
FinscMa Warb. Proteaceae (il). i New Guinea. 
Fintelmannia Kunth. Cyperaceae (11). 4 Brazil, Madagascar. 
Fiorin-grass, Agrostis alba L. 
Fir, Abies ; Douglas-, Psatdotsuga Douglasii Carr. ; Scotch-, Finns 

sylvestris L. ; silver-, Picea alba Link; spruce-, Picea excelsa Link; 

umbrella-. Sciadopitys verticillata Sieb. et Zucc. 
Fire-bush, CrataegUs pyrdcantha Medic.; -pink (Am.), Silene. 
Firmiana Marsigli (Sterculia p.p. BH.). Sterculiaceae. 10 As. 
Fischera Spreng. = Platysace Bunge (j9//.)=Trachymene Rudge. 
Fischeria DC. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 12 trop. Am., W.I. 
Fissicalyx Benth. Leguminosae (in. 8). i Venezuela. 
Fissiparous, splitting. 

Fissipes Small (Cypripedium p.p ). Orchidaceae (i. 2). i N. Am. 
Fistular, herbaceous and hollow, Umbelltferae. 
Fistularia L. (Rhinanthus p.p.). Scroph. (in. 3). 9 N. temp. 
Fitchia Hook. f. Compositae (13). 2 Polynesia. 
Fittonia E. Coen. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 2 Peru, cult. orn. fol. 
Fitzgeraldia F. Muell. (Cananga p.p.). Anonaceae (i). i Austr. 
Fitzroya Hook. f. Coniferae (Pinaceae ; see C. for gen. char.). 2 Chili, 


Five-finger (Am.), Potentilla; (W.I.) Syngonium. 
Fixed light position, that taken up by 1. with regard to light. 
Fixed oils, cf. Oils. 

Flabellaria Cav. Malpighiaceae (i). i W. Afr. 
Flabellate, flabelliform, fan-shaped. 
Flacourtia (Comm.) L'Herit. Flacourtiaceae. 15 trop. As., Afr. 

F. Ramontchi L'Herit. (Madagascar plum), &c. have ed. drupes. 
Flacourtiaceae (EP.; Bixinieae p.p, Saniydaceae BH.). Dicots. 
(Archichl. Parietales). 70 gen., 500 sp. trop. and subtrop. trees and 

shrubs, mostly with alt. stip. leathery 1., often two-ranked. Fls. 


sol. or in racemose, cymose, or mixed infls., often unisexual, reg. 
The axis is convex, and between C and A it forms a disc or gives 
rise to various effigurations, usu. glands or scales. K2 15, C 10 o, 
A usu. co , sometimes united into antepetalous groups, the anthers 
usu. opening by lat. slits, G (2 10) or semi-inf., i-loc. with parietal 
plac. which often project far into the cavity; ov. co , anatr. ; styles as 
many as plac., or united. Berry or capsule; seed often with aril; 
embryo straight, in endosp. 

Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : 

1. Erythrospermeae (fl. $ ; P oo spiral, A 5 8 with lineal anthers, 
caps.) ; Erythrospermum. 

2. Oncobeae (fl. $; K 3 ;, C 4 10 imbr., A oo with lineal 
anthers, G (3 10) each with oc ov.; fr. not, or late, dehisc.) ; 

3. Pangieae (fl. dioec. ; K 2 5, C 5 8 with scales at base, 
A oo 5, G (2 6) each with co i ov. ; berry); Pangium, 

4. Flacourtieae (K 4 6 imbr., C. usu. o, A oo with short anthers, 
G as last; berry or caps.); Flacourtia, Xylosma. 

5. Scolopieae (K 4 6 almost valvate, C small or o, A oo perig. 
with short anthers, G (3 6), each with oo i ov., r- or multi- 
loc.); Scolopia, Prockia, Banara. 

6. Paropsieae (K 5, axis slightly tubular, with disc or even 
gynophore, C 5, A oo 20 or 9 5, perig. or at base of gyno- 
phore sometimes united, G (3 =,),usu. with ooov.; palaeotrop.) ; 

7. Casearieae (K 4 5 imbr., C o, A oo or few, sometimes stds., 
perig., G(2 6), usu. (3), each with oo 2 ov.); Casearia. 

8. Abatieae (K 4, valvate, C o, A oo 8, perig., no stds., G (2 4) 
with oo ov. ; 1. opp. ); Abatia. 

9. Honialieae (K, C 4 15, A 4 15 or oo in bundles, ante- 
petalous, perig. or epig. ; 1. spiral, rarely paired); Homalium. 

10. Phyllobotryeae (fl. ? or polyg., K, C 3 5, A 5 oo , hypog., 
G (2 4), uniloc. with oo ov. ; 1. alt. with epiphyllous infl.) ; 

Flag, sweet, Acortis Calamus L. ; - yellow, Iris Pseudacorus L. 

Flagellaria L. Flagellariaceae. 2 trop. Afr., As., Fiji. 

Flagellariaceae (EP., BH.}. Monocots. (Farinosae ; Calycinae BH.). 
3 gen., 8 sp., palaeotrop. PI. with long many-nerved L, sometimes 
climbing, with panicles of (1., reg. y or unisexual, 3-merous. 6(3), 3-loc. 
each with i axile anatr. ov. Fr. 3-loc. or with 3 i stones. Endosp. 

Flagellate, with whip-like runners. 

Flagenium Baill. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Madag. 

Flamboyante, Poinciana regia Boj., Colvillea. 

Flame-tree (Austr.), Xuytsia, Sterculia. 

Flamingo plant, Anthiirinm. 

FlanaganU Schlechter. Asclepiadaceae (11. i). i S. Afr, 

Flannel-flower, Actinotm,. 

Flaveria Juss. Compositae (6). 10 Am. 

Flavescent, becoming yellow, yellowish. 

Flavus (Lat.), yellow. 


Flax, Limtm usitatissimum L. ; New Zealand-, Phorminin tenax Forst. ; 
purging-, Limon ; spurge-, Daphne Gnidinm L. 

Flea-bane, Erigeron, Pulicaria; (W.I.), Vernonia arborescens Sw. 

Fleischmannia Sch. -Dip. Compositae (2). 4 Centr. Am. 

Flemingia Roxb. ex Ait. (Moghania EP.}. Legum. (in. 10). 20 palaeo- 

Fleshy fr., see Dispersal of seeds, Edible products ; leaves, Agave, 
Aizoaceae, Aloe, Anacampseros, Bromeliaceae, Chenopodiaceae, 
Crassutaceae, Disckidia, (Jesneriaceae, Glaux, Mesembryanthennim, 
OrchicLiceae, Saxifragaceae, Suaeda, Yucca ; stem, Cactaceae, Cero- 
ptgia, Euphorbia, Stapelia, &c. 

Fleur-de-lis, Iris. 

Fleurya Gaudich. Urticaceae (i). Strop. 

Flexularia Rafin. Gramineae (inc. sed.). i N. Am. 

Flexuose (stem), zigzag. 

Flindersia R. Br. Rutac. (n) (Meliac. BH.}. 15 E. Austr., Malaya. 

Flixweed, Sisymbriitm Sophia L. 

Floating heart (Am.), Liwnanthemnm. 

Floerkea Willd. Limnanthaceae. i N. Am. 

Flomosia Rafin. = Verbascum Tourn. (Scroph.). 

Flora, a catalogue of the pi. growing in a country. 

Floral (cf. also under Flower) diagram (cf. those given here under 
many fams.), an imaginary section through the bud, showing the 
arrangement of parts, aestivation, &c. ; it may also be used (cf. Poly- 
gonaceae) to express theoretical views as to multiplication or sup- 
pression of organs. At the top is the original stem upon which the 
fl. is a branch, and at bottom the bract; lat. are the bracteoles ; 
then follow K, C, A, and G, showing their relative positions to one 
another and lo the br. When free they are shown separate; when 
concrescent, they are joined by lines ; the anthers show the mode of 
opening, the ovary the placentation, stigmas, &c. ; -envelope, the 
perianth ; -formula, a convenient way of showing many features of 
a fl., largely used here. K 3, C 3, A 3, G 3, means calyx of 3 free 
sepals, co_rolla of 3 free petals, &c.; ovary superior. K (3), C (3), 
A 3 + 3> G (3), means calyx (corolla) of 3 concrescent sepals (petals), 
stamens in two whorls of 3 each, free, ovary of 3 concrescent carpels, 
inferior, and so on ; -kingdoms, see Floral Regions ; -leaves, the 
parts of the fl., esp. K and C ; -mechanisms, mechanism* to contrive 
as far as possible cross-fertilisation for a fl., and to ensure that the 
visiting insect shall receive pollen or touch the stigma, or to ensure 
self-fertilisation. They may be classed as follows (see individual 
headings for examples): Anemophily, see Pollination by Wind; 
Cleistogamy (production of self-fertilising fl.) ; Dichogamy (ripening 
of cf and ? at different times, with or without movements of sta. 
and style); Dioecism and other sex-distributions (q.v.)\ Explosive 
mechanisms ; Heterostylism ; Loose-pollen mechanisms ; Piston- 
mechanisms; Pollen-prepotency \ Pollination by Animals; Pollination 
by Water ; Pollination by Wind ; Self-sterility ; Sensitive stamens ; 
Sensitive stigmas ; Special mechanisms, such as Asclepiadaceae, Ficus, 
Orchidaceae, Salvia, Yucca, &c. ; Style-projection; Trap Flowers, &c. 
See Knuth, Handbook of Floral Pollination ; Oxford ; -regions, 

w. 18 


regions char, by the possession of a considerable number of local 
(endemic) forms ; the greater their number, and the higher their 
systematic rank, the more natural is the region. Engler divides the 
world as follows : I. Northern txtra-tropical Floral Kingdom, with 
9 regions) (i) Arctic, (2) Sub-Arctic or Conifer, (3) Mid- European, 

(4) Macronesian (Azores, Madeira, Canaries, Cape Verdes), (5) Medi- 
terranean, including land all round that sea, (6) Central Asiatic, 
(7) Temp. E. Asiatic, (8) Pacific N. Am., (9) Atlantic N. Am.: 
II. Palaeotropic Floral Kingdom, with 9 regions, (i) N. Afr. Indian 
desert, (2) Afr. forest and steppe, (3) S. W, S. Afr., (4) S. Atl. islands, 

(5) Madagascar and islands, (6) Nearer India, (7) Jlfousoonia (warmer 
Himal., Malaya, N. Austr., Polynesia) (this and 6 are usu. united in 
this book as Indomalaya, and sometimes called E. or W.), (8) E. China 
and S. Jap., (9) Hawaiian : III. Centr. and S. American Floral 
Kingdom, with 5 regions, (i) Mid- American Xero. (S.W. U.S., Mex.), 
(2) Trap. Am., (3) Andinf, (4) Galapagos, (5) Juan Fetnandez: 
IV. Austral Floral Kingdom, with 6 regions, (i) Antarctic S. Am., 
(2) Antarctic Continental, (3) Kerguelen, (4) New Zealand, (^Australia, 

(6) Tristan da Cunha, St Paul, Amsterdam : V. Oceanic Floral 
Kingdom, with 3 regions, Boreal, Tropical, and Austral; -symmetry 
shows two chief cases, if radial the fl. is regular or actinomorphic 
(even if the cpls. be fewer in number), Ran^^nc^^laceae, Kosaceae, &c., 
if not, some members being omitted in the outer whorls, or all 
members of a whorl not alike, it is irregular and may be zygomorphic 
(divisible into two halves, each the reflection of the other), Labiatae, 
Scropkulariaceae, &c., or asymmetrical (not so divisible), Valeria naceae. 
Cf. Floral Diagram, &c. 

Flores verbasci, Verbascum. 

Florestina Cass. Compositae (6). 3 Mexico. 

Floret, small fl. of a cluster. 

Floribundus (Lat. ), producing many fls. 

Florida Velvet Bean, Mucuna. 

Floridus (Lat.), showy. 

-florus (Lat. suffix), -flowered. 

Flos (Lat.), a flower. 

Floscopa Lour. Commelinaceae. 15 trop. and subtrop. 

Flotovia Spreng. r=Chuquiraga Juss. (Compos.). 

Flourensia DC. Composiiae (5). 10 Arizona to Argentina. 

Flower, a repr. short shoot, consisting of an axis (receptacle, q.v., 
thalanms, torus), bearing essential organs Qi.sporophylls, the androe- 
ceiiin or stamens (i/.v.), and gynoeceum or carpels (q.v.}, or only one 
of them in diclinous fl. ; also usu. some accessory organs or perianth 
(<].v.), most often divided into an outer green whorl or calyx, and 
inner coloured one or corolla', and insects, the relations between 
fls. and the insects which pollinate them, cf. Flower-classes, Floral 
Mechanisms, &c.; -axis, the receptacle; -bud, the young fl.. in 
which the 1. are packed in a definite way (aestivation, q.v.) ; -classes, 
the classes into which fls. may be divided according to their relations 
to insects, &c. ; W (wind-pollinated), Po. (offering pollen only), A (with 
freely exposed honey), AB (partly concealed honey), B (fully concealed 
honey), B' (do. in aggregated infls.), F (Lepidoptera fls. with long 


tubes), H (bee fls. with long tubes, zygomorphism, &c.) ; see individual 
classes for examples ; colours of - (usu. in corolla) are due to chloro- 
plastids or bodies carrying chlorophyll (rare), Deherainea, chromo- 
plastids or bodies carrying colours, or to coloured cell-sap ; all colours 
change readily to white, and there are several cases of change (q.v.} 
of one colour to another ; bees are inclined to prefer blue, butterflies 
red and white ; -cup, a hollow receptacle ; -de-luce, Iris ; -descrip- 
tion, cf. Description ; -, doubling of, change of sta. to petals, or in 
Compositae of tubular to ligulate fl. ; -fence \Barbados), Caesalpinia 
pidcherriina Sw. ; -mechanisms, see Floral ; -movements, protecting 
against cold and wet, e.g. a bending downwards, Anemone, Bellis, 
Daucus, Fragaria, Linuin, Papaver, or a closing of the petals, Ana- 
gallis, Bellis, Calandrinia, Eschscholtzia, Tragopogon; -pride (W.I.), 
Caesalpinia pulcherri ma Sw. ; -tube, the concrescent portion. 
Flowering ash, Fraxinus ; -currant, Ribes sanguineum Pursh ; -fern, 

Osmnnda ; -rush, Butomus umbellatus L. 
Fluckigeria Rusby (Kohlerianthns Fritsch, EP.). Gesneriaceae (i). 

i Bolivia. 
Flueckigeria O. Ktze. (Ledenbergia Klotzsch). Phytolaccaceae. i trop. 

8. Am., W.I. 

Flueggea Rich. = Ophiopogon Ker-Gawl. (Lili.). 
Flueggea Willd. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 6 palaeotrop. 
Flueggeopsis K. Schum. (Phyllanthus p.p. EP.). Euphorb. (A. I. i). 

3 Malaya. 

Fluitans (Lat.), floating. 
Fluviales= Helobiae. 
Fluviatilis (Lat.), growing in streams. 

Fly-flowers, Amorpkophallus, Araceae, Arum, Asariim, Cobaea, Com- 

positae, Crassulaceae, Cynanchum, Hedera, Helicodiceros, Paris, 

Stapelia, Umbelliferae, Veronica ; -orchis, Ophrys musdfera Huds. ; 

-trap, American, Apocynnm ; - -, Venus', Diouaea muscipula Ellis. 

Fockea Endl. Asclepiadaceae (11. 3). 6 Afr. 

Fodder. The food of grazing animals, &c. The grasses (fresh or dry) 
and Leguminosae (esp. the pods) are most generally useful. In- 
numerable pi. are used in different countries ; among the most 
important are Acacia, Agrostis, Alopecurus (fox-tail grass), Andro- 
pogon, Anthoxanthuin, Autliyllis, Arachis, Aristida, Astragalus, 
Atriplex, Avena (oat), Bonteloua (mesquit grass), Brassica, Briza, 
Bromus, Buchtoe( buffalo grass), Celt is, Cenchrus, Ceratonia (algaroba), 
Chionachne, Ckloris, Chrysopogon, Cicer (chick-pea), Cyamopsis, 
Cynodon (Bermuda grass), Cynosurns (dog's tail grass), Dactylis 
(cock's foot grass), Daucus, Deschampsia, Desmoaium, Dolichos 
(horse-gram), Ehrharta, Eleusine (ragi), Eragrostis, Eriochloa, 
Eruca, Ervum, Fagopyrum (buckwheat), Festztca (fescue), Galega, 
Glyceria, Gossypium (cotton-seed), Heteropogon, Hippocrepis, Holcus, 
Hordciun (barley), hnperala, hchaemum, Laihyrus, Leersia, Lespe- 
ateza, Loihun (rye gra>s), Lotus, Lupmus (lupin), Medicago (lucerne, 
cS:c.), Melica, Melilotus, Milium, Miicuna (Florida velvet bean), 
Muehlenbergia, Musa, Onobrychis (sainfoin), Ormtliopus, Oryza (rice), 
Panicum (millet, Guinea grass, &c.), Paspctlum, Penmsetnm (bajri), 
Phaseolus.(gi;a.m, beans), Phleuin (timothy), Pisum (pea), Poa (meadow 



grass), Secale (rye), Sesamum (gingelly), Setaria (Italian millet), Sor- 

X/inm (Guinea corn), Sptrgula, Symp/iyt-inii, Trifolium (clover, &c.), 

Tripsaciim, Triticum (wheat), Vicia (vetch), Zea (maize), Zizyphus. 
Foeniculum Tourn. ex L. Umhelliferae (in. 5). 4 Medit, Eur., i Brit. 

(fennel). The young 1. of F. officinale All. are a good veg. when 

blanched like celery, and the fr. is a condiment. 
Foetid horehound, Ballot a nigra L. 

Foetidia Comm. ex Lam. Lecythidaceae. 3 Madag., Masc. 
Fokienia A. Henry et H. H. Thomas. Coniferae (Pinaceae, see C. for 

gen. char.), i E. China. 
Folia Jaborandi, Pilocarpus. 
Foliaceous, leaf-like, leaf-bearing. 
Foliage plants, cult, for orn. foliage, e.g. Beponia, Caladitim, Codiaeitm, 

Coleus, many Coniferae, Cordy/ine, Cortaderia, Dracaena, Eryngium, 

many Ferns, Fitlonia, Gitnnera, Gesneria, many Palmae, Panax, 

Pelargonium, Phormiiim, Rheum, Rhus, Selaginella, Smilax, Sone- 

rila, many trees. 

Folium (Lat), a leaf; -folius (Lat. suffix), leaved. 
Follicle, a dry dehisc. fr. of one cpl., dehisc. on ventral side only; 

Aconitum, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Banksia, Crass ulaceae. 
Folotsia Costantin et Bois. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Madag. 
Fonna Lunell (Phlox p.p.). Polemoniaceae. 2 W. U.S. 
Fontainea Heckel. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). i New Caled., E. Austr. 
Fontanesia Labill. Oleaceae. i Sicily, W. As. 
Fontanus (Lat.), growing in or near a spring. 
Food, see Edible Products, Fodder ; -bodies, Acacia, Cecropia ; - of the 

gods, Ferula. 

Fool's parsley, Acthusa Cynapium L. 
Foot, organ attaching fern plant to prothallus. 
Foramen, an aperture. 

Forbesia Eckl. (Cnrculigo p.p. BH.}. Amaryllid. (in). 6 Afr. 
Forbidden fruit (W.I.). Citrus aurantium L. var. paradisi. 
Forchhammeria Liebm. Capparidaceae (in). 3 Mex., W.I. 
Forcipella Bail!. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Madag. 
Forcipella Small (Siphonychia EP.). Caryophyll. (i. 4). i N. Am. 
Fordia Hemsl. Leguminosae (m. 6). i S. China. 
Fordiophyton Stapf. Melastomaceae (i). 2 S. China. 
Forest, a close assemblage of trees, allowing no break in the overhead 

canopy; homogeneous (of one sp.), or diversified ; -oak, Casuarina. 
Forestiera Poir. Oleaceae. 15 Am., W.I. 
Forficaria Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. i). i S. Afr. 
Forgesia Comm. ex Juss. Saxifragaceae (v). i Bourbon. 
Forget-me-not, Myosotis. 

Fork-veined, veins forking into two, as in ferns. 
Forms of vegetation, groups of pi., of various fams , presenting a general 

resemblance in external habit, often correlated with resemblance in 

conditions of life, e.g. trees, epiphytes, &c. 
Formula, floral, see Floral formula. 
Forrestia A. Rich. Commelinaceae. 10 palaeotrop. 
Forsellesia Greene (Glossopetalon A. Gray). Celastr. 4 N. Am. 
Forskohlea L. Urticaceac (5). 5 Medit. to India. 


Forstera L. f. (Phyllachne p.p. EP.}. Stylidiaceae. 4 Tasm., N.Z. 

Forsteronia G. F. W. Mey. Apocynaceae (n. 2). 30 trop. Am., W.I. 

ForsytMa Vahl. Oleaceae. 2 China. Cult. orn. fl. shrubs. 

Forsythiopsis Baker. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 2 Maclag. 

Fortunearia Rehder et Wilson. Hamamelidaceae. i China. 

Fortunella Swingle (Citnis p.p.). Rutaceae ^v). 4 E. As. (cumquats). 

Fortuynia Shuttl. ex Boiss. Cruciferae (2). 2 Persia, Afghanistan. 

Fothergilla Murr. Hamamelidaceae. 2 All. N. Am. (Am. witch elder), 
Cashmir. Fl. apet, A oo . 

Fouquieria H. B. et K. Fouquieriaceae. 5 warm N. Am., incl. F. 
splendens Engelm. (ocotilla, coach-whip), used for hedges. Shrubs 
with deciduous 1., the midribs persistent and thorny, and showy fl. in 
racemes, &c., ?, reg., 5-merous. C (5), A 10 15, G (3) with 4 6 ov. 
on plac. in middle of ventral side. Fr. spherical, 3-loc.; seeds with 
long hairs or wings. 

Fouquieriaceae (EP.\ Tamaricaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Parietales). Only gen. Fouquieria (q.v.}. 

Fourcroya Sprang = Furcraea Vent (Amaryllid.). 

Four-o'clock, Mirabilis Jalapa L. 

Fourniera Scribner. Gramineae (3). i Mexico. 

Fournieria Van Tiegh. (Cespedesia EP.). Ochnaceae. i C. Am. 

Foveolaria Ruiz et Pav. Styraceae. i Peru. 

Fowl-meadow grass (Am.), Poa, Glyceria. 

Fox-glove, Digitalis purpurea L.; -grape, Vitis Labrnsca L. ; -tail 
grass, Alopecurus pratensis L., (Am.) Spartina patens Muhl. 

Fragaria (Tourn.) L. Rosaceae (in. 2). 10 *, Chili. F. vescaL,. 
(wild strawberry), Brit. Veg. repr. by runners is well shown. Fl. 
protog. (class AB), with epicalyx. Fr. of a number of achenes (the 
so-called seeds) upon a fleshy recept. The fl. bends down after fert, 
while the fr. ripens. In Am. the cult, forms tend to become dioec. 
or polyg. Several sp. cult, for the ed. fr. 

Franchetia Baill. Hamamelidaceae. i Madag. 

Franciscea Pohl = Brunfelsia L. p.p. (Solan.). 

Francoa Cav. Saxifragaceae (n). 2 Chili. Cult. orn. fl. (wedding 
flower) . 

Frangipani, Plumeria. 

Frangula Tourn. ex Hall. =Rhamnus L. p.p. (Rhamn.). 

Frangulinae (Warming), the i6th order of Choripetalae. 

Frankenia L. Frankeniaceae. 32 sea-coasts, temp, and subtrop. 
F. laevis L., sea-heath, in Brit. Halophytes with inrolled hairy 1. 
(cf. Empetrum). 

Frankeniaceae (EP., BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Parietales; Caryo- 
phyllinae BH. }. 4 gen., 60 sp. of salt-loving plants, trop. and temp, 
herbs with jointed stems; 1. opp., inrolled, exstip. (?). Fls. in dichasia, 
5 , reg. K (4 7), C 4 2, A usu. 6 in two whorls, sta. slightly 
united at base; G usu. (3), i-loc. with parietal plac., only the lower 
parts of which bear ovules; ov. oo , anatr., ascending; style forked. 
Caps, loculic. Mealy endosp. ; embryo straight. Chief genera : 
Frankenia, Niederleinia. Closely related to Tamaricaceae and Gutti- 
ferae ; the agreement with Caryophyllaceae, near to which it is 
sometimes placed, e.g. by BH., is more in habit than in structure. 


Frankincense, BosweUia-Carteri Birdw. ; -pine, Finns Taeda L. 

Franklandia R. Br. Proteaceae (i). 2 W. Austr.' 

Franseria Cav. Compositae (5). 16 Am. 

Frantzia Pittier. Cucurhitaceae (4). 2 C. Am. 

Frasera Walt. (Swertia EP.}. Gentianaceae (i. 3). 8 N. Am. 

Fraunhofera Mart. Celastraceae. i Brazil. 

Fraxinus Tourn. ex L. Oleaceae. 50 sp. esp. N. Am., E. As., and 
Medit. F. excelsior L., ash, in Brit. Serial accessory buds in axils. 
Has large pinnate 1. with grooved petioles. Water is said to enter 
, this groove and be absorbed by the 1. ; the hollow is nsu. inhabited 
by acarids, forming a domatiutn. The fls. appear before the 1. in 
densely crowded short racemes. Each $ consists merely of 2 sta. 
i cpls., and is anemoph. ; but polygamy is the rule in this sp. and every 
possible combination of the three types of fl. ( 5 , <? , ? ) occurs in 
various places, sometimes all on one tree, or two on one and one 
on another, and so on. Fr. a samara or one-seeded nut with termi- 
nal wing aiding in wind distr. F. Ornus L., the 'flowering ash' 
of S. Eur. , has K and C. The firm elastic wood of the ash is 

The weeping ash is a variety propagated veg. from a single tree 
which appeared as a sport at Wimpole in Cambridgeshire. 

Free, not ad- nor con-nate. 

Free-central placenta, one running up through centre of a i-loc. ovary, 
which looks like a multi-loc. ov. that has lost its septa. Cf. Frimu- 
laceae (diagram), Caryophyllaceae. 

Freerea Merrill. Icacinaceae. i Phil. Is. 

Freesia Klatt. Iridaceae (ill). 3 Cape Col. Cult. orn. perf. fl. 

Fregea Reichb. f. Orchidaceae (n. 7). i C. Am. 

Fremontia Torrey. Sterculiaceae. i California. 

French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.; -honeysuckle, Hedysarum\ -ju- 
jubes, Zizyphus; -marigold, Tagetes; -rye-grass, Arrhenatherum 
avenaceum Beauv. ; -weed, (W.I.), Commelina. 

Frenela Mirb. = Callitris Vent. p.p. (Conif.). 

Frerea Dalz. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i S. India. 

Fresenia DC. Compositae (3). 3 S. Afr. 

Freycinetia Gaudich. Pandanaceae. 50 Ceylon to N.Z. and Polynes., 
usu. climbing shrubs with infl. and fl. like Pandanus. The bracts are 
fleshy and usu. brightly coloured. In Java, Burck observed polli- 
nation effected by a bat (Pteropus edulis] which devoured the coloured 
bracts ; in so doing it received pollen upon its head and carried it to 
the 9 fl. Fr. a berry, not, as in Pandanus, a drupe. 

Freyera Reichb. (Biasolettia EP., Chaerophyllum p.p. B.H.}. Umbel- 
liferae (in. 2). 6 Medit. 

Freylinia Colla. Scrophulariaceae (il. 4). 2 S. Afr. 

Freziera Sw. ex Willd. (Ktirya p.p. EP. ). Theaceae. 10 trop. Am. 

Fridericia Mart. Bignoniaceae (i). i S. Brazil. 

Friedlandia Cham, et Schlechtd. =Diplusodon Pohl (Lythr.). 

Frijole, Phaseolus vulgaris L. 

Frijolite, Sophora. 

Fringe-tree (Am.), Chionanthus. 

Fritillaria (Tourn.). Liliaceae (v). 50 N. temp. F. Meleagris L. 

FRUIT 279 

(snake's head) Brit. Large nectaries at base of P. The bud stands 
erect and so does the caps., but the open fl. is pend. F. Imperialis L. 
(Crown Imperial) and others cult. orn. fl. 

Fritillary, Fritillaria. 

Fritzschia Cham. Melastomaceae (i). 3 Brazil. 

Froelichia Moench. Amarantaceae (3). 10 warm Am. Fr. enclosed 
in the P, which forms two wings 

Frog-bit, Hydrocharis ; -orcMs, Habenaria (Coeloglossutri) viridis R. Br. 

Frommia H. Wolff. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i Nyassaland. 

Frondous, frondose, leafy. 

Fropiera Bouton ex Hook. f. (Psiloxylon p.p. EP.}. Flacourtiaceae 
(inc. sed.) (Myrtaceae BfJ.). i Mauritius. 

FroriepiaC. Koch (Canim p.p. BH.}. Umbelliferae (ill. 5). i W. As. 

Frost-weed (Am.), Helianthemnm. 

Fruit, the product of that process of growth initiated by the act of fert. ; 
true fr. is the product of ovary only, false fr. or pseitdocarp of ovary 
with any other organ that developes. Simple fr. where the fl. gives 
one indivisible fr. ; aggregate where several similar fr. come from one 
fl. , as in raspberry, buttercup, Ochna, Rubus, &c. ; multiple or col- 
lective, where several fl. combine to give one fr., as in fig, mulberry, 
plane. They may be dry or fleshy, may open (dehiscent), or not 
(indehiscent) : some, called schizocarps, break up into one-seeded 
portions (mericarps). 

Dry indeh. fr. are divided into achenes and nuts, the former 
defined as the product of one, the latter of > one cpl. ; but in 
practice the large are nuts, the small achenes. True achenes in 
Ranunculus, Potentilla, &c.. but the name is also given to the fr. of 
Compositae, Gramineae (this variety, with pericarp and testa united, 
is sometimes called a caryopsis), Labiatae, &c. True nuts, from sup. 
ov., in Betulaceae, but the term is applied to the large one-carpelled 
fruit of Anacardium, &c. A var. of achene or nut is the winged one- 
seeded indeh. samara of ash, elm, Banisteria, Liriodendron, Ptelea, 
Seguieria, Ventilago, &c. 

Schizocarps various, e.g. the lomenlitm of many Leguminosae 
(a pod constricted between seeds, breaking into one-seeded portions), 
the schizocarps of Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Malpighiaceae, many 
Malvaceae, Sapindaceie, Umbelliferae. 

Dry dehisc. fr. of several kinds, esp. the follicle, legume, and 
capsule. Follicle of one cpl., dehisc. along ventral side only, Aco- 
nitum, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Crassulaceae. Legume similar 
but dehisc. along both sides, as in most Leguminosae. Dry fr. 
of > i cpl. are capsules, but special forms have special names, e.g. 
the pod-liice siliqua of Cruciferae, the f>yxi* of Anagallis, &c. (capsule 
opening by a lid split off by circnmscissile dehisc'-nce), and others. 
The way in which it dehisces is of systematic importance. It usu. 
splits from apex down. If the splits, as in Epilobium, Iris, &c. , run 
down the midrib of each cpl., the dehisc. is loculicidal: if, as in 
Hypericum, the fr. breaks into its component cpls. , leaving the 
placental axis standing, it is septicidal; if the outer wail of the fr. 
breaks away, leaving the septa standing, it is septifiagal. The portions 
into which the fr. splits are termed valves. In some Campanulas, 

280 FRUIT 

Papaver, &c., the dehiscence is porous, little openings forming in the 

The commonest fleshy fr. are the berry and drupe. The former 
contains no hard part but the seeds ; these are surrounded by 
fleshy tissue and there is a firmer skin (epicarp] on the outside. 
Berries may be derived from sup. ovaries, as in Berbeiis, Solamim, 
Vitis, &c. or inf., as in Ribes, Vaccinium, &c. In rare cases the 
berry dehisces, Akebia, Myristica, or is constricted between the 
seeds, Maerua, Unona. The drupe (e.g. cherry) has a skin (epicarp] 
on the surface, then a fleshy mass of tissue (mesocarf) and a hard 
shell or stone (emfacarp}, all forming part of the pericarp; within 
the stone is the seed or kernel, usu. without a hard coat. Drupes 
from sup. ovaries occur in Prunus, &c., from inf. in Cornaceae, 
Juglans, &c. There may be one stone or pyrene (Prunus) or several 

Other fleshy fr. are the pome of Pyrus, &c. in which the fleshy 
receptacle encloses, and is united to, the core or product of the G 
proper ; the pepo or gourd of Cucurbitaceae, e.g. cucumber (a variety 
of the berry with hard epicarp). the peculiar pseudo-berry of Juni- 
perus (q.v.) &c. , the fr. of strawberry (fleshy recept. bearing achenes), 
rose (fleshy recept. enclosing achenes), Anacardium (fleshy recept. 
bearing nut), Gaultheria (caps, enclosed in fleshy calyx), Urera, &c. 
(achene in fleshy perianth), and so on. Aggregate fleshy fr. in Ano- 
naceae (berries), Rubus (drupes), &c. Multiple fleshy fr. frequent in 
Moraceae (e.g. mulberry, fig, bread-fruit), Ananas, Anona, Carlu- 
dovica, &c. 

The style and stigma often fall away as the fr. ripens, but fre- 
quently remain in a shrivelled or in an enlarged condition. Some- 
times the style forms a hook, as in Gcum, a plume, as in Clematis, 
or an awn, as in Geraniaceae (this name is applied to any long thread- 
like organ on a fruit; cf. Gramineae). 

Other interesting morphological features in fruits: cf. Hetero- 
carpy, Aesculus, Bertholletia, Chenopodium, Leontodon, Nymphaea- 
ceae, Nyctaginaceae, Palmae (e.g. Phytelephas, Lodoicea, &c. ), 
Pandanaceae, &c. 

Frutex, a shrub; frutescent, fruticose, shrubby. 

Fuchsia (Plum.) L. Onagraceae (2). 65 C. and S. Am., N.Z. Many 
cult. orn. fl. Many show two buds in each axil, one above the other. 
Fl. suited to bees, humming-birds, &c. Berry ed. 

Fuernrohria C. Koch. Umbelliferae (in. 3). i Armenia. 

Fuertesia LJrb. Loasaceae. i San Domingo. 

FuertesieUa Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i San Domingo. 

Fugacious, falling early. 

Fugosia Juss. (Cienfnegosia EP.}. Malvaceae (4). 30 Am., Afr. , 

Fuirena Rottb. Cyperaceae (i). 25 trop. and subtrop. 

Fuliginous, sooty. 

Fuller's teasel, Dipsactts fullonum L. 

Fulvous, tawny. 

Fumana Spach (Hdianthennnn p.p. ). Cistaceae. 8 Medit., Eur., W. As. 

Fumaria Tourn. ex L. Papaveraceae (in). 40 Eur., As., Afr., chiefly 


Medit., i in Brit, (fumitory). Many climb by sensitive petioles (cf. 

Clematis). Fl. like Corydalis. F. capreolata L. var. pallidiftora 

Jord. (Brit.) shows colour-change in its fl. ; before pollination white, 

it gradually turns pink or carmine (cf. Ribes, Diervilla). 
Fumariaceae ( Warming) = in of Papaveraceae. 
Fumariola Korshinsky. Papaveraceae (m). i Turkestan. 
Fumitory, Fnmaria. 

Funastrum Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 2 trop. S. Am. 
Funereal cypress, Cuprcssus funebris Endl. 
Funicle, the stalk of the ovule; funiculate (ovule), stalked. 
Funifera, Leandr. ex C. A. Mey. Thymelaeaceae. 2 Brazil. 
Funkia Spreng. (Hosta Tratt. ). Liliaceae (in). 5 Japan, China. 

Embryos are formed in the seeds by outgrowth of the nucellus-tissue 

round the embryo-sac (cf. Alchornea). Seeds winged. Cult.orn. fl. 
Funtumia Stapf (Kickxia Blume p.p.). Apocynaceae (n. i). Strop. 

Afr. F, elastica Stapf is the chief source of Lagos or Ire rubber. 
Furcate, forked. 
Furcraea Vent. Amaryllidaceae (n). 20 trop. Am- Like Agave; 

infl. even larger. F. gigantea Vent, yields fibre (Mauritius hemp). 
Furcroya Rafin. = Furcraea Vent. (Amaryll.). 
Furfuraceous, with soft scales. 
Furze, Ulex eitropaeus L., &c. 

Fusaea W. E. Safford. Anonaceae (i). i Guiana, Venezuela. 
Fusanus R. Br. Santalaceae. 5 Austr., N.Z. 
Fuscous, dusky. 
Fusiform, spindle-shaped. 

Fustic, Chlorophora, Madura. Zanthoxyhtm ; young-, Rhus. 
Gabila Baill. (Pycnarrhena EP.}. Menispermaceae. i Timor. 
Gabunia K. Schum. (Tabernaemontana p.p.). Apocynaceae (i. 3). 

7 W. Afr. 

Gad-bush (VV. I.), Arcettthobium gracile Engehn. 
Gaertnera Lam. Rubiaceae (11. 5). 30 trop. Afr. and As. 
Gagea Salisb. Liliaceae (iv). 30 N. temp. Old World. G. iutea 

Ker-Gawl. in Brit. Fl. protog In the 1. -axils of some are buds 

which, if fert. does not occur, develope into bulbils and drop off. 
Gagernia Klotzsch. Ochnaceae. i Guiana. 
Gagnebina Neck. Leguminosae (i. 4). i Mauritius, Madag. 
Gagnepainia K. Schum. (Hemiorchis p.p.). Zingiber. (i). 3 S.E. As. 
Gahnia Forst. Cyperaceae (n). 35 1%, esp. Austr. 
Gaiadendron G. Don (Loranthus p.p. BH.}. Loranth. (i). 4 Andes, 


Gaillardia Fouger. Compositae (6). 15 Am. Cult. orn. fl. 
Gaillonia A. Rich. Rubiaceae (11. 10). 12 Nubia to India. 
Gaimardia Gaudich. in Freyc. Centrolepid. 3 temp. S. Am., N.Z., 

Galactia P. Br. Leguminosae (in. 10). 70 trop. and subtrop. Latex, 

which is rare in the fatn., is found in this plant. 

Galactites Moench. (Lupsia EP.}. Comp. (n). 3 Medit., Canaries. 
Galactodendron Rchb. (-um Kunth) = Brosimum Sw. (Morac.). 
Galactoxylon Pierre (Bassia p.p. ). Sapotaceae (i). i Malay Arch. 
Galagania Lipsky. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i C. As. 


Galanthus L. Amaryllidaceae (l). 6 Eur., Medit. G. nivalis L. 
(snowdrop) in Brit. Bulb with i-fl. scape. P in two whorls. On 
the inner surface of the inner P-l. are green grooves secreting honey. 
The bud is erect, but the open fl. pendulous, visited by bees. The 
sta. dehisce by apical slits and lie close against the style. Each has 
a process outwards from the anther. The stigma projects and is first 
touched by an insect; in probing for honey it shakes the sta. and 
receives a shower of pollen (cf. Erica). Autogamy may occur in old 
fls. The fl. remains open a long time. Cult. orn. fl. 

Galapee tree (W.I.). Stiadophyliitm. 

Galarhoeus Haw. = Euphorbia L. p.p. (Euph.). 

Galatea, Galatella Cass. = Aster Tourn. p.p. (Comp.). 

Galax L. Diapensiaceae. i Virginia, Georgia. 

Galaxia Thunb. Iridaceae (l). 4 S. Afr. 

Galba (W. I.), Calophyllum Calaba Jacq. 

Galbanum, gum, Ferula. 

Galbulimima F. M. Bailey. Magnoliaceae. i Austr. 

Gale, sweet, Myrica Gale L. 

Galeana La Llave. Compositae (6). i Mexico. 

Galeandra Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 5). 7 trop. Am. Epiphytes. 

Galearia Zoll. et Morr. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). 12 Indomal. 

Galeata Wendl. Inc. sed. i Indomal. 

Galeate, helmet-shaped. 

Galedupa Lam. (Pongamia Vent.). Legum. (in. 8). i trop. As., 

Galega Tourn. ex L. Leguminosae (in. 6). 3 S. Eur., W. As. 
G officinalis L. sometimes cult, as a fodder-plant (goat's rue). 

Galenia L. Aizoaceae (n). 18 S. Afr. 

Galeobdolon Adans. = Lamium Tourn. p.p. (Labi.). 

Galeola Lour. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 10 Malay Archipelago. 

Galeopsis L. Labiatae (vi). 7 N. temp. |*. 3 in Brit., inch G. 
Tetrahit L. (hemp-nettle) with swollen upper ends to internodes, 
acting as pulvini. 

Galeorchis Rydberg (Orchis p.p.). Orchidaceae (n. i). i N.Am. 

Galeottia A. Rich. (Zygopetalum BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 14). 2 

Galera Hlume (Epipogum BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 3 As. 

Galingale (Am.), Cyperus. 

Galiniera Delile. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Abyssinia. 

Galinsoga Ruiz et Pav. Compositae (5). 5 Mexico to Argentina. 
G. parviflora Cav. now a common weed in Eur. and near Kevv. 

Galipea Aubl. Rutaceae (i). 6 S Am. 

Galium L. Rubiaceae (ll. n). 220 cosmop. ; to in Brit, (bed-straw, 
&c.). Herbs with whorls of 1. and slips, (see fam.) ; fls. in dichasial 
panicles, small with honey freely ex .osed (class A) on the epig. disc, 
usu. protandrous with ultimate self-pollination. G. Aparine L. (goose- 
grass or cleavers; Brit.) is a feeble hook-climber with small reflexed 
hooks on the stem. The schizocarp is also provided with hooks. 

Gallesia Casar. Phytolaccaceae. i Peru, Brazil. 

GaUitrichum Fourn. = Salvia Tourn. (Labiatae). 

Gallnuts, cf. Myrobalans. 


Galopina Thunb. Rubiaceae (n. 7). 2 $. Afr. 

Galphimia Cav. Malpighiaceae (n). 12 warm Am. Cult. orn. shrubs. 

Galpinia N.E. Br. Lythraceae. i Transvaal. 

Galpinsia Britton (Oenothera BH.). Onagraceae. 6 N. Am. 

Galtonia Decne. Liliaceae (n). 2 S. Afr. Cult. orn. fl. (spire lily). 

Galvesia Domb. ex Juss. Scrophulariaceae (n. 3). 3 Peru to Calif. 

Galypola Nieuwland (Polygala p.p.). Polygalaceae. i U.S. 

Gama grass (Am.), Tripsacum, 

Gambeya Pierre (Chrysophyllum p.p. EP.). Sapot. (i). 5 trop. 

Afr., Am. 

Gambir, Uncarin Gambler Roxb. 
Gamblea C. B. Clarke. Araliaceae (i). i Sikkim. 
Gamboge, Garcinia Morella Desr., &c. 
Gamete, a sexual reproductive cell.. 
Gametophyte, the sexual generation. 

Gamo- (Gr. prefix), united ; -petalae (BH.), Sympetalae ; -petalous, 
-phyllous, -sepalous, with concrescent C, P, K; -tropic (movement), 
before fert. 

Gamocarpha DC. = Boopis Juss. (Calycer.). 
Gamogyne N.E. Br. Araceae (v). 2 Malaya. 
Gamolepis Less. Compositae (8). 12 S. Afr. 
Gamopoda Baker. Menispermaceae. i Maclag. 
Gamosepalum Hausskn. Cruciferae (4). 2 W. As. Gamosepalous. 
Ganja, Cannabis saliva L. 
GanophyUum Blume. Sapindaceae (n) (Burser. BH.). i Phils, to 


Ganua Pierre ex Dubard (Illipe p.p.). Sapot. (i). 6 Malaya. 
Ganymedes Salisb. = Narcissus Tourn. p.p. (Amaryll.). 
Garapatica Karst. (Alibertia BH.). Rubiaceae (i. 8). i Colombia. 

Fr. ed. 

Garberia A. Gray. Compositae (2). i Florida. 
Garcia Rohr. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 3). i trop. Am. 
Garcilassa Poepp. et Endl. Compositae (5). i Peru. 
Garcinia L. Guttiferae (v). 200 palaeotrop. trees or shrubs with leathery 
1. Sta. free or united into bundles or into a common mass. Berry ; 
seed arillate. The resin of G. Morella Desr. and other sp., obtained 
by cutting notches in the stem, forms gamboge. The fr. of many is 
ed., esp. that of G. Mangostana L. (mangosteen), the aril of the seed 
of which is a delicacy. Some yield useful timber. 

Gardenia Ellis. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 80 palaeotrop., largely cult. orn. perf. 
fl. Some sp. have apparently whorls of leaves, 3 in each, really a case 
of condensation of two whorls of 2 into one with extreme anisophylly 
of one whorl ; the fourth 1. is reduced to a minute scale. The stipules 
of many secrete a resinous fluid. 

Gardeniopsis Miq. Rubiaceae (n. 4). i Sumatra, Borneo. 
Gardneria Wall, ex Roxb. Loganiaceae. 3 India to Japan. 
Gardoquia Ruiz et Pav. (Saturda p.p. EP.}. Labiatae (vi). 30 W. Am. 
Garget (Am.), Phytolacca. 

Garhadiolus Jaub. et Spach (Rhagadioius BH.). Comp. (13). 4 W. As. 
Garidella Tourn. ex L. =Nigella L. (Ranunc.). 
Garjan oil, Dipterocarpus. 


Garlic, A/lfum ursinum L., &c. ; -pear tree (W.I.), Crataeva gynandra 
L. ; -shrub (W. I.), Bignonia alliacea Lam. 

Garnieria Brongn. et Gris I'roteaceae (i). i New Caledonia. 

Garnotia Brongn. in Duperr. Gramineae (8). 15 Indomal., China, Jap. 

Garnotiella Stapf. Gramineae (8). i Phil. Is. 

Garretia Welw. (Khaya EP.}. Meliaceae (n). r trop. Afr. 

Garrya Dougl. ex Lindl. Garryaceae. 15 N. Am., W.I. Shrubs 
with 4-angled twigs and opp. evergr. 1. Fl. in catkin-like panicles, 
3 in axil of each bract, unisexual, i P 4, A 4 ; ? naked, G(2 3), 
uniloc. with 2 ovules. Fr. with thin pericarp and i 2 seeds. Endo- 
sperm. Cult. orn. shrubs. 

Garryaceae (EP. ; Comaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Garryales). 
Only genus Garrya, q.v. 

Garryales. The 4th order of Dicots. Archichlamydeae. 

Garuga Roxb. Burseraceae. 6 Indomal. 

Garugandra Griseb. (Gleditschia p.p. EP.). Leguminosae (n. 7). 
(Anacardiaceae, BH.) i Argentina. 

Garuleum Cass. Compositae (9). s'S. Afr. 

Gaslondia Vieill. (Syzygium p.p. EP.). Myrtaceae (i). i New 

GaspariUo ( W. I . ), Esenbeckia. 

Gasteria Duval. Liliaceae (n). 35 S. Afr. Xero. with succulent 1. 
closely packed together, but often in the shade of long grass. 

Gastonia Comm. ex Lam. Araliaceae (i). 5 Madag., Masc. 

Gastranthus Moritz ex Benth. et Hook. f. Acanth. (iv B). i Venezuela. 

Gastridium Beauv. Gramineae (8). 2 Medit. 

Gastrochilus Wall. Zingiberaceae (i). 2 Himal., Burmah. 

Gastrocotyle Bunge. Boraginaceae (iv. 2). i Egypt to Panjab. 

Gastrodia R. Br. Orchidaceae (u. 2). 12 India to N.Z. 

Gastroglottis Bluine (Liparis p.p.). Orchidaceae (n. 4). 2 Peru. 

Gastrolepis Van Tiegh. Icacinaceae. i New Caledonia. 

Gastrolobium R. Br. Leguminosae (in. 2). 35 W. Austr. 

Gatesia A. Gray. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i U.S. 

Gaub tree, Diospyros Embryopteris Pers. 

Gaudichaudia H. B. et K. Malpighiaceae (i). 15 Mexico to Vene- 
zuela. Mericarp elevated on carpophore formed from wing of cpl. 

Gaudinia Beauv. Gramineae (9). 2 Medit. 

Gaultheria Kalm. ex L. Ericaceae (n. 2). 100 sp. Am., Japan to 
Himal. and Tasmania. The fruit resembles a berry, but is really 
a capsule, enclosed in the fleshy calyx but not adhering to it. 
G. proctttnbens L. (winter green, checker-berry or partridge-berry, 
U.S.). G. Shallon Pursh (sallal, shallon, N.W. Am.). Winter- 
green oil is distilled from the pi. of some sp. 

Gaura Linn. Onagraceae (2). 25 N. Am. The anthers are chambered 
up by horizontal septa in each foe. (cf. Circaea). Nut. 

Gaurella Small (Oenothera p.p.). Onagraceae (2). 2 N. Am. 

Gauropsis Presl (Clarkia p.p. EP.). Onagraceae (2). i Mexico. 

Gaussia H. Wendl. Palmaceae (iv. r). i Cuba. 

Gauze tree (W. L). Lagetta. 

Gavarretia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 2 N. Brazil. 

Gaya H. B. et K. Malvaceae (2). 8 trop. Am. 


Gaylussacia H. B. et K. Ericaceae (in. i). 40 Am. (huckleberry). 

The 5 loc. of the ovary are made into 10 by partitions growing out 

from the midribs of the cpls., as in Linum. 
Gayoides Small (Abutilon p.p. f., Sida p.p. BH.}. Malv. (2). 

2 N. Am. 

Gayophytum A. Juss. Onagraceae (2). 6 Chili to Calif. 
Gazania Gaertn. Compositae (10). 24 Cape Colony. Cult. orn. fl. 
Gean. Prunits Avium L. 

Geanthemum R. E. Fries. Anonaceae (i). i Brazil. Cf. Anona. 
Geanthus Phil. Liliaceae (iv). 2 Chili. 
Gearum N.E. Br. Araceae (vn). i Goyaz. 
Geaya Costantin et Poisson. Ericaceae (iv. i). i Madag. 
Geigeria Giiesselich. Compositae (4). 30 S. and trop. Afr. 
Geijera Schott. Rutaceae (i). 5 E. Austr. 
Geissanthera Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 20). i New Guinea. 
Geissanthus Hook. f. Myrsinaceae (n). 25 equatorial S. Am. 
Geissaspis Wight et Arn. Leguminosae (in. 7). 8 trop. Afr., As. 
Geissois Labill. Cunoniaceae. 6 Austr. to Fiji. 
Geissolepis Robinson. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 
Geissoloma Lindl. ex Kunth. Geissolomataceae. G. marginal inn 

Kunth, Cape Col., a small xero. shrub, the onlysp. L. opp. evergr., 

with sol. axillary fls., 5 . K 4, C o, A 4 + 4, G (4) each with 2 pend. ov. 

Caps. 4-loc. Endosp. 
Geissolomataceae (EP. ; Penaeaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 

Myrtiflorae). Only genus, Geissoloma, q.v. 
Geissomeria Lindl. Acanthaceae (iv. B). to trop. Am. 
Geissopappus Benth. Compositae (6). 3 trop. S. Am. 
Geissorhiza Ker. Iridaceae (m). 40 S. Afr., Madag. Cult. orn. fl. 
Geissospermum Allem. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 2 trop. Brazil. G. laeve 

Baill. has offic. bark, cortex Pereirae. 
Geissostegia Benth. = Erica Tourn. (Eric.). 
Geitonogamy, pollination from another fl. on same pi. 
Geitonoplesium A Cunn. Liliaceae (x). 2 E. Austr. 
Gelasine Herb. Iridaceae (n). 2 temp. S. Am. 
Geleznowla Turcz. Rutaceae (i). 3 W. Austr. 
Gelonium Roxb. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 6). 15 warm As., Afr., 

Gelsemium Juss. Loganiaceae. 2 N. Am., As. G. sempervv-ens Ait. 

(Carolina jasmine) cult. The peduncle bears numerous bracteoles. 
Gemmate, in pairs. 
Gemmae, buds, Hymenophyllaceae. 
Gendarussa Nees=Justicia L. p.p. (Acanth.). 
General, used in sense opposed to partial. 
Generations, alternation of, Pteridophyta. 
Generic name, see Nomenclature. 
Genetyllis DC. = Darwinia p.p (Myrt.). 
Genianthus Hook. f. (Secamone p.p. EP.}. Asclepiad. (n. 2). 4 In- 


Geniculate, bent sharply. 
Geniosporum Wall, ex Benth. Labiatae (vn). 15 Afr., Madag., 



Geniostemon Engelm. et Gray. Gentianaceae (i). 2 Mexico. 

Geniostoma Forst. Loganiaceae. 25 Madag. to N.Z. 

Genip tree (W.I.), Melicocca, &c. 

Genipa (Tourn.) L. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 2 warm Am., W.I. 

Genista L. Leguminosae (in. 3). 90 Eur., N. Afr., W. As.; 3 in 
Brit. G. anglica L. (needle-gorse or petty whin) has large thorns 
(branches). The fl has an explosive mechanism, typical of many of 
the fam. (q.v. ). In G. tinctoria L., the dyer's greenweed (M tiller's 
Fert. of Fls. p. 189), there is no honey; the style and tube of sta. are 
enclosed in the keel, which is united along the top seam as well as 
the bottom. The sta. shed their pollen almost in the apex of the 
keel, but not so near it as to pollinate the stigma. When the fl. 
opens there is a tension of the sta.-tube on the lower side tending to 
bend it upwards ; this is resisted by an opposite one in the keel and 
wings, but if an insect alight on the wings and press them down, the 
upper seam of the keel gives way and 'an explosion follows. In it the 
style flies out, striking the under side of the insect, thus probably 
becoming cross-pollinated, and is followed by a shower of pollen 
which gives the insect a fresh coating to take to another fl. 

A yellow dye is obtained from the fls. of this sp. , which when 
mixed with woad gives a fine green (Kendal green). 

Genlisea A. St Hil. Lentibulariaceae. 12 trop. Am. and Afr. 

Gentian, Gentiana. 

Gentiana Tourn. ex L. Gentianaceae (i). 350 cosmop. exc. Afr., 
chiefly alpine ; 5 (gentian) in Brit. Most are alpine pi. of tufted 
growth. Fls. of interest (see Nat. Pfl., Muller'sfert. of Fls., Alpen- 
blumen, &c. ). The genus shows an ascending series of fls., adapted 
to higher and higher types of insects. G. lutea L. is a primitive 
type, with freely exposed honey, yellow homogamous fl. and short- 
tongued visitors. G. purpurea L. , G. Pneiinwnanthe L. (Brit.), &c. 
are blue long-tubed humble-bee fls. G. verna L. (Brit.), G. Amarella 
L. (Brit.) and G. cainpestris L. (Brit.) are long-tubed butterfly fls., 
sometimes protandr. 

The gentians form one of the most striking features of the flora 
of the Alps, occurring in large masses and with very conspicuous fls. ; 
G. acaulis L. is the most beautiful. In the Brit. Alts, they are rare. 
The root of G. lutea furnishes a tonic. 

Gentianaceae (EP., Bff.). Dicotyledons (Sympet. Contortae; Gen- 
tianales BH.). 80 gen., 800 sp. in every part of the globe and in 
great variety of situations arctic and alpine pi., halophytes, sapro- 
phytes (Voyria, c. ), marsh pi. (Menyanthes, &c.), water pi. (Lim- 
nanthemum), &c. They are mostly herbaceous (often perennial) ; a 
few shrubs. The perennial herbs have usu. a rhizome. L. opp., 
exstip., usu. entire. The infl. is usu. a dichasial cyme like Caryo- 
phyllaceae; as in that fam., the lat. branches often become mono- 
chasial. Other cyniose infls. also occur. Bracts and bracteoles 
present or not. Fls. reg., $, 4 g-merous (rarely more). K usu. (5), 
imbr. ; C (;), bell- or funnel-shaped, or sometimes salver-shaped, 
conv. (exc. Bartonia, Obolaria, &c., and II); A as many as petals, 
alt. with them, epipet. ; anthers various, usu. introrse ; G with a 
glandular disc at base, (i), placed in the antero-posterior plane. 


Placentae usu. parietal, but they commonly project far into the cavity 
and spread out at their ends; occasionally the ovary is 2-Ioc. with 
axile plac. ; ovules usu. oo , anatr.; style simple; stigma simple or 
2-lobed. Fr. usu. a septiciclal caps, with oo seeds rarely a berry 
(Chironia, &c.); seeds small; embryo small, in abundant endosp. 

The flowers of G. are insect-fertilised. The genus Gentiana has 
been very fully studied; see also Menyanthes (dimorphic). 

Classification and chief genera (after Engler): 

I. GENTIANOIDEAE (1. opp.: C conv. or imbr.) : Exacum, 

Erythraea, Chlora, Gentiana, Swertia. 

II. MENYAKTHOIDEAE (1. alt.; C induplicate-valvate) : 

Menyanthes, Limnanthemum. 

Gentianales (HH.} The 7th cohort of Gamopetalae. 

Gentianella Moench.= Gentiana Tourn. p.p. (Gent.). 

Gentilia A. Chevalier et Beille. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. 2). 2 trop. Afr. 

Genus, see Nomenclature. 

Genyorchis Schlechter. Orchidaceae (u. 16). 3 trop. Afr. 

Geo- (Gr. prefix), earth-; -carpic, producing subterranean fr., Ainphi- 
curpaeii, Arachis, Cardanritie, Trigonella, Voandzeia ; -graphical 
distribution, cf. textbooks; -philous, geocarpic ; -tropism, irrita- 
bility to gravity. 

Geobaianus Small. Rosaceae (vi). 2 Florida. 

Geocardia Standley^Geophila D. Don (Rubiac.). 

Geocarpon Mackenzie. Aizoaceae (n). i Missouri. 

Geocharis Ridl. Zingiberaceae (l). 2 Malaya. 

Geochorda Cham, et Schlecht. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i warm 
S. Am. 

Geococcus J. Drumm. ex Harv. Cruciferae (4). i N.W. Austr. 

Geodorum Jacks. Orchidaceae (n. 10). 10 Indomal. 

Geoffraea L. Leguminosae (in. 8). 4 trop. Am. 

Geoffraya Bonati. Scrophulariaceae (ll. 6). i Cambogia. 

Geomitra Becc. (Bagnisia p.p. EP.). Burmanniaceae. 2 Borneo. 

Geonoma Wild. Palmae (iv. i). 85 trop. Am. 

Geopanax Hemsl. Araliaceae (i). i Seychelles. 

Geophila D. Don. Rubiaceae (n. 5). 15 trop. 

Geoprumnon Rydberg (Astragahis p.p. EP.). Leguminosae (in. 6). 
6 N. Am. 

Georchis Lindl. =Goodyera R. Br. (Orchid.). 

Georgina \Vilkl. = Dahlia Cav. (Comp.). 

Geosiris Baill. Burmanniaceae. i Madag. 

Geostachys Ridl. Zingiberaceae (i). 5 Malaya. 

Geracium Reichb. = Crepis Vaill. p.p. (Comp.). 

Geraniaceae (EP.\ BH. incl. Oxalidaeeae, Limnanthaceae, Tropaeo- 
laceae, Balsaminaceae). Dicots. (Archichl. Geraniales EP., BH.}. 
it gen., 650 sp., cosmop., mostly herbs, often hairy; Sarcocaulon 
fleshy. Fl. usu. reg. , $, 5-merous. K =,, imbr. with valvate tips, 
persistent ; C 5, imbi . or conv. ; A as many or 2 or 3 times as many as 
petals, united at base, obdipl. when > i whorl, anther usu. versatile ; 
G (5) or (2 3) or (3 5), with i 2 or 2 oo ovules in each on axile 
plac. ; ovules usu. pend. with ventral raphe and micropyle facing 
upwards ; style long with 5 stigmas. Fls. usu. protandr. Fr. usu. a 


schizocarp, the cpls. splitting off from a central beak (the persistent 
style); each takes with it a strip of the tissue of the style, forming an 
awn, which is usu. hygroscopic (cf. Geranium, Erodium). Embryo 
straight or folded, in endosp Chief genera : Geranium, Erodium, 
Pelargonium, Sarcocaulon. [BH. chars. Herbs with alt. or opp. 1. 
Fl. 5, reg. or ! . Recept. hardly disc-like, often with 5 glands alt. 
to C. K 5 or less, C 5 or less, or o, imbr., rarely conv. ; A twice as 
many as K, often connate, G (3 5, rarely i), multiloc.; ovules 
i 2 per loc., pend. or not, raphe various. Caps., schizocarp, or rarely 
berry. Enclosp. little or o.] 

Geraniales. The 23rd order (Engler) of LHcots. (Archichl.). The 
7th cohort (BH.) of Polypetalae. 

Geranium (Tourn.) L. Geraniaceae. 200 cosmop., esp. temp. (12 in 
Brit., incl. G. pratense L., meadow cranesbill, and G. Robertiatuim L., 
herb Robert). Infl. cymose, either dich. with cincinnus-tendency 
(by preference of the /3-bracteole), or a cincinnus alone, which is 
straightened out into a sympodium. The nectaries are at the base of 
the sta. These stand at first round the undeveloped style ; after 
dehiscence they move away, and finally the stigmas open. The 
fr. explodes, the awn twisting up so that the cpls. are carried up and 
outwards. In many sp. they open at the same time and the seeds-are 
shot out. The G. of greenhouses is really a Pelargonium. 

Geranium (of greenhouses), Pelargonium; -grass, -oil, Cymbopogon. 

Gerardia L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). 40 Am. 

Gerardiina Engl. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). i trop. Afr. 

Gerardiopsis Engl. (Anticharis Endl.). Scrophular. (i. 2). i trop. 

Gerascanthus P. Br. = Cordia L. p.p. (Borag.). 

Gerbera Gronov. Compositae (12). 35 Afr., As. Cult. orn. fl. 

Germainia Bal. et Poitr. (Anthistiria p.p. BH.). Gram. (2). 2 
S.E. As. 

German pellitory, Anacyclus. 

Germander, Teucrutm. 

Germen, the ovary. 

Germination, cf. Acacia, Cttcurbita, Streptocarpus, Ulex, Vivipary. 

Gerontogaeous, Old World. 

Geropogon L. = Tragopogon Tourn. (Comp.). 

Gerrardanthus Harv. ex Benth. et Hook. f. Cucurbitaceae ( i). 4 trop. 

Gerrardiana Oliver. Flacourtiaceae (9) (Samydaceae, BH.). i S. Afr. 

Gertrudia K. Schum. Flacourtiaceae (3). i New Guinea. 

Geruma Forsk. Inc. sed. i Arabia. 

Gesneria L. Gesneriaceae (n). 50 trop. Am., W.I. 

Gesneriaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Sympet. Tubirlorae ; Personales 
BH.). 85 gen., 1100 sp. trop. and subtrop., mostly herbaceous or 
slightly woody ; shrubs and trees are rare. L. usu. opp., rarely 
whorled or alt., entire or toothed, never divided, exstip. Some are 
root-climbers, and amongst these are a few epiphytes, e.g. Aeschy- 
nanthus, usu. with fleshy water-storing 1. Many are tuberous, e.g. 
the Sinningia (Gloxinia) of greenhouses. A number repr. veg. by 
means of curious runners or suckers, covered with scale-leaves, usu. 



Floral diagram of Gesneria, 
after Eichlcr; d= disc-gland. 

formed below ground, e.g. Nacgelia, Isoloma, &c. A peculiar mor- 
phology and life-history is found in Streptocarpus (g.v. ). 

Us- sol. or in cymose infls. of various types, ? , usu. markedly [ . 
K (5), us>u. with very stout teeth, generally valvate ; C (5), often 
2 -lipped, imhr. (in Kamondia, &c. it is 
nearly rotate and reg.); A usu. 4, didyna- 

mous, or 2, or 5 (Ramondia, &c.), alt. 
with corolla lobes; stds. often found. At 
the base of the flower-tube is a di*c, whose 
various shapes form important marks in 
distinguishing gen. ; it may be ring-shaped 
(thin or thick), 5-angled, 5-lobed, or re- 
duced to 5 or fewer glands. G sup., or 
inf. (see below); always (2), i-loc. with 
parietal plac. which sometimes project 
inwards so far that it becomes imperfectly 
2-loc. ; ovules oo , anatr. ; style simple ; 
stigma often bilobed. Fr. usu. a caps , 
splitting loculic. into 2 valves, each of 
which may again split into 2 ; sometimes (Ramondia) the caps, is 
septicidal, or opens only at the tip, or the fr. may be fleshy or 
berry-like. Seeds small and numerous, with endosperm ( II) or 
without (most of i). Embryo straight. 

Fls. mostly protandrous; their large size and bright colours suit 
them to insects. Saintpaulia (</..), Klugia, and others exhibit two 
types of symmetry on the same plant, the fls. (and usu. the 1.) on 
the left side of the infl. being like the reflections of those on the right 
(enantiostyly) . 

Germin. interesting, Streptocarpus (q.v ). The cots, are 
epigeal, and usu. thin, one larger than the other and often growing 
subsequently to some size : buds are often found in their axils. 
Anisophylly is very common, and usu. alt. on one side and the other. 

None of the G. are economic plants ; many are hothouse tavourites. 
Classification and chief genera (after Fritsch) : 

" The relationships to allied orders, especially Scrophulariaceae, 
Orobanchaceae and Bignoniaceae, are so close that it is almost im- 
possible to draw the dividing lines. The B. are most sharply marked 
off by the structure and formation of their fruit and seed, and often 
by their divided leaves. The O. might very well be placed in G- as 
a parasitic sub-order. The placentation and structure of the ovary is 
the chief mark of distinction between the G., O., and S-" 

I. CYRT ANDROID EAR (ovary free, sup.) : Ramondia, 

Saintpaulia, Didymocarpus, Streptocarpus, Aeschynanthus, 
Besleria, Cyrtandra, Columnea. 

II. GESNERIOIDEAE (ovary more or less inf.) : Achimenes, 

Isoloma, Gesneria. 

Gesnouinia Gaudich. Urticaceae (4). i Canaries. 
Gestroa Becc. Violaceae. i Malaya. 
Getah ( Malay) = gutta. 

Gethyllis Plum, ex L. Amaryllidaceae (i)- 10 Cape Col. Some 
ed. fr. 


2 9 o GETHYUM 

Gethyum Phil. Liliaceae (iv). i Chili. 

Geum L. Rosaceae (in. 7). 40 N. and S. temp., arctic. G. rivale L. 
(water avensj with a thick rhizome and large protog. fis. , and G. 
urbanum L. (wood avens) with smaller nearly homugamous fls., in 
Brit. Both, with many others, have a hook on each achene aiding 
distr. The style in a newly opened fl. has a Z-like kink in it. The 
lower half of 'his after iert. gets larger and more woody, while the 
upper drops off. 

Geunsia Blume. Verl>enaceae (4). 5 Malay Archipelago. 

Gevuina (Gvevina) Molina. Pioteaceae (n). i Chili. Ed. nut. 

Gherkin, young fr. of Cucumis tativus L. 

Ghiesbreghtia A. Gray. Scroplmlariaceae (i. i). i Mexico. 

Ghikaea Volkens et Schweinf. Scrophulariaceae (ill. 2). i trop. Afr. 

Giant bamboo, Dendroca awns, Giganlochloa; -cactus, Ctreus; -fennel, 
Ferula ; -pumpkin, Cucnrhita ; -sugar pine, Finns. 

Gibbesia Small (Siphonychia EP.). Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). i N. Am. 

Gibbous, with projecting broad pouch. 

Gidgee (Austr. ), Acacia homatophylla A. Cunn. 

Giesekia (Gisekia) L. Phytolaccaceae. 5 Afr., India. 

Gifdoorn (S. Afr.), Sarcocanlon. 

Gifola Cass. = Filago L. (Comp.). 

Giganthemum VVelw. (Camoensia EP.}. Leguminosae (in. i). i trop. 

Gigantocnloa Kurz. Gramineae (13). 10 Indomal. Giant bamboos 
(q.v.), used in Java, &c. for building. 

Gigasiphon Drake del Castillo (Bauliinia p.p.). Leguminosae (n. 4). 
i Madag. 

Gigliolia Becc. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 Borneo. 

Gigliolia Barb. Rodr. (Octomcria EP.). Orchidaceae (n. 6). 2 Brazil. 

Gilgia Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). i Somaliland. 

Gilgiochloa Pilger. Gramineae (9). i E. Afr. 

Gilia Ruiz et Pav. Polemoniaceae. 120 temp, and subtrop. Am. 

Gilibertia Ruiz et Pav. Araliaceae (i). 20 trop. Am., As., Japan, Chi. 

Gill (Am.), Kepeta Glechoma Benth. 

Gillbeea F. Muell. Cunoniaceae. i N.E. Austr. 

Gillenia Moench. Rosaceae (i. i). 2 N. Am. Cult. orn. fl. 

Gilletiella De Wild, et Durand. Acanthaceae (n). i Congo. 

Gillettia Rendle (Anlhericopsis Engl.). Commelinaceae. i E. Afr. 

Gilliesia Lindl. Liliaceae (iv). 3 Chili. Cult. orn. fl. 

Gilliflower. clove, Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; wall-, wallflower. 

Gilruthia Ewart. Compositae (4). i W. Austr. 

Gin, Juiiiperits. 

Ginalloa Korth. Loranthaceae (il). 4 Indomal. 

Gingelly, gingili, Sesamum indicum L. 

Ginger, Zingiber ojfftcinale Rose. 

Gingidium F. Muell. = Aciphylla Forst. (Umbellif.). 

Ginginsia DC. = Pharnaceum L. (Aizo.). 

Ginkgo L. Ginkgoaceae. i, G. biloba L. (Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.), 
the maidenhair tree, perhaps found wild in W. China, but carefully 
preserved as sacred in temple gardens. It grows in the open in Eur., 
reaching 100 feet ; 1. deciduous in autumn, resembling those of maiden- 


hair fern, and very often with a deep median division, forked in 
venation (cf. ferns and cycads), scattered on long shoots, or crowded 
at the apex of short shoots, which sometimes elongate into long. 
Below the 1. on the short shoot are a few scale 1. Fls. dioecious, in 
the axils of the uppermost scales or lowest green 1. on a short shoot 
(position different from that usual in Coniferae with long and short 
shoots). 4 a stalked central axis, bearing scattered rather loosely 
disposed sta., each of which is a slender filament ending in an apical 
scale and two or more pollen-sacs with longitudinal opening. The 
pollen grain forms a rudimentary prothallus of a few cells, and the 
generative nuclei produce two large spirally coiled spermatozoids 
(cf. cycads). The ? has the form of a long stalk with two term, 
elliptical ovules enclosed at the base by a collar-like envelope repres. 
a reduced carpellary 1. Each ov. consists of a nucellus surrounded 
by one integument, which in the ripe seed forms a thick fleshy aril- 
like covering round a hard woody shell. In the mature ov. the 
greater part of the nucellus tissue is reduced to a thin papery layer 
enclosing a large embryo-sac with usually i archegonia. Fert. occurs 
before or after the ovule has fallen from the tree. The embryo has 
2 cots. 

The seed is edible, and yields an oil, and the timber is useful. 
Ginkgo thus represents a very old type, with relationships to 
the Cycadales and the Filicales. Fossil species are found in the 
Carboniferous, 1'ermian, Triassic, and Jurassic, and in the Tertiary 
of England. 

For details see Coulter and Chamberlain, Morphology of Gymno- 
sperms; Fujii on floral morphology in Bot. Mag., Tokio, 1895; 
Seward and Gowan in Ann. Bot. 1900, p. 108 ; Ikeno on fertilisation 
in Ann. Set. Nat. Bot. xin. 1901, p. 303; Lyon on embryology in 
Minn. Bot. Stud. in. p. 275. 

Ginkgoaceae. The only fam. of Ginkgoales, with one gen. Ginkgo 
(q-v.), formerly placed in Coniferae. 

Ginkgoales. The 2nd class of Gymnosperms. 

Ginora L. (Ginoria Jacq.). Lythraceae. 7 Mex., W.I. 

Ginseng, Aralia Ginseng Baill. 

Giorgiella De Wild. Passifloraceae. i Congo. 

Gipsywort, Lycopus mropaeus L. 

Giraldia Baroni (Atractylis p.p. EP.). Compositae (n). i China. 

Giraldiella Damm. Liliaceae (v). i China. 

Girardinia Gaudich. Urticaceae (i). 6 trop. As., Afr. Stinging 

Gireoudia Klotzsch Begonia L. p.p. (Begon.). 

Girgensohnia Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (B). 4 W. and C. As. 

Gironniera Gaudich. Ulmaceae. 8 Indomal., Polynesia. 

Gisekia (Giesekia) L. Phytolaccaceae (Aizoaceae BH.}. 5 trop. Afr. 
and As. 

Githago Adans. = Lychnis L. (#//.) = Agrostemma L. (Caryoph.). 

Githopsis Nutt. Campanulaceae (i). i California. 

Giulianettia Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n a. in), i New Guinea. 

Givotia Griff. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 5). i S. India, Ceylon. 

Gjellerupia Lauterbach. Opiliaceae. i New Guinea. 



Glaber (Lat.), glabrous, hairless. 

Glabraria L. = Litsia Lam. (Laur.). 

Glacial zone, see Zones of Vegetation. 

Gladdon, Iris foetidissima L. 

Gladiate, sword -shaped. 

Gladiolus (Tourn.) L. Iridaceae (in). 120 Afr., Eur., As. 
protandrous. L. isobil. Cult. orn. fl. 

Gland, an organ secreting fluid, e.g. nectary, oil-gland, water-pore; 
cf. Insectivorous PL, Plumbaginaceae, Saxifragaceae ; -ular hair, 
a sticky secreting hair, Citphea, &c. 

Glandonia Griseb. Malpighiaceae (n). i Amazon valley. 

Glans (Lat.), a nut. 

Glareal, growing on dry exposed ground. 

Glass-wort, Salsota; (Am., VV.I.) Salicomia. 

Glastonbury thorn, a var. of hawthorn. 

Glaucescent, becoming sea-green, or sea-green. 

Glaucidium Sieb. et Zucc. Ranunculaceae (i). 2 Japan, China. 

Glaucium Tourn. ex Hall. Papaveraceae (n). 12 Eur., As. G.flavum 
Crantz, yellow horned-poppy, on sea-shores in Brit. 

Glaucothea O. F. Cook. Palmaceae (i. 2). i California. 

Glaucous, sea-green, covered with a bloom like a plum. 

Glaux (Tourn.) L. Primulaceae. G. maritima L., sea milkwort, the 
only sp., N. temp, coasts (incl. Brit.), a halophyte with fleshy L The 
seedling dies after producing in the axil of one cot. a hibernating 
shoot, with a root of its own. From this fresh plants arise veg., the 
process being repeated for several years before flowering. Runners 
with scale 1. in whose axils renewal-shoots form appear before the 
flowering period. The fl. has no C, but a coloured K. 

Glaziocharis Taub. ex Warm. Burmanniaceae. i Rio de Janeiro. 

Glaziophyton Franch. (Arundinaria p.p. EP.). Gramin. (13). i Brazil. 

Glaziostelma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Brazil. 

Glaziova Bur. Bignoniaceae (i). i Brazil. Tendrils with discs at tip 
(cf. Parthenocissus). 

Gleadovia Gamble et Prain. Orobanchaceae. i Indomal. 

Glechoma L. (Nepeta L. BH.}. Labiatae (vi). 6 |*. 

Glechon Spreng. Labiatae (vi). 12 Brazil, Paraguay. 

Gleditschia Clayton. Leguminosae (n. 7). n subtrop. Am., As. 
Stems usu. with stout branched thorns (stem structures, arising in 1. 
axils). The thorn comes from the uppermost of a series of sub- 
petiolar buds one above the other in the axil. No winter buds form, 
and the young apex of each twig dies off in winter, the next year's 
growth starting lat. Some used for hedges; some useful timber. 
Glehnia F. Schmidt. Umbelliferae (in. 6). i_E. As., W. N.Am. 
Gleichenia Sm. Gleicheniaceae. 100 trop., %.. Creeping rhiz.; 1. 

repeatedly branched in an apparently dichot. way. 
Gleicheniaceae. Filicales Leptosporangiatae. 2 gen., 100 sp., trop., 
subtrop. and S. temp., small ferns with creeping rhiz. and dichot. 
branched 1. Sorus of 28 sessile sporangia, without indusium, with 
complete transverse annulus, dehiscing longitudinally. Chief genus : 
Gleniea Hook. f. Sapindaceae (i). i Ceylon. 


Glinus L. (Mollugo L. p.p. BH.}. Aizoaceae (i). 6 trop. and subtrop. 

Gliricidia H. B. et K. Leguminosae (m. 6). 5 trop. Am., W.I. 

Glischrocolla A. DC. (Endonema BH.}. Penaeaceae. i S. Afr. 

Glischrothanmus Pilger. Aizoaceae (i). i Brazil. 

Globba L. Zingiberaceae (i). 60 Indomal. There is a short K; 
above this is the C tube, from the end of which spring 3 petals, 
a large labellum and i stds., also the slightly petaloid fertile sta., 
projecting beyond which is the style. The ovary is i-loc. with 
parietal plac. The lower cymes are usu. replaced by bulbils ; the 
mass of one of these consists of a root, springing lat. from the axis. 

Globe daisy, Globularia ; -flower, Trollins ; -thistle, Echitwps. 

Globose, almost spherical. 

Globularia Tourn. ex L. Globulariaceae. 18 Medit., Ear. 

Globulariaceae (EP.; Selagineae p.p. BH}. Dicots. (Sympet. Tubi- 
florae). 3 gen., 20 sp., Eur., Medit., Afr. Herbs or shrubs with 
alt., exstip., simple 1. and heads or spikes of fls. with or without 
invol. of bracts. Fl. 5 . K (5), persistent; C (5), median-zygo- 
morphic ; the upper lip of i petals is shorter than the 3-petalled 
lower lip; A 4, didynamous, epipetalous ; G i-loc., with i pend. 
anatr. ov. Fr. a one-seeded nut, free in base of calyx; embryo 
straight, in endosp. Chief genus : Globularia. 

Globulea Haw. = Crassula Dill. p.p. (Crassul.). 

Globulostylis Wernham. Rubiaceae (n. i). -2 Nigeria. 

Glochidia, Azolla. 

Glochidion Forst. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 160 trop. As., Polynes. 

Glochidopleurum Koso-Poljansky. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i Cyprus. 

Glockeria Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 5 Mexico, C. Am. 

Gloeocarpus Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Phil. Is. 

Gloeospermum Triana et Planch. Violaceae. 5 trop. Am. 

Glomera Blume. Orchidaceae (n. a. Hi). 12 Malay Archip., Poly- 

Glomerate, collected into heads. 

Glomeropitcairnia Mez. Broineliaceae (3). i Venezuela, W.I. 

Glomerule, a cluster of short-stalked fls. 

Gloriosa L. Liliaceae (i). 5 trop. As., Afr. They climb by aid of 
the L, whose tips twine like tendrils. Fl. pendulous, with sta. and 
style projecting horiz. Cult. orn. fl. 

Glory of the snow, Chiouodoxa. 

Glosocomia D. Don, Glossocomia Reichb. = Codonopsis Wall. (Cam- 

Glossocalyx Benth. Monimiaceae. 3 trop. W. Afr. 

Glossocardia Cass. Compositae (5). i Indomal. 

Glossocarya Wall. Verbenaceae (5). 3 Indomal. 

Glossochilus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i S. Afr. 

Glossodia R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. i). 5 Austr. 

Glossogyne Cass. Compositae (5). 5 Indomal., China. 

Glossolepis Gilg. Sapindaceae (i). i Cameroons. 

Glossonema Decne. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 6 trop. Afr. and As. 

Glossopetalon A. Gray. Celastraceae. 3 S.W. U.S. 

Glossopholis Pierre. Menispermaceae. 3 trop. Afr. 

Glossorhyncha Ridl. Orchidaceae (n. 5). 3 Malay Archipelago. 


Glossostelma Schlechter. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Angola. 
Glossostemon Desf. Sterculiaceae. i Persia. 
Glossostephanus E. Mey. AsclepiaHaceae (n. i). i S. Afr. 
Glossostigrna Wight et Am. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). 3 warm 
Glossostylis Cham, et Schlecht. =Alectra Thunb. (^//:) 

Berg. p.p. (Scrophular.). 

Glossula Lindl. (Habenaria p.p. EP.}. Orchidaceae (n. i). i China. 
Gloxinia L'Herit. Gesneriaceae (n). 6 trop. Am. G. speciosa Lodd., 

&.C., often cult. orn. fl., cf. Sinningia. 
Glucose, grape sugar. 

Glumaceae (Bff.). The 7th series of Monocotyledons. 
Glumaceous, glume-like. 

Glumicalyx Hiern. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). i S. Afr. 
Glumiflorae. The 4th order (Engler) or 2nd (Warming) of Monocoty- 
Gluta L. Anacardiaceae (i). 5 trop. As., Madag. The sap of G. 

Renghas L. yields a good varnish. 
Glyceria R. Br. Gramineae (10). 20 cosmop., esp. N. Am. 2 in Brit. 

Pasture grasses in wet meadows. 
Glycine L. (incl. Soja Moench.). Leguminosae (m. 10). 16 palaeo- 

trop. G. Sofa Sieb. et Zucc. and G. hispida Maxim, yield Soja 

beans, eaten in Japan, &c., and used as green fodder. An oil is 

obtained from the seeds. 

Glycosmis Correa. Rutaceae (v). 6 Indomal. Fr. ed. 
Glycyderas Cass. Compositae (3). i Madag. 
Glycyrrhiza Tourn. ex L. Leguminosae (in. 6). 12 temp, and sub- 

trop. An extract of the rhiz. of G. glabra L. is Spanish liquorice. 
Glyphaea Hook. f. Tiliaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 
Glyphosperma S. Wats- Liliaceae (in). I North Mexico. 
Glyptopetalum Thw. Celastraceae. 4 Indomal. 
Glyptopleura Eaton. Compositae (13). 2 Utah to California. 
Glyptostrobus Endl. (Taxodimn p.p. Bff.). Coniferae (Pinaceae; 

see C. for gen. char.). 2 China, G. pcndulus Endl. and G. hetero- 

phyllus Endl. 

Gmeiina L. Verbenaceae (4). 8 Indomal. 
Gnaphalium L. Compositae (4). 135 cosmop., 4 in Brit, (cudweed). 

G. snpiniiin L., alpine in Scotland, is a tufted hairy xero. [G. dioi- 

cum L. = Antennaria, G. Leontof>odium L. =Leontopodium.] 
Guaplialodes A. Gray. Compositae (4). 3 temp. Austr. 
Gnephosis Cass. Compositae (4). 15 temp. Austr. 
Gnetaceae. The onlyfam. of Gnetales, comprising 3 very distinct gen. 

with about 45 sp. trop. and subtrop. They are distinguished from 

the Coniferae by the absence of resin, by the presence of vessels in 

the secondary wood, and by the occurrence of a P. 
Classification and genera (after Engler) : 

I. EPHEDROIDEAE (<f P 2, A 28 of sessile 2-loc. 
anthers ; ? P pipe-like, ov. with simple integument. 
P hard when ripe, br. fleshy) : Ephedra. 
II. TUMBOOIDEAE ($ P 4 , A 6 with 3-loc. anthers; 
? P pipe-like, ov. with i integument. 'Stem tuberous 
with 2 permanent 1.) : Tumboa (Welwitschia). 


III. GNETOIDEAE (i P tubular, A 2 sessile on thread-like 
elongated axis; 9 P pipe-like, ov. with i integuments. 
Usu. climbing ; fls. in spikes, P becoming fleshy) : 

Gnetales, a class of Gymnospermae ; only fam. Gnetaceae. 

Gnetum L. Gnetaceae. 15 trop. Most are climbing shrubs, a few erect 
shrubs or small trees. L. decu>sate, exstip., simple, evergr., leathery. 
Fls. dioec., in spikes which are frequently grouped into more com- 
plex infls. The spike bears decussate bracts, in wh< se axils are 
condensed partial inrls. of a large number of flrs. (cf. Labiatae), about 
3 8 in the ?, but more (up to 40) in the <?. These fls. form whorls 
round the stem, and are intermingled with numerous hair-structures. 
At the top of each nodal group of the 3 infl. in most is a single ring 
of? fls., usu. with only i integument and infertile, sometimes with 2 
or even 3 integuments and fertile. The 5 has a tubular (2-leafed) P, 
from the top of which the axis projects ; at the tip of the axis, right 
and left, are two sessile i-loc. anthers. The ? has a tubular P like 
that of Ephedra, surrounding a single orthotr. erect ovule with two 
integuments; the inner of these projects at the apex of the fl. But 
there is much difference of opinion as to the morphology of these 
three envelopes. After fert. the P becomes fleshy, the outer integu- 
ment woody, forming a drupe-like fr. G. Gnemon L. (Malaya) and 
other sp. are cult, for the ed. fr. [See Gymnospermae, and Karsten 
in Cohn's Beitrage VI., Bot. Zeit. 1892, Ann. Buiteaz. XI. &c.] 

Gnidia L. Thymelaeaceae. 100 Afr , Madag., Indomal. 

Gnomonia Lunell (Festuca p.p.). Gramineae (to). 6 VV. U.S. 

Goa bean, Psophocarptis tetragonolobus DC. 

Goat's beard, 'I ragopogon pratensis L, (Am.) Spiraea Anmciis L. ; 
-rue, Galega, (W.I.) Tephrosia cinerea Pers. 

Goatweed, Aegopodium Podagraria L., (Ceylon, &c.) Ageratum cony- 
zoides L., (W.I.) Capraria, Stemodia. 

Gobbo, Hibiscus escuhntus L. 

Gochnatia H. B. et K. Compositae (12). 12 Mexico to S. Am. 

Godetia Spach (Oenothera p.p. BH,}. Onagr. (2). 25 W. Am. Cult. 
orn. fl. 

Godmania Hemsl. Bignoniaceae (2). i Panama, Venezuela. 

Godoya Ruiz et Pav. Ochnaceae. 4 Peru, Colombia, Brazil. 

Goebelia Bunge=Sophora L. p.p. (Legum. ). 

Goeldinia Huber. Lecythiclaceae. 2 Brazil. 

Goeppertia Griseb. (Bisgoeppertia O. Ktze.). Gentian, (i). 2 Cuba. 

Goeppertia Nees = Aydendron Nees. 

Goethalsia Pitlier. Tiliaceae. i Panama. 

Goethartia Herzog. Urticaceae (3). i Bolivia. 

Goethea Nees. Malvaceae (3). 2 Brazil. Several buds in each axil, 
some of which give rise years later to fls., borne on the old wood. 
Epicalyx brightly coloured. The C does not spread out, but the 
styles first emerge and afterwards the sta. (reverse of u-ual behaviour 
in Malvaceae). Honey is secreted at the base of the K. The styles 
are twice as numerous as the cpls. (cf. Pavonia). 

Goetzea Wydler. Solanaceae (4). i Porto Rico. 

Gold-of-pleasure, Camelina saliva Cr. 


Goldbachia DC. Cruciferae (2). i N. temp. |^ and Yunnan. 

Golden club (Am.), Orontiton ; -drop. Onosma; -feather, Chrysan- 
themum Partheniitni Bernh., var. /lureum ; -fern, Gymnograinma 
argent ea Melt., var. aurta ; -lily, Lycoris ; -pine, Psditlolarix', 
-rod, Solidago ; -saxifrage, Chrysosplenium ; -seal, Hydrastis \ 
-thistle, Scolvnnts hispanicus L. ; -thread (Am.), Coptis trifolia 
Salish. ; -top (Am.), Lamarckia anrca Moench. ; -tuft (W.I.), Ptero- 
f an/on ; -wattle, Acacia. 

Goldfussia Nees=Strobilanthes Blume (Acanth.). 

Goldmanella Greenman (Goldmania p.p ). Compositae (5). i Mexico. 

Goldmania Greenman. Compositae (5). j Mexico. 

Goldmania Rose. Leguminosae (i. 5). 2 Mexico. 

Gold-mohur tree, Poinciana regia Boj. 

Goldschmidtia Dammer. Orchidaceae. Nomen. 

Golenkinianthe Koso-Poljansky (Grammosciadium DC.). Umbelliferae 
(in. 5). i N. temp. |^. 

Golionema S. Wats, ex O. Hoffm. Compositae (3). i Mexico. 

Gomara Ruiz et Pav. (Russellia EP.\. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). 
i Peru. 

Gomart Bur sera. 

Gombo, Hibiscus esculent-ns L. 

Gomesa R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 19). 8 Brazil. Cult, as Rodriguezias. 

Gomesia La Have. Compositae. Nomen. 

Gomidesia Berg. (Myrcia BH.}. Myrtaceae (i). 50 trop. Am., W.I. 
Ed. fr. 

Gommler, Biirsera, Dacryodes. 

Gomortega Ruiz et Pav. Gomortegaceae. i S. Am. Shrub with opp. 
evergr. 1. and racemes of fl., monochlamydeous, spirocyclic, . P 7, 
A 2 3, G (2 3), with one pend. ov. in each loc. Drupe. Endo- 

Gomorteg-aceae (EP., Lauraceae p.p. ? BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Ranales). Only gen. Gomortega. q. v. 

Gomphandra Wall. (Stemonurus EP.). Icacinaceae. 10 Indomal., 

Gomphia Schreb. (Ottratea Aubl. EP.}. Ochnaceae. 120 trop. Like 
Ochna, but sta. 10 only. 

Gomphichis l.indl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 5 Mts. of S. Am. 

Gomphiluma Baill. (Pouteria p.p. EP.}. Sapotaceae (i). i Brazil. 

Gomphocalyx Baker. Rubiaceae (n. 10). i Madag. 

Gomphocarpus R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 100 trop. and S. Afr., 
S. Am. G. fruticosus R. Br. (from Afr.) on shores of nearly all 

Gomphogyne Griff. Cucurbitnceae (i). 2 E. Ind. 

Gompholobium Sm. Leguminosae (in. 2). 24 Austr. 

Gomphostemma Wall. Labiatae (III). 25 Indomal., China. 

Gomphostigma Turcz. Loganiaceae. 2 S. Afr. 

Gomphrena L. Amarantaceae (3). 100 trop., subtrop. ; herbs with 
cymose heads of fls. ; with 5 hairy P-leaves and (5) sta. Cult. 
orn. fl. 

Gomuti palm, Arenga saccharifera Labill. 

Gonatanthus Klotzsch. Araceae (vi). i Himal. 


Gonatopus Hook. f. Araceae (i). i E. trop. Afr. 
Gonatostylis Schlechter. Orchidaceae (n. 2). i New Caled. 
Gongora Ruiz et Pav. (Acropera Lindl.). Orchidaceae (ll. 13). 20 
trop. Am. Epiph. with hanging fls. whose ovary is so bent that the 
Labellum comes to stand above the column. The sepals and petals 
spring from the column (an argument for its axial nature). See 
Darwin, Orchids, p. 166. Cult. orn. fl. 
Gongrodiscus Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). 2 New Caled. 
Gongronema Decne. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 15 palaeotrop. 
Gongrospermum Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Phil Is. 
Gongrothamnus Steetz (Vernonia EP.}. Compositae (r). 3 trop. Afr. 
Gongylocarpus Cham et Schlecht. Onagraceae (2). i Mexico. 
Gongylosperma King et Gamble. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Mai. Penins. 
Gonianthes A. Rich. Rubiaceae (inc. sed.). 2 Cuba. 
Goniocarpus Kon. = Haloragis Forst. (Halorag.) 
Goniocaulon Cass. Compositae (n). i Indomal, 
Goniogyna DC. = Heylandia DC. (Legum.). 
Goniolimon Bois. (Statue Tourn. BH.). Plumbaginaceae. 10 E. Eur., 

W. As. 

Gonioma E. Mey. Apocynaceae (i. 3). t S. Afr. 
Goniophlebium (Bl.) Presl = Polypodium L. 
Goniopteris Presl = Dryopteris Adans. 

GoniorrhacMs Taub. Leguminosae (n. 3). i S.E. Brazil. 
Gonioscypha Baker. Liliaceae (vn). i'Himalaya. 
Goniostachyum Small (Lippia p.p. EP.). Verbenaceae (i). 2N.Am., 


Goniotlialamus Hook. f. et Thorns. Anonaceae (2). 45 trop. As. 
Gonipia Rafm. = Gentiana Tourn. (Gentian.). 
Gonocaryum Miq. Icacinaceae. 10 Malaya. 
Gonocitrus Kurz. Rutaceae (inc. sed. ). i Indomal. 
Gonolobus Michx. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). 80 Am. 
Gonospermum Less. Compositae (7). 4 Canaries. 
Gonostegia Turcz. = Pouzolzia Gaudich. (BH.). =Memorialis Buch.- 


Gonyanera Korth. Rubiaceae (i. 7). i Sumatra. 
Gonypetalum Ule. Dichapetalaceae. 2 Amazon valley. 
Gonystilaceae (EP. ; Thymelaeaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. 

Malvales). Only gen. Gonystilus, q.v. 

Gonystilus Teijsm. et Binn. Gonystilaceae. 7 Indomal. Shrubs 
with alt. entire exstip. 1. and cymes of fls., $ , reg. K, C 5 4, 
A oo, G (5 3), each with i pend. ov. Berry. No endosperm. 
Gonzalagunia Ruiz et Pav. (Gonzalea BH.). Rubi. (r. 7). 10 troo 

Am., W.I. 

Gonzalea Pers. (cf. last). Rubiaceae (i. 7). 10 trop. -Am., W.I. 
Goodallia Bentli. Thymelaeaceae. i Brit. Guiana. 
Goodenia Sm. Goodeniaceae. 100 Austr. Ovary i-loc. above, often 

2-loc. below. 

Goodeniaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Sympet. Campanulatae; Campa- 
nales BH.). 13 gen., 300 sp., chiefly Austr. (esp. S.W.), a few N.Z , 
Polynes., and trop. coasts. Herbs and shrubs with rad. or alt. rarely 
opp. exstip. 1. and no latex. Fls $,!> sol. in the leaf-axils or in cymes, 


racemes, or spikes. K usu. 5, small; C (5) ; A 5, alt. with the petals, 
epipet. or not, with introrse sometimes syngenesious anthers; G (2), 
inf. or semi-inf. i- or 2-loc.; ovules i, 2, or oo in each usually 
ascending, anatr. ; style simple with 'pollen-cup' close under the 
stigma. Into this the pollen is shed in the bud; it then closes up, 
leaving only a narrow opening. The style bends down to stand in 
the mouth of the almost horizontal fl., so that insect- visitors come in 
contact with the cup and dust themselves with a little of the powdery 
pollen. As the sti^matic lobes grow up in the cup they keep forcing 
fresh pollen into the narrow slit, and finally emerge by it themselves 
and then receive the pollen of younger fls. from insect-visitors. The 
mechanism should be carefully compared with that of Campanulaceae 
and Compositae. Fr. usu. caps., sometimes a nut or drupe. Embryo 
straight, in fleshy endosp. 

The G. are very closely allied to Campanulaceae, differing chiefly 
in the absence of latex and the presence of the pollen-cup. They 
resemble Gentianaceae in a few points. C kief genera: Goodenia, 
Leschenaultia, Scaevola, Dampiera. [BH. chars, incl. those of 
Brunoniaceae. ] 

Goodenovieae (BH. ) = Goodeniaceae. 

Goodia Salisb. Leguminosae (ill. 3). 2 S. Austr. 

Good King Henry, Chenopodium Bonus- Henricns L. 

Goodyera R. Br. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 40 N. temp., trop. As., New 
Caled., Mascarenes ; G. repens R. Br. in Brit. Fl. as in Epipactis 
(Darwin, Orchids, p. 103). 

Gooringia Williams (Arenaria p.p.). Carophyll. (i. i). i Tibet. 

Gooseberry, Ribes Grossularia L. ; American- (W.I.), Heterotrichum ; 
Barbadoes- (W.I.), Peireskia aadeata Mill.; Cape-, Physalis\ 
Otaheite-, ditto; -tomato, ditto. 

Goose-foot, Chenopodium ; -grass, Ga/ium, (Am.) Eleusine indica. 

Gorceixia Baker. Compositae (i). i Rio de Janeiro. 

Gordonia Ellis. Theaceae. 20 Indomal., China, N.Am. Seeds 
winged. The bark of G. Lasianthus L. (loblolly-bay, S. U.S.) is 
employed for tanning. Sta. opp. to petals. 

Gorgoglossum F. C. Lehm. Orchidaceae (n. 13). i Colombia. 

Gorgonidium Schott. Araceae (vn). i Malay Archipelago. 

Gormania Britton ex Britton et Rose. Crassulaceae. 9 W. N.Am. 

Gorse, Ulex; needle-, Genista. 

Gorteria L. p.p. (p.p. -Berkheya Ehrh.). Compositae (to). 4 S. 

Gosela Choisy. Scrophulariaceae (n 7). i S. Afr. 

Gossweilera Sp. Moore. Compositae (i). i Portuguese W. Afr. 

Gossypianthus Hook. Amarantaceae (3). 2 Texas, Mexico. 

Gossypium L. Malvaceae (4). 12 trop. and subtrop. Epicalyx of 3 1. 
G (5). Loculic. caps. The seeds are covered with long hairs 
forming the material known as cotton (q.v.). The cult, forms are 
apparently reducible to 3 sp. , G. barbadense L. (trop. Am.), G. arbo- 
reum L. (Old World), and G. herbaceum L. (ditto). The cotton 
separates easily from the seed in the first sp., which is the Sea Island 
cotton of the U.S. ; in Egypt, India, &c. the other sp. are most used. 
From the seeds an oil is obtained by crushing (cotton-seed oil), and 


the oil-cake left behind is largely used for feeding cattle, &c. The 
fls. are visited by bees and (in Am.) by humming-birds. 

Gothofreda Vent. = Oxypetalum R. Br. (Asclep. ). 

Gouania Jacq. Rhamnaceae. 45 trop. and subtrop. Some have 
watch-spring tendrils. The stalks of some sp. contain saponin. 

Goughia Wight = Daphniphyllum Blume (Euphorb. ). 

Goulardia Husnot (Agropyrum p.p.). Gramineae (12). 2 Europe. 

Gouldia A. Gray. Rubiaceae (i. 7). 5 Hawaiian Is. 

Goupia Aubl. Celastraceae. 2 Guiana. 

Gourd, Cucurbita; bitter-, Citrullus; bottle-, Lagenaria; snake-, 

Gourliea Gillies ex Hook. Leguminosae (in. i). i temp. S. Am. 
Pod ed. 

Goutweed, Aegopodium Podagraria L. 

Govenia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 10). 10 Brazil to W.I. 

Gowan, daisy. 

Goyazia Taub. Gesneriaceae. i Brazil. 

Grabowskia Schlechtd. Solanaceae (2). 6 S. Am. 

Gracilis (Lat), slender. 

Graderia Benth. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). 3 Afr. 

Graeifea Seem. Tiliaceae. i Fiji. 

Graellsia Boiss. Cruciferae(2). i Persia. 

Graffenrieda DC. Melastomaceae (i). 18 trop. S. Am., W.I. 

Graft-hybrid, Cytisus. 

Grahamia Gill. Portulacaceae. i temp. S. Am. 

Graines d'Avignon, Rhamnus; grains of Paradise, Amomum. 

Gram, Cicer ; black and green, Phaseolns ; horse, Dolichos. 

Grama or gramma grass, Boutelotia. 

Gramerium Desv. (Panicum p.p. EP.). Gramineae (5). i Chili. 

Gramineae (EP., BH.}. Monocots. (Glumiflorae; Glumaceae BH.}. 
One of the largest orders of fig. pi., with about 350 gen. and 4000 sp. 
in all regions of the globe. In the temp, zones esp. they are a most 
important feature in the veg., forming prairies, steppes, &c. Most 
grasses are herbaceous with fibrous root, but a few, chiefly the 
bamboos (g.v.), reach a large size, even as much as 100 ft. Many 
are annual, but many perennial ; the latter commonly branch largely 
from their lower nodes and thus often give rise to a tufted habit 
(as seen in many common sp.) ; many possess rhiz. The stem has 
well-marked nodes, composed chiefly of softer tissues. If a stem 
be bent downwards (as occurs when wheat is Maid') these nodes 
recommence growth, growing more rapidly upon the lower side, so 
that the stem is once more brought to the vertical position. The 
stem is usu. hollow (exc. Zea, Saccharum, &c.) and circular in section. 
The 1. are alt., and with few exceptions, in 2-ranked phyllotaxy; 
they have a sheathing base, the edges of the sheath overlapping one 
another upon the side of the stem opp. to the blade (cf. Cyperaceae) ; 
there is no petiole (exc. in a few bamboos, &c.), and at the junction 
of blade and sheath there is a little membranous outgrowth, the 
ligule, upon the upper side of the leaf. The blade is usu. linear. 
Many xero. grasses have grooves along the upper side of the 1., with 
the stomata at the bases of the grooves; in most of these cases the 



1. rolls up upwards in dry air, enclosing the stomata completely and 
checking transpiration ; the lower surface, which thus becomes the 
outer, is covered with thick-walled cells and has no stomata. When 
the air again becomes moist the 1 unrolls. 

The infl. is complex; the unit of infl. is not the individual fl. 
but a spikelet, or small spike of fls. These are well seen in oats, 
where they are arranged in a panicle; in wheat the spikelets are 
sessile upon the main axis, forming a cpd. spike, usu. termed simply 
a spike ; this is more clearly seen in rye-grass. Each of these 
spikelets consists of one or more (usu. not more than 5) fls. one 
above the other on opp. sides of a very short axis, the whole enclosed 
in one or two or more larger leaves at the base of the axis, the 

inf. palea - 

inf. palea - 

- inf. palea 

- inf. palea 

- outer glume 

glumes. The first diagram gives a rough 
representation of the construction of a 
spikelet. The central line represents the 
axis (supposed elongated), which bears 
at the base usu. two leaves with nothing inner glume -j 
in their axils; these are the glumes 

Above them stand one or more leaves, the inferior paleae, in whose 
axils occur fls. (sometimes aborted). Upon the axis of the fl., opp. 
to the inf. palea, stands another leaf, the superior palea. Between 
the paleae the fl. itself is enclosed. The sup. palea, being upon the 
same axis as the fl., is evidently its bracteole. Owing to the short- 
ness of the floral axis, it appears to be in the axil of the inf. palea, or 
even upon the main axis of the spikelet. Above the sup. palea are 
two very small scales, the lodicules; 
they are opp. to the sup. palea (1 in 
fig.) and insignificant in size. They 
are sometimes supposed to repres. 
two of the three 1. of a reduced P, 
but it seems more probable that they 
really repres. a second bracteole and 
that the fl. is perfectly naked. The 
fl. itself has usu. 3 sta. with long 
filaments and versatile anthers, and 
i cpl. forming a i-loc. ovary, with 
i basal erect anatr. ovule, and i 
or more (usu. 2) stigmas, much 
branched. This ovary has some- 
times been regarded as formed of 
> i cpl., but the suture of the post, 
side of the ovary (cf. Prunus) seems 
to point clearly to its being of i cpl. only. The two stigmas may 
then be regarded as developments of the lat. parts of the cpl. whilst 
the central part (which usu. forms the stigma) remains undeveloped ; 
this also is the explanation of the two lodicules placed right and left 
of the proper position for an upper bracteole. 

All the fls. in the spikelet are enclosed as a rule within the 
glumes until ready to open. Then the glumes separate, and the 
hygroscopic lodicules force apart the paleae of the fls. Most sp. 
in Eur. are anemoph. and protog. ; the sta. grow very rapidly in 


Floral diagram of a grass (after 
Eichler). b, inferior palea; 
v, superior palea ; 1, lodicule ; 
St., stigma. 


warm weather and suspend the anthers clear of the paleae so that the 
loose powdery pollen is easily blown away and may be caught by the 
large stigma of another fl. 

The fruit is a caryopsis, i.e. an achene whose pericarp is com- 
pletely united to the seed-coat. Its construction can be well seen 
in maize (or wheat) ; at the broad end is the scar of the style, and on 
the under side at the pointed end is the embryo; on the upper side is 
the hilnm or point where the ovule was attached to the wall of the 
cpl. (the form of this scar is important in classification) ; the bulk 
of the seed consists of floury endosp. The embryo is straight, with 
its one cot. {scufellitm} completely enwrapping the radicle and plumule 
(this can be easily made out by dissecting soaked material). The 
radicle is towards the lower end of the fr. In germin. the cot. 
remains within the seed and extracts nourishment from the endo- 
sperm ; afterwards it withers away. Most grass frs. are sufficiently 
light to be dispersed by wind, esp. as the paleae often remain 
attached to them and become dry and chaffy. Others have hooks. 
Self-burying arrangement in Stipa (g.v.), effected by aid of the awn 
(this term is applied to any long thread-like outgrowth of glume or 
palea). Many grasses, e.g. sp. of Poa and Festuca, are viviparous, 
esp. on mountains. The spikelets are replaced by leafy shoots with 
adv. roots at their bases. These drop oft" and grow upon the soil 
(cf. Agave, Allium, &c.). 

From the economic point of view the G. are only rivalled in 
importance, if at all, by the Palmae and Leguminosae. The cereal 
grasses, e.g. Oryza, Triticum, Zea, Avena, Hordeum, &c. afford food 
to a large proportion of the earth's inhabitants (see Edible Products). 
Many grasses are valuable as fodder (q.v.} for domestic animals, or 
for hay. The bamboos (q.v ) supply many of the wants of the natives 
of trop. countries, Japan, &c. Many are used as sandbinders, &c. 

Classification and chief genera (after Hacke!) : the G. show near 
relationship only to Cyperaceae and perhaps Juncaceae, and are easily 
distinguished from these either by their veg. or floral characters. 
A. Spikelets i-flowered without elongation of the axis beyond the 
fl., or 2-flowered with the lower fl. imperfect; without 
measurable internode between the individual glumes or 
paleae, and when ripe fatting off from the stalk as a whole 
or together with certain parts of the axis of the spike, 
a. Hilum point-like; spikelets not compressed lat., but 
usually dorsally compressed or cylindrical. 

1. Maydeae (inf. palea and, when present, sup. palea thin and 

membranous ; glumes firm, even leathery or cartilaginous, 
the lowest one the largest and overlapping the rest ; spike- 
lets usu. in racemes or spikes which become jointed when 
ripe; $ and spikelets in separate infls. or in separate 
parts of the same infl.); Euchlaena, Zea, Coix. 

2. Andropogoneae (as I, but spikelets 5, or i and ? side by side 

in the same infl.): Saccharum, Andropogon, Sorghum. 

3. Zoysieac (paleae membranous; glumes herbaceous, papery 

or leathery, the lowest usu. the largest ; spikelets falling 
singly or in groups from an unjointed spike-axis) : Zoysia. 


4. Tristegineae (paleae membranous ; glumes herbaceous or 

firm and papery, the lowest smaller or narrower than the 
rest; spikelets falling singly from the twigs of a panicle) : 

5. Paniceae (paleae usu. cartilaginous, leathery or papery ; 

glumes more delicate, usu. herbaceous, the lowest usu. 
smaller ; spikelets falling singly from the twigs of a panicle 
or unjointed spike-axis) : Paspalum, Panicum, Setaria, 
Cenchrus, Pennisetum, Spinifex. 
b. Hilum linear ; spikelets lat. compressed. 

6. Oryzeae: Zizania, Oryza, Lygeum, Leersia. 

B. Spikelets i many-flowered; when i -flowered often with a pro- 
longation of the axis above the fl., their stalks usu. jointed 
above the glumes, so that they fall off leaving these on the 
axis ; when i- or more-flowered, always with distinct inter- 
nodes between the fls. 

a. Stem herbaceous annual. No petiole, or joint between 
blade and sheath. 

7. Phalarideae (spikelets in panicles, spikelike panicles or 

racemes on distinct stalks sometimes very short, not set 
in notches on the main axis; i -flowered, with 4 glumes 
and i -nerved sup. palea): Phalaris, Anthoxanthum. 

8. Agrostideae (as 7, but spikelets with two or no glumes and 

2-nerved sup. palea) : Aristida, Stipa. Phleum, Alopecurus, 
Sporobolus, Polypogon, Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Ammo- 
phila, Apera, Lagurus. 

9. Aveneae (infl. as 7, but spikelets 2- many-flowered ; inf. 

paleae usu. shorter than glumes, with twisted awn upon 
the dorsal side, more rarely with no awn or with an awn 
upon the tip as 10, but then always with 2 almost opp. 
fls. and no prolongation of the axis beyond them) : Holcus, 
Aira, Corynephorus, Deschampsia, Trisetum, Avena, 
Arrhenatherum, Danthonia. 

10. Festuceae (as 9, but int. palea usu. longer than glume, without 

awn or with untwisted awn at tip) : Sesleiia, Gynerium, 
Arundo, Phiagmites, Eragrostis, Catabrosa, Melica, Briza, 
Dactylis, Cynosurus, Poa, Glyceria, Festuca, Bromus, 

11. Chlorideae (spikelets in 2 rows approximated to one 

another, forming a one-sided spike or raceme with un- 
jointed axis) : Cynodon, Spartina, Chloris, Bouteloua, 

12. Hordeeae (spikelets in 2, or rarely more, opp. rows, forming 

a symmetrical, rarely one-sided, spike) : Nardus, Lolium, 
Agropyrum, Secale, Triticum, Hordeum, Elymus. 
b. Stem woody, at least below ; leaf often petiolate, finally 
separating from its sheath by a joint. 

13. Bambuseae: Arundinaria, Bambusa, Dendrocalamus. 
Space will not permit of giving a key to the genera; the student 

should work through the commoner ones with a flora, or with Ward 
or Hutchinson's British Grasses. 


Gramineous, relating to grasses, grass-like. 

Grammadenia Benth. Myrsinaceae (n). 10 trop. Am., W.I. 

Grammangis Reichb. f. Orchidaceae (n. 17). 2 Madag., Java. 

Granimanthes DC. Crassulaceae. i S. Afr. 

Grammatocarpus Presl (Scyphanthus EP.}. Loasaceae. 2 Chili. 

Grammatophyllum Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 17). 5 Malaya. G. spe- 
ciosum Bl. is about the largest known orchid. 

Grammatotheca C. Presl (Lobelia p.p. BH.}. Campanulaceae (ill), 
i S. Afr., i Austr. 

Grammica Lour. =Cuscuta L. (Convolv. ). 

Grammitis Sw. = Polypodium L. 

Grammosciadium DC. (Chaerophyllum p.p. BH.}. Umbelliferae (in. 
8). 8 E. Medit. 

GranadiUa (Tour.) Rupp. =Passiflora L. p.p. (Passifl.). 

Granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis L. ; -tree (W.I.), Brya. 

Grandidiera Jaub. Flacourtiaceae (2). i Zanzibar. 

Grandiflorus (Lat.), large fld.; grandis (Lat.), large. 

Grangea Adans. Compositae (3). 2 palaeolrop. 

Grangeria Comm. ex Juss. Rosaceae (vi). 3 Madag., Mauritius, 
Sun das. 

Grantia Boiss. Compositae (4). 5 E. Medit. 

Grape, Vitis vinifera L., &c.; -fruit, Citrus decumana Murr., var. ; 
-hyacinth, Muscari; seaside-, -tree, wild- (W.I.), Coccoloba. 

Graphephorum Desv. Gramineae (10). i N. Am. 

Graphistemma Champ, ex Benth. et Hook. f. Asclep. (n. i). i 

Grapple plant, Harpagophytum. 

Graptopetalum Rose. Crassulaceae. i Mexico. 

Graptophyllum Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 5 Austr., Polynesia. G. 
horteme Nees (G. piclum Griff.) cult, for its prettily marked I. 

Grass, one of the Gramineae ; alkali-, Distichlis; arrow-, Triglochin\ 
barley-, Hordeum ; barnyard-, Panicum ; beard-, Polypogon ; 
bent-, Agrostis, Apera ; Bermuda-, Cynodon ; blue-, see Kentucky 
blue; brome-, Browns; buffalo-, Biichloe ; canary-, Phalaris; cat's 
tail-, Phleitm ; China-, Boehmeria; citronella-, Cymbopogon ; cock's 
foot, Dae ty Its ; cord-, Spartina ; cotton-, Eriophoritm ; couch-, 
Agropyron; crab- (Am.), Panicum ; darnel-, Lolium ; ditch- (Am.), 
Rtippia; dog's tail-, Cynosurus; dog's tooth-, Cynodon; eel-, 
Zostera ; esparto-, Lygeum, Slipa ; false brome-, Brachy podium ; 
false oat-, Arrhenathcrum feather-, Stipa ; fescue-, Festttca ; 
florin-, Agrostis ; fowl-meadow- (Am.), Poa, Glyceria ; fox-tail, 
Alopecurus ; French rye, Arrhenatkerum ; gama-, Tripsacum ; 
goose-, Galium ; Geranium-, Andropogon ; grama-, Tripsacum ; 
Guinea-, Panicum; hair-, Deschampsia, Aira; hedgehog- (Am.), 
Cenchrns; herd's- (Am.), Phleum; holy- (Am.), Hierochloe; Indian- 
(Am.), Sorghum ; kangaroo-, Anthistiria ; Kentucky blue, Poa pra- 
tensis L. ; knot-, Polyqonum, Agropyron repens Beauv., (Am.) Paspa- 
lum distichum L. ; lemon-, Cymbopogon ; lyme-, Elymus ; marram-, 
Ammophila; mat-, Nardus ; Mauritius-, Panicum; meadow-, 
Poa ; melic-, Melica ; mesquite- (Am.), Bouteloua ; millet-, Milittm ; 
oat-, Avena; -of Parnassus, Pamassia; Pampas-, Cortaderia; 

304 GRASS 

panic-. Panicum; quake-, Briza; reed-, Pkalaris; Eusa-, Cymbo- 
pogon; rush- (Am.), Vilfa\ rye-, Lolium; scorpion-, Myosotis ; 
scurvy-, Cochlearia; soft-, Holcus; sparrow-, Aspa>-agus\ sweet 
vernal-, AnthoAanthurn; timothy-, P/iletim : -tree, Xanthorrhoea ; 
twitch-, Agropyron; wheat-, A^ropyron; white bent-, Agrostis\ 
whitlow-, Draba ; -wrack, Zostera. 

Grass-cloth, Chinese, Boehmeria ; -hemp (Austr.), Agave rigida Mill. 

Gratiola (Rupp.). L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 6). 25 cosmop. Sta. 2. 
The dried plant of G. officinalis L. was formerly offic. 

Gratwickia F. Muell. Compositae (4). i Austr. 

Graveolens (Lat.), strongly scented. 

Gravesia Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 10 Madag. Cult. orn. fl. Crossed 
with Cassebeeria they give the fancy 'Bertolonias.' 

Gravisia Mez (Aechnua p.p. BH.}. Bromeliaceae (4). 4 trop. Am., 

Grayia Hook, et Arn. Chenopodiaceae (A). 2 \V. U.S. 

Greater celandine, Chelidoniiim majus L. 

Greek valerian (Am.), Polemonium. 

Green brier (Am.), Smilax; -gram, Phaseolus Mungo L. ; -heart, 
Nectatidra Rodiaei Hook. ; Kendal-, Genista ; -manure, Legumi- 
nosae; -weed, dyer's, Genista; -withe (W.I.), Vanilla claviculata 

Greenea Wight et Am. Rubiaceae (i. 3). 6 E. Indomal. 

Greenella A. Gray. Compositae (3). 3 S.W. U.S. 

Greeneocharis Guerke et Harms. Boraginaceae (iv. 2). 2 Pac. 
N. Am. 

Greeniopsis Merrill. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 2 Phil. Is. 

Greenmania Hieron. Compositae (5). i Colombia. 

Gregarious, growing in company, all of one sp. 

Greggia A. Gray. Cruciferae (4). 4 W. Am. 

Greigia Regel. Bromeliaceae (4). S. Am. Cult. orn. infl. 

Grenacheria Mez. Myrsinaceae (n). 6 Malaya. 

Grenadilla, Pas si flora quadrangularis L. 

Greslania Balansa. Gramineae (13)- 3 New Caledonia. 

Grevea Baill. Saxifragaceae (v). i Madag. 

Grevellina Baill. (Turraea p.p. EP.). Meliaceae (ill), i Madag. 

Grevia L. = Grewia L. (Tiliaceae). 

Grevillea R. Br. Proteaceae (n). 170 Austr. Trees and shrubs with 
racemose infls., 2 fls. in each axil. The style projects from the bud 
as a long loop, the stigma being held by the P until the pollen is shed 
upon it. Then the style straightens out, and the pollen may be 
removed ; presently the female stage supervenes. Some yield 
useful timber, and G. robnsta A. Cunn. (silky oak) and other sp. 
are now extensively employed as shade and timber trees in Ceylon 
and elsewhere. 

Grewia L. Tiliaceae. 120 As., Afr., Austr., esp. trop. 

Grewiella O. Ktze. (Grewiopsis EP.}. Tiliaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 

Grewiopsis De Wild, et Durand. Tiliaceae. a trop. Afr. 

Greyia Hook, et Harv. Melianthaceae. 3 S. Afr. 

Grias L. Lecythidaceae. 4 S. Am., W. Ind. G. cauliflora L., an- 
chovy pear, cult, in the W.I. 


Grlelum L. Rosaceae (iv). 28. Afr. 

Grifflanthus Merrill (Grijfithia Maingay). Anonaceae (i). 3 Phil. Is. 

Griffinia Ker-Gawl. Amaryllidaceae (i). 8 Brazil. 

Griffithella Warming. Podostemaceae. i VV. Ghats of India. Plants 
with the general veg. structure of Dicraea, but remarkable for the 
extraordinary polymorphism of their shoots, which may be cup or 
wineglass shaped, creeping or erect, and of many different forms, 
shapes, and sizes (cf. Willis, Ann. Perad., I., 1902, p. 364). They 
are of root nature. 

Griffithia J. M. Black. Compositae (4). i S. Austr. 

Grifflthia Maingay. Anonaceae (i). 3 Malaya. 

Griffitbia Wight et Arn. = Randia Houst. (Rubiac.). 

Grimthianthus Merrill. Anonaceae (i). 3 Phil. Is. 

Griffonia Bail I. (Bandeiraea Welw.). Legurn. (n. 4). 3 W. trop. Afr. 

Griffonia Hook. f. (Acioa Aubl.). Rosaceae (vi). 4 trop. Afr. 

Grigri palm (W.I.), Martinezia corallina Mart. 

Grimmeodendron Urb. Euphoibiaceae (A. n. 7). 2 W. Ind. 

Grindelia Wuld. Compositae (3). 35 Am. 

GrisebacMa Klotzsch (Eremia Don). Ericaceae (iv. 2). 25 S. Afr. 

Grisebachiella Lorentz. Apocynaceae (n. ij. i Argentina. 

Griselinia Forst. f. Cornaceae. 8 N.Z., S. Am. 

Griselinia Scop. = Pterocai pus L. (Legum.). 

Grisia Brongn. = Bikkia Reinw. p.p. (Rubi.). 

Grislea L. Lythraceae. i trop. S. Am. 

Grisollea Baill. Icacinaceae. 2 Madag., Seychelles. 

Grobya Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 17). 2 Brazil. 

Gromwell, Lithospermum, Mertensia. 

Grona Lour. Leguminosae (in. 10). 4 trop. As. 

Gronophyllum Scheff. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 Malaya. 

Gronovia Houst. ex L. Loasaceae. 2 trop. Am. A 5, no stds. G i. 

Grosourdya Reichb. f. Orchidaceae (n. 20). 3 Malay Archipelago. 

Grossera Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 2 trop. Afr. 

Grossularia Tourn. ex Adans. (Kibes p.p.). Saxifrag. (vi). 40 
N. Am. 

Ground-cherry (Am.), Physalis ; -hemlock (Am.), Taxus; -ivy, 
Nepeta Glechoma Benth. ; -laurel (Am.), Epigaea ; -nut, Arachis, 
Voandztia, (Am.) Afios\ -pine, Ajuga Chamnepitys Schreb., (Am.) 
Lycopodium dcndroitieum Michx. ; -pink (Am.), Phlox subitlala L. 

Groundsel, Senecio vulgaiis L.; -tree (Am.), Baccharis. 

Growth, permanent change of form ; for special cases see Albizzia, 
Bamboos, Dendrocalainus, Dracaena, Eucalyptus, Sequoia. 

Grubbia Berg. Grubbiaceae. 3 S. Afr. Woody pi. with opp. 
leathery 1. and small 5 reg. fls. P 4, A 4 + 4, G (2), 2-loc. below 
while young, later i-loc. with 2 pend. orthotr. ov. on central plac. 
Drupe. Oily enclosp. 

Grubbiaceae (EP.; Sanialaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. Santa- 
lales). Only gen. Grubbia, q.v. 

Gruinalis (Lat.), crane's bill shaped. 

Grumilea Gaertn. (Psychotria p.p. BH.}. Rubiaceae (n. 5). 45 |#. 

Grundelia L. 5 misprint for Gundelia. 

Grusonia Hort. Nicolai ex K. Schum. = Opuntia Tourn. (Cact.). 

W. 20 


Grypocarpha Greenman. Compositae (5). i Mexico. 

Guaco, Mikania amara Willd. 

Guadua Kunth (Bambusa p.p. EP.). Gramineac (13). 15 trop. Am. 

Guaduella Kranch. Gramineae (13). 2 trop. Afr. 

Guaiacum Plum, ex L. Zygophyllaceae. 4 N. and trop. Am. G. 

ojficinale L. yields lignum- vitae wood, from which is also obtained 

the medicinal resin guaiacum. 

Guamatela J. D. Smith. Rosaceae (in. 2). i C. Am. 
Guamia Merrill. Anonaceae (i). i Phil. Is. 
Guapira An hi. Verbenaceae (inc. sed.). i Guiana. 
Guapuronga, Marlierta. 
Guar, Cyaniopsis. 

Guarana, Paullinia Cttpana H. B. et K. 
Guardiola Cerv. ex Humb. et Bonpl. Compositae (5). 5 S.W. U.S., 

Guarea Allem. ex L. Meliaceae (in). 100 trop. Am., Afr. The disc 

forms a gvnophore, and the sta. are completely united into a tube. 
Guatteria Ruiz et Pav. Anonaceae (i). 60 trop. Am. Berry stalked. 
Guava, Psidnim ; black- (W.I.), Gncttarda argentea Lam. 
Guayule, rarllicnium argentatum A. Gray. 
Guaza, ganja. 

Guazuma Plum, ex Aclans. Sterculiaceae. 5 trop. Am. 
Gueldenstaedtia Fisch. Leguminosae (in. 6). 10 Centr. As., China. 
Guelder rose, Viburnum Opiilus L. 
Guepinia Bast. = Teesdalia R. Br. (Cruc.). 
Guerkea K. Schum. Apocynaceae (n. i). 2 trop. Afr. 
Guernsey lily, Nerine. 
Guettarda L. Rubiaceae (n. 2). 50 trop. all but i (G. speciosa L. , 

which is common on trop. coasts) Am. 

Guevina (Geiwina) Molina. Proteaceae (ll). i Chili. Ed. nut. 
Guichenotia J . Gay. Sterculiaceae. 5 W Austr. 
Guiera Adans. Combretaceae. i trop. Afr. 
Guilandina L. = Caesalpinia L. (Legum.). 
Guild, a group of pi resembling one another ecologically. 
Guilielma Mart. = Bactris Jacq. p.p. (Palm.). 

GuillainiaVieill. (Alpinia p.p. EP.}. Zingiberaceae(l). 2 W. Polynes. 
Guilleminea H. B. et K. Amarantaceae (3). 3 warm Am. 
Guillenia Greene. Cruciferae (r). 6 W.N. Am. 
Guillonea Coss. Umbelliferae (in. 7). 2 Spain. 
Guimauve, marsh mallow. 
Guinea corn, Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; -grains, Amomnm Melegueta 

Rose.; -grass, Paniciim maximum Jacq.; -hen's weed (W.I.), 


Guioa Cav. (Cnpam'a p.p. BH.}. Sapindaceae (i). 35 Indomal. 
Guiraoa Coss. Cruciferae (2). i Spain. 
Guizotia Cass. Compositae (5). 8 Air. G. abyssinica Cass. (rantil 

or niger-seed) is cult, in India, &c, for its seeds, from which an oil is 


Gulubia Becc. (Kentia p.p. EP.). Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 New Guinea. 
Gum, products of disintegration of internal tissues, exuding from stems, 

&c., swelling or dissolving in water, insoluble in alcohol or ether; 


common in dry countries. Three chief classes: arabin (fully soluble), 
type gum-arabic (Acacia Senegal Willd.), bassorin (slightly soluble), 
type gum-tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer Labill.) and cerasin 
(swelling), type cherry-gum (Prunits Cerastes L.). Cf. above, and 
Ckloroxylon, Feronia, Piptadenia, &c. ; -ammoniacum, Dorema ; 
Angico-, Piptadenia ; -arabic, Acacia Senegal Willd. ; -benzoin, 
Styrax; blue-, Eucalyptus; chewing-, Achras Sapota L. ; Chicle-, 
ditto; -cistus, Cist us; -copal, cf. Copal; doctor's- (W.I.), Rhus 
Metopinm L. ; -elemi tree (W.I.), Dacryodes hexandra Griseb. ; 
-euphorbium, Euphorbia resmifera Berg. (Morocco) ; -galbanum, 
Ferula ; -guaiacum, Guaiacttm ; -kino, cf. Kino ; -lac, cf. Lac ; 
-ladanum, Cistus ; -olibanum, Boswellia ; -opopanax, Opopanax ; 
-plant (Am.) Grindelia ; -resins, resins containing a mixture of gum 
and resin, Boswellia (frankincense), Calopliyllum, Convolvulus, 
Dorema, Ferula, Garcinia (gamboge) ; -sandaracb., Tetraclinis 
sweet-, Liquidambar ; -tragacanth, Astragalus ; -tree, Nyssa,(W.I.) 
Sapiitm . 

Gumbo, Hibiscus esculentus L. 

Gumillea Ruiz et Pav. Cunoniaceae. i Peru. L. alt. 

Gundelia (Tourn.) L. Compositae (10). i As. Min., Persia. 

Gundlachia A. Gray. Compositae (3). i Cuba, St. Domingo. 

Gundlea Steud. = Grumilea Gaertn. (Rubi.). 

Gunnera L. Haloragidaceae. 18 S. Am., Costa Rica, N.Z., Tasm., 
Sandw. Is., Java, S. Afr. Several are enormous herbs with 1. several 
feet across. PI. 2-merous. G i-loc. Stem polystelic. In the leaf- 
axils are ' squamulae intravaginales ' (cf. Potamogetonaceae). Cult, 
orn. fol. 

Gunnia F. Muell. Aizoaceae (n). 2 S. and W. Austr. 

Gunniopsis Pax (Aizoon p.p.)- Aizoaceae (n). i S.E. Austr. 

Gunny, Corchorus. 

Gunpowder plant, Pilea. 

Gurania Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (2). 55 trop. Am. 

Guraniopsis Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (2). i Peru. 

Gurjun balsam, Dipterocarpus. 

Gussonea A. Kich. = Angraecum Bory p.p. (BH.) = Mystacidium Lindl. 

Gustavia L. (Japarandiba Adans.). Lecythidaceae. 20 trop. Am. 
G. augusta L. is the stink-wood; the wood has a foetid smell. 

Gutenbergia Sch. Bip. Compositae (i). 10 trop. Afr. 

Guthriea Bolus. Achariaceae. i S. Afr. 

Gutierrezia Lag. Compositae (3). 20 Am. 

Gutta-jelutong, Dyera ; -percha, a substance like rubber, but softening 
with heat, in latex, esp. of Sapotaceae; cf. Bassia, Mimusops, Pala- 
quium, Payena ; -puteh, Palaquium ; -rambong, Ficns ; -sundek, 

Guttiferae (EP. ; BH.. excl. Hypericaceae, incl. Quiinaceae). Dicoty- 
ledons (Archichl. Parietales). 42 gen., 850 sp. chiefly trop. They 
are (exc. Hypericum) trees or shrubs with simple entire opp. exstip. 1. 
Oil glands or passages are always present, often showing as translucent 
dots upon the 1. The infl. is cymose, frequently umbellate. The fls. 
show considerable variety. The bracteoles are frequently close up 


3 o8 


Floral diagram of Hypericum; 
after Eichler, ovary cut at base. 
S the " Schraubel " branch. 

to the calyx, and hardly to be distinguished from it. The axis is usu. 
convex, but exhibits many forms. The 
fl. may be cyclic or partly spiral, and 
is usu. reg., 5 , hypog. K imbricate ; 
C imbr. or conv.; A oo , free or united 
in various ways, frequently in bundles 
(usu. regarded as due to branching of 
originally simple papillae) ; very com- 
monly the outer ones or even all are 
staminodial ; G usu. (5) or (3), multi- 
or i-loc.; ovules oo , few, or i, anatr. ; 
styles free or united. Fr. often capsular, 
sometimes a berry or drupe. Seed 
exalb. Many yield useful timber ; the 
resins of Clusia, Garcinia, Calophyllum, 
&c., and the fr. of Garcinia and others 
are valuable. 

Classification and chief genera (after Engler) : the G. are closely 
allied to Theaceae, the only constant distinction being the presence 
of oil-glands, and to Dipterocarpaceae, which are chiefly distinguished 
by their alt. slip. 1. [BH. excl. Hypericoideae with Endodesmioideae 
as a separate fam.] 

I. KIELMEYEROIDEAE (1. alt. or opp.; fls. usu. 5, 

A oo, style i, G 3 5-loc.): Kielmeyera, Caraipa. 

II. HYPERICOIDEAE (1. opp.; fl. 5 ; sta. usu. oo , usu. in 

5 or 3 8 bundles before the petals ; styles 3 5, usu. 
free; fr. a i- or 3-loc. septi- or loculicidal caps., or 
indeh.; embryo usu. straight with not very thick cots.) : 
Hypericum, Vismia. 

III. ENDODESMIOIDEAE (sta. united into a tube above, 

in 5 bundles below ; cpl. i ; drape ; cots, fleshy): Endo- 
desmia (only genus). 

IV. CALOPHYLLOIDEAE (1. opp. ; fls. $ or <f ? , A oo free 

or united at base, G i 4 each with 2 i ov. ; fr. indeh. ; 
cots, thick) : Mesua, Mammea, Calophyllum. 
V. CLUSIOIDEAE (i opp.; fls. 5 or <f ? , A oo free or in 

groups ; fr. various ; cots, small) : Clusia, Garcinia. 
Guya Frapp. Flacourtiaceae (4). i Reunion. 
Guyonia Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 2 trop. W. Afr. 
Guzmania Ruiz et Pav. Bromeliaceae (i). 75 trop. S. Am. Epiph. 
Gyminda Sarg. (Myginda Jacq.). Celastraceae. i Florida, W.I. 
Gymn-, gymno- (Gr. pref.), naked. 
GymnaoiccMa x G. Camus, &c. Orchidaceae. Hybrid, Gymnadenia 

Habenaria (Bicchia). 
Gymnacanthus Nees (Sclerocalyx Nees BH.}. Acanth. (iv. A). 

i Mexico. 

Gymnacranthera Warb. (Myristica p.p.). Myristicaceae. 12 Indomal. 
Gymnadenia R. Br. (Habenaria p.p. BH.}. Orchidaceae (II. i). 20 N. 

temp. 1^. 
Gymnadeniopsis Rydberg (Platanthera p.p. EP.). Orchidaceae (n. i). 

* N. Am. 


Gymnagathls Stapf. Melastomaceae (i). i S. China. 

Gymnanacamptis x Aschers. et Graebn. Orchidaceae. Hybrid, Gym- 
nadenia Anacamptis. 

Gymnandra Pall. = Lagotis Gaertn. (Scroph.). 

Gymnanthemum Cass. =Vernonia Schreb. p.p. (Comp.). 

Gymnanthera R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (i). 5 E. Indomal. 

Gyinnanthes Sw. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). ro trop. Am., W.I. 

Gymnaplatanthera x G. Camus. Orchidaceae. Hybrid, Gymnadenia 

Gymnarrhena Desf. Compositae (4). i Medit., W. As. 

Gymnartocarpus Boerlage. Moraceae (n). i Java. 

Gymnema R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 30 W. Afr. to Austr. The 
leaves of G. sylvestre R. Br. contain gymnemic acid, and when chewed 
temporarily destroy the capacity of tasting sugar. 

Gymnemopsis Constantin. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i Cochinchina. 

Gymnigritella x G. Camus. Orchidaceae. Hybrid, Gymnadenia 
Nigritella. 2 Eur. 

Gymnobalanus Nees et Mart. = Ocotea Aubl. p.p. (Laur.). 

Gymnocarpos Forsk. Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). i Canaries to India, 
used as fodder for camels. 

Gymnochilus Blume. Orchidaceae (n. i}. 2 Mascarenes. 

Gymnocladus Lam. Leguminosae (n. 7). 2 China and N. Am. 
Serial axillary buds. G. canadensis Lam. (Kentucky coffee tree) 
good timber. 

Gymnocline Cass. = Chrysanthemum L. p.p. (Compos.). 

Gymnocoronis DC. Compositae (2). 2 trop. Arn. 

Gymnodiscus Less. Compositae (8). 2 S. Afr. 

Gymnogonum Parry (Oxytheca p.p.)- Polygonaceae (i. r). i N. Am. 

Gymnogramma Desv. Polypodiaceae. 80, esp. trop. G. leptophylla 
Desv., an annual fern, in Jersey. 

Gymnolaema Benth. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Kilimandjaro. 

Gymnolaena Rydberg. Compositae (6). 4 Mexico. 

Gymnolomia H. B. et K. Compositae (5). 25 N. and trop. Am. 

Gymnopentzia Benth. Compositae (7). 2 S. Afr. 

Gymnopetalum Arn. Cucurbitaceae (3). 6 Indomal. 

Gymnopodium Rolfe. Polygonaceae (m. i). i C. Am. 

Gymnopogon Beauv. Gramineae (n). 6 Am., Ceylon. 

Gymnopsis DC. = Gymnolomia H. B. et K. (Compos.). 

Gymnopteris Bernh. Polypodiaceae. 15 warm Am., As. 

Gynmoschoenus Nees (Mesomelaena BH.). Cyperaceae (11). 2 Austr. 

Gymnosiphon Blume. Burmanniaceae. 10 trop. 

Gymnosperma Less. Compositae (3). i Texas, Mexico. 

Gymnospermae. One of the two great divisions of Spermaphyta or 
seed-plants, distinguished from Angiospermae by the fact that the 
cpls. are not so infolded or united as to form an ovary round the 
ovules ; also the endosp. (female prothallus) is formed before fertili- 
sation. The existing G. are divided into four great classes, Cycads, 
Ginkgoales, Conifers, and Gnetales. These differ very much from 
one another, so much so that it is by no means impossible that the 
Gymnosperms are polyphyletic. The Cycads traced backwards show 
a maximum in the Jurassic, decreasing until about the end of the 


Eocene they had shrunk to their present size. They begin about the 
Permian period, about which time the great class of the Pterido- 
spermae, or seed- bearing ferns (the bulk of what used to be regarded 
as true ferns in the coal-measures, &c. ), was disappearing, and show 
considerable relationship to the latter. Some of the fossil forms have 
actual ? fls. with numerous sta., and it is quite possible that these are 
on the direct line of ascent to the Angiosperms. From what the 
Coniferae and Ginkgoales, which are first found about the beginning 
of the Permian, took their rise, is as yet quite uncertain, while we do 
not know enough about the Gnetaceae to dra\v many conclusions about 

The fls. in most Cycads and Conifers take the form of cones, and 
whether each cone represents a fl. or an infl. is still a disputed point. 
The sta. is of simple structure ; in the Cycads there are several 
pollen-sacs, looking like the sporangia of Marattiaceae, on the lower 
side of a leaf-like organ; in the Conifers the sta. has usually fewer 
pollen-sacs and is more leaf-like, while in the Gnetaceae the anthers 
are sessile. The ovules are always naked in the sense of not being 
enclosed in an ovary formed of one or more hollow cpls., but they are 
usually protected in some way from the weather. Wind-pollination 


In the Cycads a considerable mass of sporogenous tissue is formed 
in the ovule (mega-sporangium); one of the cells of this tissue gives 
rise to the embryo-sac (mega-spore). This behaviour is closely com- 
parable to that of the higher Pteridophyta. In the embryo-sac the 
? prothallus (endosperm) forms by cell-division, and archegonia in 
which the ova are contained develope at the micropylar end. The 
ovule is now mature and consists of an integument, nucellus, and 
embryo-sac and its contents. 

In most Conifers the sporogenous tissue consists only of the cell 
which goes to form the embryo-sac. In the sac the same process goes 
on as in Cycads. 

In Ephedra the phenomena are very similar to those in Conifers ; 
in Gnetum several embryo-sacs are frequently formed, and the division 
of the nucleus of the sac gives rise, not to a prothallus as in the cases 
above described, but to a number of free nuclei lying on the wall of 
the sac. Those in the upper part remain free, and one or more 
of them being fertilised, produce pro-embryos. The lower part of 
the sac becomes septate into multinuclear compartments (in some sp.), 
which become uninucleate cells of the primary endosp. as a result of 
nuclear fusion ; in these sp. the primary endosp. is constituted before 
fert. In Welwitschia it is constituted in a similar way. 

The whole question of the relationships of the G. is one of much 
difficulty. (See Angiospermae, Chalazogamae, Pteridophyta, Cyca- 
daceae, Coniferae, Ginkgo, and refer also to Coulter and Chamberlain, 
Morphology of Gymnosperms, Campbell's Mosses and Ferns, Nawaschin 
in Mem. de I'Acad. des sc. de St-Pttersbourg, XLII. 1894 (reviewed in 
Bot. Centr. 62, p. 324), and other papers referred to in the articles 

Gymnosporia Benth. et Hook. f. Celastraceae. 80 trop. and subtrop., 
esp. Afr. Many have branches modified into thorns. 


Gymnostacn.ys R. Br. Araccae (i). i E. Austr. 

Gymnostachyum Necs {Cryptophragmiwn Nees EP.}. Acanthaceae 
(iv. B). 25 trop. As. 

Gymnostephium Less. Compositae (3). 6 S. Afr. 

Gymnosteris Greene (Cilia EP."]. Polemoniaceae. 3 N. Am. 

Gymnostyles fuss. = Soliva Ruiz et Pav. (Comp.). 

Gymnotheca Decne. (Houttnynia EP.). Saururaceae. i China. 

Gymnotrix Beauv. = Pennisetum Pers. p.p. (Gramin.). 

Gynandropsis DC. (Pedicellaria Schrank EP.}. Capparidaceae (v). 
15 trop. and subtrop. The seeds of G. pentaphylla DC. are used like 

Gynandrous, A and G concrescent. 

Gynerium Humb. et Bonpl. Gramineae (10). 3 trop. and warm temp. 
G. argenteum Nees (Pampas grass), cf. Cortaderia. 

Gyno- (Gr. pref. ), female; -basic, Labiatae, Boraginaceae \ -dioecism, 
Calamintha, Caryophyllaceae, Echium, Labiatae, Nepeta, Plan/ago, 
Satureia, Spergula, Thymus ; -eceum, the carpels, forming the 
ovary (</.v.); -monoecism, Compositae, Labiatae, &c. ; -phore, an 
elongation of the recept. bearing cpls. only, Anacardiaceae, Cappari- 
daceae, Michelia; -steglum, Asclepiadaceae; -stemium, Aristolo- 
chiaceae, Slylidiaceae. 

Gynocardia R. Br. Flacourtiaceae (3). i India, G. odorala Br. ; the 
seed yields Chaulmoogra oil, used medicinally, &c.. in India. 

Gynochthodes Blume. Rubiaceae (n. 9). 3 Malay Archipelago. 

Gynoglottis Smith. Orchidaceae (11 3). i Sumatra. 

Gynoon A. Juss. = Glochidion Forst. (Euph.). 

Gynopacnis Blume=Randia L. p.p. (Rubi.). 

Gynopleura Cav. (Malesherbia p.p. EP.}. Malesherbiaceae. 6 Chili. 

Gynopogon Forst. (Alyxia R. Br.). Apocynaceae (i. 3). 40 Madag., 

Gynostemma Blume. Cucurbitaceae (4). 5 warm As., Polynes. 

Gynotroclies Blume. Rhizophoraceae. i Malaya. 

Gynoxys Cass. Compositae (8). 20 Andes of trop. 

Gynura Cass. Compositae (8). 30 trop. As. and Afr. 

Gypotraamnium Phil. (Plazia EP.). Compositae (12). i Chili. 

Gypsocallis Salisb.^ Erica Tourn. (Eric.). 

Gypsophila L. Caryophyllaceae (n. 2). 55 Eur., As., esp. E. Medit. 
The fls. are shorter in the tube (class B) than most Silenoideae, and 
are visited by a greater variety of insects. Cult. orn. fl. (chalk 

Gypsy-wort, Lycopus ewopacus L. 

Gyranthera Pittier. Bombacaceae. i Panama. 

Gyrate, curved into a circle. 

Gyrinops Gaertn. Thymelaeaceae. 2 Indomal. 

Gyrlnopsis Decne. Thymelaeaceae. i Phil. Is. 

Gyrocarpus [acq. Hernandiaceae (Combretaceae BH.}. \ trop. 
formerly placed in Lauraceae, to which its sta. are very similar. 
The fr. is often mistaken for that of a Dipterocarp. 

Gyrostachis Pers. (Spiianihes p.p.). Orchidaceae In. 2). 10 Am. 

Gyrostelma Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Minas Geraes. 

Gyrostemon Desf. Phytolaccaceae. 10 Austr. 


Gyrotaenia Griseb. Urticaceae (i). 3 W.I. 

H (fl. class), usu. zygomorphic fls. with tube 6 15 mm. long, suited to 

bees, Aconitum, Anemone, Antirrhinum^ Aqitilegia, Labiatae, Legu- 

minosae, Lotus, Primula, Tri folium, 
Haasia Nees = Dehaasia Blume (Laur ). 
Haastia Hook. f. Compositae (3). 3 N.Z., growing closely together 

on the ground, and forming cushions (cf. Raoulia, Azorella). 
Habenaria \Vill<l. (BH. incl. Bimatea Willd., Coeioglossum Hartm., 

Gymnadenia R. Br., Neotinea Rchb. i.,Nigritella Rich., Platanlhera 

Rich., and other gen , making 500 sp. cosmop.). Orchidaceae (ll. i). 

400 temp, and trop. ; 5 in Brit-, H. (C.) viridis R. Br. (frog-orchis), 

H. (G.) compsea Benth. (scented orchis), H. (P.) bifolia R. Br. 

(butterfly orchis) &c. See Darwin's Orchids. 

Habenella Small (Habenaria p.p. ). Orchidaceae (11. i). i N. Am. 
Haberlea Frivald. Gesneriaceae (i). i Balkans. 
Habit, general external appearance and impression. 
Habitat, natural location. 
Hablitzia Bieb. Chenopodiaceae (A), i Caucasus. Climbing shoot 

given off yearly from perenn. underground stem (cf. Bowiea) ; climbs 

by sensitive petioles. 

Hab'racanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 4 Mexico to Colombia. 
Habrantlms Herb. = Hippeastrum Herb. (Amaryll.). 
Habrosia Fenzl. Caryophyllaceae (i. 5). i W. As. 
Habrothamnus Endl.=Cestrum L. p.p. (Solan.). 
Habzelia A. DC. (Xylofia BH.}. Anonaceae (4). 2 trop. As. 
Hachettea Baill. Balanuphoraceae. i New Caled. 
Hackberry (Am.), Celt is. 
Hackmatack (Am.), Larix. 

Hacquetia Neck. Umbelliferae (n. t). i C. Eur. 
Haemacanthus Sp. Moore. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i Somaliland. 
Haemadictyon Lindl. = Prestonia R. Br. pp. (Apocyn.). 
Haemantlius (Tourn.) L. Amaryllidaceae (i). 70 S. and trop. Afr. 

Fls. in cymose heads or umbels. Cult. orn. fl. (Cape tulip). 
Haemaria Lindl. Orchidaceae (ll. 2). 4 E. As., Malay Archipelago. 
Haematocarpus Miers. Menispermaceae. 3 Himalaya, Khasia. 
HaematostapMs Hook, f Anacardiaceae (2). 2 W. Afr. 
Haema oxylin, Haemal oxy Ion. 
Haematoxylon, L. Leguminosae (n. 7). i trop. Am., W. L, H. 

campt'chianum L. (logwood). Young foliage red. Thorns in the 

leaf-axils. The heart-wood contains haematoxylin and is used in 


Haemocharis Salisb. (Laplacea BH. ). Theaceae. 15 Am., As. 
Haemodoraceae (EP. ; BH. include vm, ix, of Zz'/Vaftw,. and part 

of in of Amaryllidaceae). Monocots. (Liliiflorae ; Epigynae BH.}. 

10 gen., 40 sp., Austr., S. Afr., trop Am. Herbs with panicled infl. of 

a number of cymes arranged in a racemose way (cf. Aesculus). Fl. 

reg. or transv. -|- (cf. Ani^ozanthos), 5 , 3-merous ; A 3, inserted on 

inner perianth-1., with inir. anthrrs; G (3), sup. or inf.; ovules few in 

each loc., semi-anatr.; stigma capitate. Capsule. Chief genera: Hae- 

manthus, Lachnanthes, Wachendorfia. [BH. chars, incl. A 6 or 3, 

ovules sometimes oc anatr. ] 


Haemodorum Sm. Haemodoraceae. 17 Austr. 

Haenianthus Griseb. (Linociera BH.}. Oleaceae. 3 W.I. 

Haenselera Boiss. ex DC. Compositae (r3). i S. Spain. 

Hagberry, Primus Avium L. 

Hagenbachia Nees et Mart. Haemodoraceae. r Brazil. 

Hagenia f. |. Gnsel. (Brayera BH.}. Rosaceae (ill. 5). i Abyssinia. 
The dried fls. (koso) are medic. 

Hair, a cellular outgrowth of the epidermis, sometimes glandular, 
barbed, hooked, stinging, &c. ; cf. Leaf for descriptive terms : -bell, 
Campanula rotundifolia L. ; -grass, Aira, Deschainpsia, (Am.) 
Agrostis, Muhlenbergia. 

Hakea Schrad. I'roteaceae (ll). 100 Austr. Xero. with hard woody 
fr. The' seedlings show transition stages (cf. Acacia) from entire 1. 
to the much divided 1. usu. in the genus. 

Hakonechloa Makino (Fhragmites p.p.). Gramineae (10). i cosmop. 

Halacsya Doerfl. (Zwackhia p.p.). Boraginaceae (iv. 5). i Eur. 

Halanthium C. Koch. Chenopodiaceae (B). 9 W. and C. As. 

Halarchon Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (B). i Afghanistan. 

Halconia Merrill. Tiliaceae. 2 Phil. Is. 

Halenia Borckh. Gentianaceae (i). 25 As., Am.; alpine and arctic. 
Cleistogamic fls. frequent. 

Halerpestes Greene (Ranunculus p.p.). Ranunculaceae (3). 3 N. Am. 

Halesia L. Styracaceae. 7 Japan, China, and S.E. of N. Am. (cf. 
Epigaea, c.). Snowdrop-tree, cult. orn. Fr. winged. 

Halfordia F. Muell. Rutaceae (iv). 2 E. Austr., New Caled. 

Halgania Gaudich. Boraginaceae (n). 10 Austr. 

Halimium Spach=Helianthemum Tourn. (f.) = Cistus L. 

Halimium Willd. Cistaceae. 25 N. temp., S. Am. 

Halimocnemis C- A. Mey. Chenopodiaceae (B). 10 Cent. As. 

Halimodendron Fisch. ex DC. Leguminosae (m. 6). i N. and W. 
As. on salt-steppes. Outer leaflets often thorny. Cult. orn. 

Halimolobos Tausch. Cruciferae (inc. sed.). i cult. 

Halimus L. = Atriplex L. (Chenopod.). 

Halleria L. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). 8 Afr., Madag. 

Hallia Thunb. Leguminosae (in. 7). 6 S. Afr. 

Hallieracantha Stapf (Ptysnglottis p.p.). Acanth. (iv. B). 19 Mai. 

Halmilla (Ceylon), Btrrya Ammonilla Roxb. 

Halo- (Gr. prefix), salt-; -pnllous, salt-loving; -phytes, the pi. of 
sea-coasts and salt-steppes, &c., where the presence of salt, by 
checking absorption, compels a reduction of transpiration, Asfer, 
Chenopodiaceae, Frankenia, Glanx, Halimodendron, Halogeton, 
Haloxylon, Nolana, Pedaliaceae, Pemphis, Plumbaginaceae, Reau- 
muria, Salicornia, Sesuvium, Spergularia , Statice, Suaeda, Tatna- 
ricaceae, Zy^ophyllaceae. 

Halocharis Moq. Chenopodiaceae (B). 4 W. As. 

Halochloa Griseb. (Monanthockloe EP.}. Gramineae (10). i Argen- 

Halocnemum Bieb. Chenopodiaceae (A), i Medit., C. As. 

Halodule Endl. (Diplanthera EP.}. Potamogetonaceae. 2 Indomal., 


Halogeton C. A. Mey. Chenopodiaceae (B). 5 Medit., Centr. As. 
H. sativits Moq. (barilla) used to be burnt in Spain, &c. , for soda. 

Halopegia K. Schum. Marantaceae. 4 palaeotrop. 

Halopeplis Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (A). 3 E. Medit., C. As. 

Halophila Thou. Hydrocharidaceae. 6 Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Halophytes, cf. Halo-. 

Halophytum Spegazz. (Tetragonia p.p.). Chenopodiaceae (A), i 

Halopyrum Stapf. Gramineae (10). i coast of Indian Ocean. 

Halorageae (BH.} = Haloragidaceae. 

Haloragidaceae (P., BH. incl. Callitrichaceae and Hippuridaceae). 
Dicots. (Archichl. Myrtiflorae ; Rosales BH.}. 8 gen., 90 sp., 
cosmop., chiefly Austr. Land, marsh, or water herbs or under- 
shrubs, of various habit (see gen.), with great development of adv. 
roots, opp., alt., or .whorled exstip. 1., and inconspic. fls., sol. or in 
infl. The anatomy is of interest. Fl- g or unisexual, usu. bracte- 
olate, reg., epig., usu. 4-merous. _ P in two whorls, or one, or 
absent; A 8, obdipl., or fewer; 0(14); multiloc., with usu. i 
pend. anatr. ov. in each loc. ; styles free. Nut or drupe. Embryo 
straight, in endosp. Chief genera : Haloragis, Myriophyllum, Gun- 
nera. Related to Onagraceae, as reduced forms. A gradual series 
may be traced, from the very complete fl. of Myriophyllum or Halo- 
ragis, down to that of Hippuridaceae. [Cf. Engler,Jahrb. 34, Beibl. 
79.] [BH. chars, incl. other fains, mentioned.] 

Haloragis Forst. Haloragidaceae. 60 Austr., N.Z., Tasm., S.E. As., 
N Am., large herbs in damp places. Fls. 4-merous, obdipl. 

Haloschoenus Nees = Rhynchospora Vahl p p. (Cyper.j. 

Halostachys C. A. Mey. Chenopodiaceae (A), i temp. Eur. and As. 

Haloxylon Bunge. Chenopodiaceae (B). 10 Medit. to India. Steppe 
plants of curious habit (tig. in A'af. Pfl.}. 

Hamadryas Comm. ex Juss. Ranunculaceae (3). 5 Antarctic Am. 

Hamamelidaceae (EP., BH. incl. Myrothamnaceae). Dicots. (Archichl. 
Resales). 18 gen., 50 sp. chiefly sub-trop. (N. and S.). The distr. 
areas of the genera (q.v.} are extremely disjointed, a fact perhaps 
due to the influence of the glacial period. Trees and shrubs with 
alt., simple or palmate, slip. 1. Infl. racemose, often a spike or head, 
frequently with an invol. of coloured bracts. Fl. $ or unisexual, 
often apetalous, rarely naked, hypo- peri- or epigynous, usu. without 
a disc. K 4 5, usu. imbr. ; C 4 5, open or valvate, the petals 
often long and rolled up like a watch-spring in bud ; A 4 5 or rarely 
fewer; G (2), usu. median, rarely obliquely placed, with 2 styles, 
2-loc.; ovules i or more in each loc., pend., anatr., with ventral or 
lateral raphe. Loculic. or septic, capsule. Exocarp woody, endo- 
cap horny. Seed albuminous, with straight embryo. Some sp. yield 
useful wood, resins, &c. Chief genera : Bucklandia, Liquidambar, 
Altingia, Fothergilla, Hamamelis. Closely allied to Cunoniaceae, and 
hence to Saxifragaceae. [BH. chars, incl. those of Myrothamnaceae.] 

Hamamelideae (Bll. ) = Hamamelidaceae. 

Hamamelis Gronov. ex L. Hamamelidaceae. 3, two in China and 
Japan ; H. virginiana L. (witch-hazel, cult, orn.), in east N. Am. 
It flowers in late autumn and ripens its fr. in the following year. 


Hamaria Kunze. Rosaceae. Nomen. 

Hamelia Jacq. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 6 Mexico to Paraguay. 

Hamilcoa Prain. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. i). i Cameroons, Guinea. 

Hamiltonia Roxb. Rubiaceae (n. 6). 4 Indomal., China. 

Hammatolobium Fenzl. Leguminosae (in. 7). i Medit. 

Hamosa Medic. {Astragalus p.p.). Leguminosae (m. 6). 6 N. Am. 

Hampea Schlechtd. Bombacaceae. 3 C. Am. 

Hanabusaya Nakai. Campanulaceae (i. i). i Corea. 

Hanburia Seem. Cucurbitaceae (4). i Mexico. Fr. explosive. 

Hancea Hemsl. Labiatae (inc. sed.). r China. 

Hancockia Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. 9). i China. 

Hancornia Gomes. Apocynaceae (i. i). i Brazil, H. spedosa Gomes, 

the Mangabeira rubber (Kcw Bull. 1899, p. 185). 
HandscMa Pohl. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Hannafordia F. Muell. Sterculiaceae. 3 Austr. 
Hannoa Planch. Simarubaceae. 4 trop. Afr. 
Hansemannia K. Schum. Leguminosae (i. r). 4 New Guinea. 
Hansteinia Oerst. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 4Mex., C. Am. 
Hapaline Schott. Araceae (vi). 3 E. Indomal. 
HapalostepMurn D. Don ex Sweet = Crepis Vaill. (Comp.). 
Hapaxanthic, with single flowering. 
Haplanthodes O. Ktze.= Haplanthus Nees (Acanth.). 
Haplanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 3 Indomal. 
Haplocalymma Blake ( Viguiera p.p.). Compositae (5). i Mexico. 
Haplocarpba Less. (Arctotis p.p. EP.). Compositae (10). 4 Afr. 
Haplochlamydeous, -stemonous, with one whorl of P or A. 
Haplochorema K. Schum. Zingiberaceae (i). 5 Borneo. 
Haploclathra Benth. Guttiferae (i). 2 N. Brazil. Wood red. 
Haplocoelum Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). 2 Zanzibar. 
Haplodypsis Baill. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 Madag. A. Gray. Compositae (8). i California to Mexico. 
Haplolophium Endl. (Aplolophium). Bignoniaceae (i). 3 Brazil. 
Haplopappus Endl. (Aplopappus}. Compositae (3). 125 W. Am. 
Haplopetalon A. Gray. Rhizophoraceae. 3 Polynesia. 
Haplophloga Baill. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 Madag., Masc. 
Haplophyton A. DC. Apocynaceae (i. 3). i Arizona to Cuba. 
Haplorhus Engl. Anacardiaceae (3). i Peru. 
Haplostachys Hillebr. Labiatae (in). 3 Hawaiian Is. 
Haplostephium Mart, ex DC. Compositae (i). 2 Minas Geraes. 
Haplostichanthus F. Muell. Anonaceae (i). i Queensland. 
Haptera, holdfasts of Podostemaceae and Tristichaceae. 
Haptocarpum Ule. Capparidaceae (v). i E. Brazil. 
Harbouria Coulter et Rose (Thaspium p.p.). Umbell. (in. 5). 

i U.S. 
Hard fern, Bhchnum, Lomaria\ -hack (Am.), Spiraea; -wood tree 

(W.I.), Ixora ferrea Benth. 
Hardenbergia Benth. (Kennedya p.p. EP.). Leguminosae (in. 10). 

15 Austr. Cult. orn. fl. 

Hardwickia Roxb. Leguminosae (n. 2). 2 trop. As. 
Hare bell, Campanula rotundifolia L. ; -'a ear, Bupleurum ; -s tail 

grass, Lagnnts. 


Harfordia Greene et Perry (Pterostegia p.p.). Polygonaceae (l. i). 

2 California. 

Hargasseria C. A. Mey. = Daphnopsis Mart. (Thymel.). 
Haricot bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. 
Harina Buch.-Ham. = Wallichia Roxb. (Palmac.). 
Hariota DC. (Rhipsalis p.p.). Cactaceae (ill. 3). 2 S. Brazil. 
Harmandia Pierre. Olacaceae. i W. Afr. 

Harmandiella Costantin. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). i Cochinchina. 
Harmogia Schau. = Baeckea L. p.p. (Myrt.). 
Harmsia K. Schum. Sterculiaceae. 2 trop. Afr. 
Harmsiopanax Warb. (Hors_fieldia Bl.). Araliaceae (2). 2 Malaya. 
Harong-a Thou. Guttiferae (n). i trop. Afr., Madag., Maur. 
Harpachne Hochst. (Eragrostis p.p. BH.}. Gramineae (10). i trop. 


Harpagonella A. Gray. Boraginaceae (iv). i California. 
Harpagophytum DC. Pedaliaceae. 4 S. Afr. H. procumbens DC. 

(grapple-plant) fr. is beset with large woody grapples about an inch 

long, pointed and barbed. It is thus suited to animal distribution, 

and is troublesome to wool growers (cf. Xanthium). 
Harpalium Cass. = Helianthus L. (Comp.). 
Harpalyce Mo9. et Sesse ex DC. Leguminosae (in. 6). 6 trop. 

Am., W.I. 

Harpanema Decne. in DC. Asclepiadaceae (i). i Madag. 
Harpechloa Kunth. Gramineae (n). 28. Afr. 
Harpephyllum Bernh. ex Krauss. Anacardiaceae (2). i S. Afr. 
Harperella Rose (Harperia Rose). Umbelliferae (in. 5). i W. U.S. 
Harperia Fitzgerald. Restionaceae. i Austr. 
Harperia Rose. Umbelliferae (in. 5). i N. Am. 
Harpochilus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 2 Brazil. 
Harpullia Roxb. Sapindaceae (n). 25 palaeotrop. 
Harrachia Jacq. f. =Crossandra Salisb. (Acanth.) 
Harrimanella Coville (Cassiope p.p. ). Ericaceae (11. i). 2 boreal. 
Harrisella Fawcett et Rendle \CampyIocentron p.p.). Orchidaceae 

(n. 10). i W.I., Florida, Yucatan. 

Harrisia Britton (Cereus p.p.). Cactaceae (ill. i). 7 W.I., Florida. 
Harrisonia R. Br. Simarubaceae. 5 trop. As. and Afr. 
Hartia Dunn. Theaceae. i China. 
Hartighsea A. Juss. =Dysoxylum Blume (Melia.). 
Hartmannia DC. =Hemizonia p.p. (Comp.). 
Hartmannia Spach = Oenothera L. (j5^.) = Xylopleurum Spach. 
Hartogia L. =Agathosma Willd. (Rut.). 
Hartogia L. f. Celastraceae. 2 S. Afr., Madag. 
Hart's tongue fern, Phyllitis, Scolopendrinm. 
Hartwegia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 2 Centr. Am. 
Hartwrightia A. Gray. Compositae (2). i Florida. 
Harveya Hook. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). 20 S. and trop. Afr. 

Some are root parasites, like Euphrasia. 
Hashish. Cannabis sativa L. 

Haselhoffia Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i W. trop. Afr. 
Hasseanthus Rose (Sedum p.p.). Crassulaceae. 4 California. 
Hasselquistia L. ^Tordylium L. p.p. (Umbellif.). 

HE BONG A 317 

Hasseltia H. B. et K. Flacourtiaceae (5). 5 Mexico, Andes. 

Hasskarlia Bail!. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 2). 2 W. trop. Afr. 

Hasslerella Chodat. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). i Argentina. 

Hassleropsis Chodat. Scrophulariaceae (n. i). i Paraguay. 

Hastate, with two pointed lobes projecting J. at the base. 

Hastingsia S. Wats. (Schoenolirion EP.). Liliaceae (in). 4 W. N.Am. 

Hats, Panama, Carludovica. 

Haulm, stem. 

Haussknechtia Boiss. Umbelliferae (ill. 6). i Persia. 

Haussmannla F. Muell. Bignoniaceae (i). i Queensland. 

Haustoria, the suckers of parasites. 

Haustrum Nor. Inc. seel. Nomen. 

Hauya (Mo. et Sesse ex) DC. Onagraceae (2). 4 C. Am., Mex., Calif. 

Havardia Small (Pithecolobium p.p ). Leguminosae (i. i). i N. Am. 

Havetia H. B. et K. Guttiferae (v). i Colombia. 

Havetiopsis Planch, et Triana. Guttiferae (v). 5 Amazon valley. 

Havilandia Stapf. Boraginaceae (IV. 4). i Borneo. 

Hawk-bit, Leontodon ; -'s beard, Crepis ; -weed, Hieracium. 

HawortMa Duval. Liliaceae (m). 60 S. Afr. Xero. with fleshy 1., 

similar in habit to Crassulaceae. 
Hawthorn, Crataegiis. 

Haya Balf. f. Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). i Socotra. 
Haylockia Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 2 temp. S. Am. Like Crocus, 

with fls. projecting from the soil. 

Haynaldia Kanitz (Lobelia p.p. EP.). Campanulaceae (in). 4 Brazil. 
Haynaldia Schur. (Agropyron BH.}. Gramineae (12). 2 Medit. 
Haynea Schumach. et Thorns. Urticaceae (inc. sed.). i trop. Afr. 
Hazardia Greene (Haplopappus EP.). Compositae (3). 3 California. 
Hazel nut, Co>ylus ; - withe, Hamamelis. 

Head, a mass of sessile fls. on a common recept., Compositae ; com- 
pound -, Echinops ; cymose -, Dipsacaceae, Haenianthus. 
Headache-weed (W.I.), Hedyosmum nutans Sw. 

Hearnia F. Muell. (Aglaia p.p. EP.). Meliaceae (n). 6 E. Indomal. 
Heart pea (W.I.), Cardiosptrmum ; -'s ease, Viola ; -wood, the older 

wood of a tree trunk, in which no sap runs. 
Heath, Cal/una, Erica; prickly, Pernettya; St. Dabeoc's -, Daboecia; 

sea -, Frankenia, 

Heather, Callttna vulgaris Salisb., Erica. 
Heaven, tree of, Ailanthus. 

Hebanthe Mart. (Pjaffia EP.). Amarantaceae (3). 20 trop. Am. 
Hebecladus Miers. Solanaceae (2). 7 W. trop. S. Am. 
Hebeclinium DC. =Eupatorium Tourn. p.p. (Comp.). 
Hebecoccus Radlk. Sapindaceae (i). i Java. 
Hebenstretia L. Scrophulariaceae (n. 7). 30 S. and trop. Afr. The 

corolla is slit open along the anterior side, and the style and sta. 

project through the slit. 

Hebepetalum Benth. Linaceae. 2 trop. S. Am. 
Heberdenia Banks (Myrsine p.p. RH. ). Myrsinaceae (n). 2 Macro- 

nesia, Mexico. 

Hebestigma Urb. Leguminosae (ill. 6). i W.I. 
Hebongu Radlk. Simarubaceae. 2 Phil. Is. 


Hecastoclels A. Gray. Compositae (12). i Nevada. 

Hechtia Klotzsch. Bromeliaceae (2). 15 Mexico. Cult. orn. infl. 

Hecistopteris J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. i trop. Am. 

Heckeldora Pierre. Meliaceae (in). 2 trop. Afr. 

Heckelia K. Schum. Menispermaceae. i New Guinea. 

Heckeria Kunth (Piper p.p. EP.}. Piperaceae. 8 trop. 

Hectorella Hook. f. Portulaceae. i N.Z. 

Hecubaea DC. (Heleninm p.p. EP.). Compositae (6). i Mexico. 

Hedeoma Pers. Labiatae (vi). 30 Am. 

Hedeomoides Briq. (Pogogyne p.p.). Labiatae (vi). 3 California. 

Hedera Tourn. ex L. Araliaceae. 3 temp. ;%. H. Helix L. (ivy) is 
a root climber. L. dimorphic, those on the climbing shoots lobed, 
those on the freely projecting shoots that bear the infl. not. The 
former form leaf- mosaics better. Fls. not very conspicuous, but 
coming out late in the year are largely visited for the freely exposed 
honey by flies and wasps. 

Hederella Stapf (Dissochaeta p.p. EH.}. Melastomac. (i). 4 Mai. 

Hederopsis C. B. Clarke. Araliaceae (i). i Malay Peninsula. 

Hedge-Log grass (Am.), Cenchrus; -hyssop (Am.), Gratiola; -mus- 
tard, Sisymbriitm, (W.I.) Ckenopodium ; -nettle (Am.), Stackys; 
-parsley, Caucalis. 

Hedona Lous. (Lychnis p.p.). Caryophyllaceae (n. i). i Tibet. 

Hedraeanthus A. DC. Campanulaceae (i). 12 S.E. Eur., Caucasus. 

Hedraianthera F. Muell. Celastraceae. i E. Austr. 

Hedwigia Sw. (Tetragastris EP.). Burseraceae. 3 trop. Am., W.I. 
H. balsamifera Sw. (Antilles) is known as pig's balsam, on account 
of a legend that wounded pigs rub against the trees to heal wounds 
with the resin. 

Hedycapnos Planch. =Dicentra Bernh. (Papav.). 

Hedycarya Forst. Monimiaceae. 10 Austr. to Fiji. 

Hedychium Koen. Zingiberaceae (i). 30 trop. As., Madag. Rhizome 
olten tuberous. The fl. has a long tube, at the end of which spring 
the narrow free parts of the petals and the larger staminodes and 
labellum. The stigma projects just beyond the anther. Cult, 
orn. fl. 

Hedyosmum Sw. Chloranthaceae. 20 trop. Am. 

Hedyotis L. (Oldenlandia p.p. EP.}. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 120 trop. 

Hedypnois Schreb. = Rhagadiolus Tourn. 

Hedypnois (Tourn.) Scop. (Leontodon BH.}. Compositae (13). 3 

Hedysarum (Tourn.) L. Leguminosae (in. 7), 70 N. temp. 

Hedyscepe H. Wendl. et Drude (Kentia p.p. EP.). Palmaceae (iv. i). 
i Lord Howe's Island. 

Heeria Meissn. (Anaphrenium E. Mey. BH.}. Anacardiaceae (3). 
12 Afr. 

Heeria Schlecht. (Heterocentron EP.}. Melastomaceae (i). 6 C. 
Am. Some sta. attract insects, the others pollinate them (cf. Com- 

Helmia Link et Otto (Nesaea BH.). Lythraceae. 2 trop. Am. 

Heinsenia K. Schum. Rubiaceae (n. i). 2 trop. Afr. 


Helnsia DC. Rubiaceae (r. 8). 5 trop. Afr. 

Heisteria Jacq. Olacaceae. 25 warm Am., W. Afr. 

Hekistocarpa Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 2). i Nigeria. 

Heladena A. Juss. Malpighiaceae (n). 5 Brazil, Argentina. 

Helcia Lindl. (Trichopilia BH.}. Orchidaceae (n. 19). i Panama. 

Heldreichia Boiss. Cruciferae (2). 6 W. As. 

Helenia L. = Helenium L. 

Helenium L. Compositae (6). 30 W. Am. 

Heleocharis (Eleocharis} R. Br. Cyperaceae (i). 90 cosmop. 

Heleochloa Host. Gramineae (8). 8 N. palaeotemp. 

Heleog-iton Schult. = Scirpus L. (Cyper.). 

Heleophylax Beauv. =Scirpus L. p.p. (Cyper.). 

Helia Mart. (Lisianthits BH. ). Gentianaceae (i). 7 trop. S. Am. 

Heliamphora Benth. Sarraceniaceae. i Guiana, a pitcher plant 
(cf. Sarracenia). 

Helianthella Torr. et Gray. Compositae (5). 15 W. U.S., Mexico. 

Helianthemum Tourn. ex Hall. Cistaceae. 125 Eur., Medit., N. Am. 
H. vulgare Gaertn. and 3 others in Brit, (rock-rose). Infl. a cin- 
cinnus. The fl. contains no honey and is homogamous, with sensitive 
sta., which move outwards when touched. 

Helianthostylis Baill. Moraceae (n). i Amazon valley. 

Heliantnum Engelm. ex Britton (Echinodorus EP.\. Alism. ? 
N. Am. 

Helianthus L. Compositae (5). 60 Am. Good for chars, of 5. 
In H. annuus L. (sunflower) the number of fls. upon the head is 
often enormous and they show very regular spiral arrangement, 
probably due (largely) to pressure in the bud. Ray florets neuter. 
The seeds give oil. H. tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) has sub- 
terranean tuberous stems, like potatoes, with well marked ' eyes ' 
(buds in axils of scale-1 ). 

Helichrysum Vaill. ex L. Compositae (4). 350 Eur., As., Afr., 
Austr. ; 150 in S. Afr. Many xero. with hairy surface, decurrent, 
&c. The dried fl. -heads of some sp. are ' everlastings.' 

Helicia Lour. Proteaceae (n). 30 Indomal. &c. 

Helicilla Moq. Chenopodiaceae (B). i China. 

Helicodiceros Schott. Araceae (vn). i Corsica, Sardinia, H. cri- 
nitus Schott (H. muscivorus Engl. ). The development of the pedate 
leaf is cymose ; the later formed branches grow more slowly than the 
earlier. The name nniscivorus is due to the number of flies captured ; 
attracted by the foul smell of the infl. (cf. Arum) they collect inside 
the spathe in enormous numbers ; it may often be seen tightly packed ; 
when it withers the top closes and they are caught. 

Heliconia L. Musaceae. 35 trop. Am. Fls. in cincinni ; odd sep. 

Helicophyllum Schott (Eminium EP.}. Araceae (vn). 3 W. As. 

Helicostylis Tree. Moraceae (n). 2 Guiana, N. Brazil. 

Helicteres Pluk. ex L. Sterculiaceae. 45 trop. (exc. Afr.). The fls. 
become zygomorphic if they happen to be in a horiz. position. 

Helictonema Pierre. Celastraceae. i trop. Afr. 

Helietta Tul. Rutaceae (iv). 4 trop. Am. 

Heligme Blume = Parsonsia R. Br. (Apocyn.). 


Helinus E. Mey. ex Endl. Rhamnaceae. 4 palaeotrop. 

Helio- (Gr- pref.), sun- ; -trope, Heliotropium ; -tropism, irritability to 
light ; winter -trope, Petasiles. 

Heliocarpus L. Tiliaceae. 5 Mexico to Paraguay. 

Heliocaxya Bunge. Boraginaceae (iv. i). i Persia. 

Heliocereus Britton et Rose (Cereus p.p.). Cactaceae (in. i). 4 N. 

Heliophila Burm. f. ex L. Cruciferae (i). 70 S. Afr. 

Heliophytum DC. = Heliotropium L. p.p. (Boragin.). 

Heliopsis Pers. Compositae (5). 7 Am. 

Heliosperma ReichL. (Silene p.p. BH.). Caryophyllaceae (u. i). 
5 Mountains of S. Eur. 

Heliotropium (Tourn.) L. Boraginaceae (in). 220 trop. and temp. 
H. peruviamim L. (cherry pie) and others (heliotrope) cult perf. fls. 

Helipterum UC. Compositae (4). 50 Austr., S. Afr. Xero. with 
persistent invol. of white scaly bracts. Cult. orn. fl. ; the dried 
flower-heads are sold as 'everlastings' (cf. Helichrysum, &c.). 

Hellebore, Helleborus ; white -, Veratrutn. 

Helleborine Tourn. ex Hall, Pers. = Serapias L. (Orchid.). 

Helleborine Hill (Epipactls p.p.). Orchidaceae (il. 2). 10 N. temp. 

Helleborine, Epipactis. 

Helleborus (Tourn.) L. Ranunculaceae (2). 15 Eur., Medit. ; 2 in 
Brit, (hellebore). PI. woody below, each shoot from the stock 
taking several years to reach maturity and flower. Fl. protog., 
opening early in the year. Cpls. slightly coherent at base. In H. 
tiiger L. (Christmas rose) the P turns green after the fl. has been fert. 

Hellenia Willd. Alpinia L. (Zingib. ). 

Helleranthus Small {Verbena p.p.). Verbenaceae (i). i N. Am. 

Hellwigia Warb (Alpinia. p.p.). Zingiberaceae (i). i New Guinea. 

Helmholtzia F. Muell. Philydraceae. 2 E. Austr., Polynesia. 

Helmia Kunth=Dioscorea L. p.p. (Dioscor.). 

Helminthia Juss. = Picris L. p.p. (Comp.). 

Helminthocarpum A. Rich. Leguminosae (in. 5). i Abyssinia. 

Helminthostachys Kaulf. Ophioglossaceae. i, H. zeylamca Hook, 
f., Ceylon, Himal. to Queensland. Rhiz. dorsiv. with 2-ranked 1. 
on the upper side, and roots below, which do not bear any definite 
relation to the 1. Sporangia peltate, on -vsporangiophores from the 
sides of the fertile spike. [Cf. Fanner and Freeman, in Ann. of 
Bot. xin. 1899, p. 421 ; Lang on prothallus, do. xvi. 1902, p. 23.] 

Helmontia Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (2). 2 Brazil, Guiana. 

Helobieae. The 2nd order of Monocotyledons. 

Helodea Reichb. = Elodea Michx. (Hydrocharit.). 

Helodrium (Cl.), a thicket formation. 

Helogyne Nutt. Compositae (2). 2 Peru, Bolivia. 

Helonias L. Liliaceae (i). i east N. Am. Cult. orn. fl. 

Heloniopsis A. Gray. Liliaceae (i). 4 Japan, Formosa. 

Helopus Trin. = Eriochloa H. B. et K. (Gram.). 

Helosciadium Koch = Apium Tourn. p.p. (Umbellif.). 

Helosis Rich. Balanophoraceae. 3 trop. Am. 

Helwingia Willd. Cornaceae (Araliac. BH.). 3 Himal. to Japan. 

Helxine L. = Polygonum Tourn. (.5//.) = Fagopyrum Moench. 


Helxine Reg. Urticaceae (4). i Corsica, Sardinia. 
Hemandradenia Stapf. Connaraceae. -2 trop. Afr. 
Hemarthria R. Br. \Rottboellia p.p. EP.). Gramin. (2). 3 warm. 
Hemerocallis L. Liliaceae (in). 5 temp. Eur., As. Infl. a double 

bostryx. The fls. of H. fulva L. are self-sterile. Cult. orn. fl. 
Hemi- (Gr. pref.), half, partial; -cyclic, part in spirals, part in whorls; 

-parasite, a facultative saprophyte, a parasite which can exist as 

a saprophyte ; -ptera, bugs, &c. ; -tropous (insects), with tongues 

of medium length, suited to fl. -classes B and B'. 
Hemiandra R. Br. Labiatae (u). 3 S.VV. Austr. 
Hemiarrhena Benth. Scrophulariaceae (ill. 3). i trop. Austr. 
Hemiboea C. B. Clarke. Gesneriaceae (i). 3 China. 
Hemicarex Benth. (Kobresia Willd., Sclioeno.\iphium Nees, BH.}. 

Cyperaceae (in). 10 Himalaya, S. Afr. 
Hemicarpha Nees et Am. (Scipus p.p. BH.}. Cyper. (i). 3 trop. 

and subtrop. 

Hemicarpus F. Muell.=;Trachymene Rudge (j5//.) = Didiscus DC. 
Hemichaeiia Benth. Scrophulariaceae (n. 4). i C. Am. 
Hemichlaena Schrad. Cyperaceae (i). 3 S. Afr. 
Hemicliroa R. Br. Chenopodiaceae (A). 3 Austr. 
Hemicramtoe Webb. Cruciferae (2). i Morocco. 
Hemicyclia Wight et Am. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 10 Indomal. 
Hemidesmus R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (i). i S. India. 
Hemidia Rafin. Inc. sed. Nomen. 
Hemidiodia K. Schum. (Spermacoce p.p.). Rubiaceae (n. 10). t 

Mexico to Brazil, Malay Archip. 
Hemigenia R. Br. Labiatae (n). 25 Austr. 
HemiglocMdion K. Schum. (Phyllanlhus p.p.). Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 

4 New Guinea. 

Hemigraphis Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. A). 25 trop. As. 
Hemigyrosa Blume (Guioa p.p. EP.}. Sapind'aceae (i). 4 Indomal. 
Hemiliabsnaria Finet (Habenaria p.p.). Orchid, (n. i). 3 E. As. 
Hemiheisteria Van Tiegh. (Heisteria p.p.). Olacaceae. i S. Am. 
HemilopMa Franch. Cruciferae (2). i Yunnan. 
Hemimeris L. f., Thunb. Scrophulariaceae (n. i). 4 S. Afr. 
Hemhneris Pers. = Alonsoa Ruiz et Pav. (Scroph.). 
Hemionitis L. Polypodiaceae. 10 trop. Am. and As. 
Hemiorchis Kurz. Zingiberaceae (i). 3 E. Indomal. 
Hemiphora F. Muell. Verbenaceae (3). i W. Austr. 
Hemipriragma Wall. Scrophulariaceae (in. i). i Himalaya. 
Hemiphylacus S. Wats. Liliaceae (ill), i N. Mexico. 
Hemipilia Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. i). 5 Himal., China. 
Hemipogon Uecne. in DC. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 7 S. Am. 
Hemisiphonia Urb. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i W. Indies. 
Hemistemma Juss. ex Thou. = Hibbertia Andr. p.p. (Dillen.). 
Hemistepta Bunge (Saussurea p.p.). Compositae (n). i E. As. 
Hemistylus Benth. Urticaceae (4). 4 S. Am. 
Hemitelia Br. Cyatheaceae. 75 trop. and S. temp. Tree-ferns. 
Hemithrinax Hook. f. ( l^hrinax p.p. EP.). Palmaceae (1.2). i Cuba. 
Hemitria Rafin. Loranthaceae (inc. sed.). i, habitat?. 
Hemizonella A. Gray. Compositae (5). 2 Pacif. U.S. 

W. 21 


Hemizonia DC. Compositae (5). 25 west N. Am. 

Hemizygia Briq. (Ocimum p.p. BH.}. Labiatae (vn). 2 trop. and 
S. Afr. 

Hemlock, Conium maculatum L.; -spruce (Am.), Tsuga canadensis 
Carr. ; water-, Cicuta virosa L. 

Hemp, Cannabis, Moraceae; -agrimony, Enpatorium cannabinum L. ; 
bastard -, agrimony (W.I.), Ageratum conyzoides L.; Bombay -, 
Crotalaria juncea L.; bow-string -, Sansevieria zeylanica Willd., 
&c. ; China -, Abutilon ; Deccan -, Hibiscus cannabinus L. ; Madras -, 
cf. Bombay ; Manila -, Musa textilis Nee ; Mauritius -, Furcraea 
gigantea Vent.; -nettle, Galeopsis Tetrahit L. ; New Zealand -, 
Phormium tcnax Forst. ; sisal -, Agave sisalana Perrine ; sunn -, 
Crotalaria juncea L. 

Hemsleya Cogn. Cucurbitaceae (i). 2 S.E. As. 

Hen-and-chickens, Calendula officinalis L., var. 

Hen-bane, Hyoscyamus niger L. ; -bit, Lainium ainplexicatile L. 

Henckelia Spreng. = Didymocarpus Wall. (Gesner.). 

Henequen, Agavefourcroydes Lem. 

Henicosanthum Becc. Anonaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Henlea Griseb. Malpighiaceae. i Cuba. 

Henleophytum Karst. {Henlea Griseb.). Malpighiaceae. i Cuba. 

Henna, Lawsonia inermis L. 

Hennecartia Poisson. Monimiaceae. i Paraguay. 

Henonia Moq. Amarantaceae (i). i Madag. 

Henoonia Griseb. Solanaceae (4) (Sapotaceae BH.). i Cuba. 

Henophyton Coss. et Dur. Cruciferae (4). i Algeria. 

Henosis Hook. f. (Bulbophylhtm p.p.). Orchid, (u. 16). i Brazil. 

Henricia Cass. Compositae (3). i Madag. 

Henriettea DC. Melastomaceae (i). 12 trop. S. Am. 

Henriettella Naud. Melastomaceae (i). 20 trop. Am., W.I. 

Henriquezia Spruce ex Benth. Rubiaceae (i. 4). 5 N. Braz., Guiana. 

Henrya Hemsl. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). i Centr. China. 

Henslowia Blume. Santalaceae. 13 Indomal. , China. 

Hensmania Fitzgerald (Xerotes p.p.). Liliaceae (in), i Austr. 

Hepatica Dill, ex L. = Anemone L. p.p. (Ranunc. ). 

Heppiella Regel. Gesneriaceae (n). 10 trop. S. Am. 

Heptacodium Render. Caprifoliaceae. i China. 

Heptacyclum Engl. Menispermaceae. i trop. Afr. 

Heptandrous, with 7 stamens. 

Heptanthus Griseb. Compositae (5). 3 Cuba. 

Heptapleurum Gaertn. (Schefflera EP.). Araliaceae (i). 70 palaeo- 

Heracleum L. Umbelliferae (in. 6). 70 N. temp, and trop. Mts. 
(//. Sphondylium L., cow-parsnip, in Brit.). 

Herb, a pi. with no woody part above ground ; - Christopher, Actaea 
spicata L. ; - Bennett, Geum ; - Paris, Paris qitadrifolia L. ; - Robert, 
Geranium Robertianum L. ; -aceous (1.). thin and green (stem), not 
woody above ground. 
Herbarium, a collection of dried plants. 

Herbertia Sweet (Alophia EP.). Iridaceae (n). 7 warm Am. 
Hercules' Club (Am.), Aralia spinosa L. 


Herderia Cass. Compositae (i). 3 trop. Afr. 

Herd's grass (Am.), Phleumpratense L. 

Heritiera (Dryand.) Ait. Sterculiaceae. 4 palaeotrop. coasts. 

Herkogamous, 5 , but incapable of self-fertilisation. 

Hermannia L. (BH. excl. Mahernia L.). Sterculiaceae. 120 trop. 

and sub-trop., chiefly Afr. 

Hermaphrodite (fl.), with both stamens and carpels (functional). 
Hermas L. Umbelliferae (i. 2). 5 S. Afr. 

Hermbstaedtia Keichb. Amarantaceae (i). 10 trop. and S. Afr. 
Hermesia Humb. et Bonpl. = Alchornea Sw. p.p. (Euph.). 
Hermesias Loefl. (Brownea BH.). Legumin. (n. 3). 10 trop. Am , 

Hermibiccnia x G. Camus, Bergon, et A. Camus. Orchidaceae. 

Hybrid, Herminiurn Gymnadenia (Bicchia). 
Hermidium S. Wats. Nyctaginaceae. i Nevada. 
Henniniera Guill. t Perr. (Aesckynomene p.p. EP.). Leguminosae 

(ill. 7). i trop. Afr.,.//. elaphroxylon G. et P. Wood light, used 

for floats, canoes, &c. Cf. with the development of aerenchyma seen 

in other marsh plants (Lycopus, Jussieua, &c.). 
Herminium L. Orchidaceae (n. i). 8 temp. Eur., As. (H. Monor- 

chis R. Br., musk-orchis, in Brit.) 
Hermione Salisb. = Narcissus Tourn. i>.p. (Amaryll.). 
Hermodactylus Tourn. ex Mill. Iridaceae (n). i Medit. 
Hernandia Plum, ex L. Hernandiaceae. 10 trop. 
Hernandiaceae (EP. ; Lanraccae p.p. BH.). Dicotyledons (Archichl. 

Ranales). 4 gen. 25 sp. trop. Shrubs or trees with alt. exstip. 1., 

oil-cells, and cystoliths. Fl. 5 or unisexual reg. ?4 10, A in whorl 

before outer P, G i-loc., with i pend. anatr. ov. Chief genus : 

Herniaria (Tourn.) L. Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). 20 Medit., Eur., S. 

Afr. (H. glabra L., rupture-wort, in England.) Fl. apetalous. 
Herpestis Gaertn. f. (Bacopa EP.). Scrophulariaceae (11. 6) 50 trop. 

and subtrop., chiefly Am. 

Herpetacanthus Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 5 Brazil. 
Herpetica Cook et Collins, Rafm. (Cassia p.p.). Legum. (n. 5). i 

Porto Rico. 

Herpetospermum Wall. Cucurbitaceae (3). 2 Himal. , China. 
Herpolirion Hook. f. Liliaceae (in), i N.Z., Tasm., S.E. Austr. 
Herpysma Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 2 Himal., Phil. Is. 
Herpyza Sauv. (Teramnus EP.). Leguminosae (ill. 10). i Cuba. 
Herrania Goudot (Theobroma p.p. EP.). Sterculiaceae. 5 trop. S. Am. 
Herreria Ruiz et Pav. Liliaceae (n). 3 S. Am. 
Herrickia Wooton et Standley. Compositae (3). i New Mexico. 
Herschelia Lindl. (Disa p.p. BH.). Orchid, (n. i). 3 S. and trop. 

Hertia Neck. (Othonnopsis p.p. B.H.). Compos. (8). 8 W. As., S. 


Herya Cordemoy. Celastraceae. i Bourbon. 
Hesperaloe Engelm. Liliaceae (vi). 2 Texas, Mexico. 
Hesperantha Ker-Gawl. Iridaceae (in). 25 S. and trop. Afr. 
Hesperaster Cockerell (Mcntzelia p.p.). Loasaceae. 10 N. Am. 

21 2 


Hesperastragalus A. A. Heller (Astragalus p.p.). Leguminosae (in. 
6). 4 Calif. 

Hesperelaea A. Gray. Oleaceae. i Lower California. 

Hesperidanthus Rydherg (Streptanthus p.p.). Cruc. (i). i N. Am. 

Hesperidium, the berry of Citrus, &c. 

Hesperis L. Cruciferae (4). 25 Eur., Medit.; (i Brit.). Orn. fl. 

Hesperocallis A. Gray. Liliaceae (in), i Colorado desert. 

Hesperochiron S. Wats. Hydrophyllaceae. 2 W. U.S. 

Hesperochloa Rydberg (Festuca p.p.). Gramin. (10). i Rockies. 

Hesperocnide Torr. Urticaceae (i). 3 California, Hawaiian Is. 

Hesperodoria Greene (Bigelomia p.p.). Compos. (3). 2 W. U.S. 

Hesperogenia Coulter et Rose. Umbelliferae (in. 4). i N. Am. 

Hesperolinon Small (Linuni p.p.). Linaceae. 10 California. 

Hesperomannia A. Gray. Compositae (12). 3 Sandwich Is. 

Hesperomecon Greene (Mcconella Benth.). Papaver. (n). 7 Calif. 

Hesperomeles Lindl. = Osteomeles Lindl. (Ros.). 

Hesperonia Standley (Mirabilis p.p.). Nyctaginaceae. 9 N. Am. 

Hesperoschordum Lindl. =Brodiaea Sm. p.p. (Lili.). 

Hesperoxalis Small (Oxalis p.p.). Oxalidaceae. i N.W. U.S. 

Heaperoyucca Baker ( Yucca p.p. ). Liliaceae (vi). i Calif. 

Hessea Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 10 S. Afr. Cult. orn. fl. 

Hetaeria Blume. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 20 palaeotrop. 

Heter, hetero- (Gr. pref.), diverse; -carpous, producing more than 
one kind of fr., Aethionema, Calendula, Cardamine, Dimorphotheca', 
-chlamydeous, with P 1. of two kinds, K and C ; -cyclic, with 
different numbers in different whorls ; -dromous (aestivation), a 
right-hand-side fl. I he reflection of a left, Exacum, Marantaceae, 
Saint paulia ; -gamous, heterostyled, or in Compositae, fls. of dif- 
ferent sex in same head ; -merous, whorls with different numbers 
of members; -phylly, polymorphic 1., Bryophyllum, Capsella, Dis- 
chidia, Liriodendron, Hedera and other climbers, many epiphytes, 
insectivorous plants, and water-plants; -spory, presence of two kinds 
of spores, Pteridophyta ; -stylism, occurrence of two or more kinds 
of pi. of the same sp., one with e.g. long sta. and short style, the 
other with short sta. and long style, or long, mid and short sta. 
and style, Lythruin, Primula, Androsace, Boraginaceae, Bouvardia, 
Eichhornia, Erythroxylum, Fagopyrum, Hottonia, Lagerstroemia, 
Linum, Lythruin, Alenyanthes, Mitchella, Oldcnlandia, Oxalis, 
Pontederia, Primula, Psychotria, Pitlinonaria, Kudgea, Statice, 

Heterachaena Fres. (Launaea p.p. EP.). Compositae (13). i Arabia, 

Heterachne Benth. Gramineae (10). 2 N. Austr. 

Heteracia Fisch. et Mey. Compositae (13). i W. As. 

Heteradelphia Lindau. Acanthaceae (iv. A), i Sao Thome. 

Heteranthelium Hochst. (Agropyron p.p. BH.). Gramineae (12). i 
W. As. 

Heteranthera Ruiz et Pav. Pontederiaceae. 10 trop. and subtrop. 
Am., Afr. L. of two types linear submerged and orbicular floating. 
Some have cleist. fls. 

Heterauthia Nees et Mart. Scrophulariaceae (inc. sed.). i Brazil. 


Heteraiithoecia Stapf. Gramineae (5). t trop. Afr. 
Heterapithmos Turcz. Inc. sed. i Brazil. 

Heterixia Van Tiegh. (Viseum p.p.). Loranth. (n). i N.Z., Malaya. 
Heterocarpus Phil. (Cardamine p.p. BH.}. Crucif. (4). i Juan 


Heterocaryum A. DC. = Echinospermum Sw. (BH.} = Lappula Moench. 
Heterocentron Hook, et Arn. (Heeria BH.). Melastomaceae (i). 6 C. 

Am., Mex. 

Heterochaenia A. DC. Campanulaceae (i). i Mascarenes. 
Heterochaeta DC. = Aster Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 
Heterocodon Nutt. Campanulaceae (i). i W. N.Am. 
Heterocoma DC. Compositae (i). r Brazil. 
Heterodendron (um) Desf. Sapindaceae (i). 4 Austr. 
Heteroderis Hoiss. (Crepis p.p. BH.}. Compositae (13). i W. As. 
Heterodraba Greene (Draba p.p. ). Cruciferae (4). 2 C*alif. 
Heterogaura Rothrock. Onagraceae (2). i California. 
Heterolaena Sch.-Bip. = Eupatorium Tourn. p.p. (Compos.). 
Heterolepis Cass. Compositae (4). 38. Afr. 
Heteromeles M. Roem. (Photinia Lincll.). Rosac. (n). 2 Calif. 
Heteromerae (JBH.). The 2nd series of Gamopetalae. 
Heteromma Benth. Compositae (3). i S. Afr. nits. 
Heteromorpha Cham, et Schlechtd. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 3 Afr. 
Heteronoma DC. = Arthrostema Ruiz et Pav. (Melastom.). 
Heteropanax Seem. Araliaceae (i). i Fiji. 
Heteropappus Less. Compositae (3). 5 China, Japan. 
Heteropetalum Benth. Anonaceae (2). i N. Brazil. 
Heterophragma DC. Bignoniaceae (2). 3 Indomal. 
Heterophyllaea Hook. f. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 2 Bolivia, Argentina. 
Heteropogon Pers. (Andropogon p.p. EP.}. Gramin. (2). 5 trop. 
Heteropsis Kunth. Araceae (i). 8 trop. S. Am. 
Heteropteris H. B. et K. Malpighiaceae (i). 100 trop. Am., i in trop. 

Afr. Fr. a samara (cf. Acer, Banisteria). 
Heteropyxis Ilarv. Inc. sed. (Myrt. ?, Lythr. ?). 2 S. Afr. 
Heterosciadium Lange. Umbelliferae (in. 2). i Spain. 
Heterosmilax Kunth. Liliaceae (xi). 5 E. As. 
Heterospathe Scheff. Palmaceae (iv. i). 4 Malay Archip. 
Heterospermum Cav. Compositae (5). 6 Arizona to Argentina. 
Heterostachys Ung. Sternb. Chenopodiaceae (A), i C. and S. Am. 
Heterostemma Wight et Arn. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). r=; Indomal. 
Heterostemon Desf. Leguminosae (n. 3). 4 trop. Am. 
Heterothalamus Less. Compositae (3). 6 S. Am. 
Heterotheca Cass. Compositae (3). 5 W. U.S., Mexico. 
Heterothrix Rydberg (Streptanthus p.p.). Cruciferae (i). 2 N. Am. 
Heterotis Benth. = Dissotis Benth. (Melastom.). 
Heterotoma Zucc. Campanulaceae (m). 6 Mexico. CulK orn. fl. 
Heterotrichum Bieb. = Saussurea DC. (Compos.). 
Heterotrichum DC. Melastomaceae (i). 10 trop. Am., some ed. fr. 
Heterotropa Morr. et Dene. =Asarum L. p.p. (Aristoloch.). 
Heucbera L. Saxifragaceae (i). 30 N. Am., sometimes apet. 
Heuffelia Schur. = Avena L. p.p. (Gramin.). 
Heurnia Spreng. (ffiu-mia R. Br.) Asclep. (n. 3). 20 Afr. 


Heurniopsis N.E. Kr. (Hnerniopsis). Asclep. (n. 3). i S. Afr. 

Hevea Auhl. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 3). 20 trop. Am. //. brasiliensis 
Miill.-Arg. is the source of the best caoutchouc (Para rubber), largely 
exported from Brazil. The tree was introduced into Ceylon and the 
east in 1876, and in recent years a very large planting industry has 
grown up in it. Incisions, usu. herring-bone-like, are made in the 
bark, and the latex flows from them. The wound is renewed at 
intervals of one or two days by shaving off a thin slice from the 
lower side, when there is a larger flow of milk than at first. The 
milk is usu. coagulated with the aid of enough acid to neutralise its 
alkalinity, and the resulting 'biscuits' or sheets are dried, or made 
into crepe or other forms. Cf. Willis, Agriculture in the Tropics. 

Hewardia Hook. Liliaceae (inc. sed.). i Tasmania. 

Hewittia Wight et Arn. Convolvulaceae (i). 5 trop. 

Hex- (Gr. preT.), six ; -androus, with 6 sta. , &c. 

Hexadesmia Brongn. Orchid, (n. 6). 5 Brazil to Mexico and W.I. 

Hexaglochin Nieuwland (Triglochin p.p.). Juncag. i U.S. 

Hexaglottis Vent. Iridaceae (n). 3 Cape Colony. 

Hexalectris Rafin. Orchidaceae (n. 7). 2 Mex., S. U.S. 

Hexalobus A. DC. Anonaceae (3). 8 trop. Afr., Madag. 

Hexaptera Hook. Cruciferae (i). 6 temp. S. Am. Fr. winged. 

Hexapterella Urb. Burmanniaceae. i Lower Amazon. 

Hexasepalum Bartl. ex DC. (Diodia p.p. EP.). Rubi. (n. 10). i Mex. 

Hexatheca C. B. Clarke. Gesneriaceae (i). i Borneo. 

Hexisea Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 6). 5 Brazil to Mex. and W.I. 

Heylandia DC. Leguminosae (in. 3). r S. India, Ceylon. 

Heynea Roxb. (IVdlmra p.p. EP.).' Meliaceae (in). 4 Indomal. 

Heywoodia Sim. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i Cape Col. (Cape ebony). 

Hians (Lat.), gaping. 

Hibbertia Andr. (incl. Candollea Labill. 1806). Dilleniaceae. 100 
Austr. , New Caled. &c. Mostly ericoid or climbing shrubs. Some 
have phylloclades. Infl. dich., but often, by reduction, coming to look 
like a raceme. The sta. &c. vary much in number in different sp. 

Hibernation, remaining ^quiescent during winter ; cf. Bulbs, Corms, 
Rhizomes, Tubers, Water-plants, Orchidaceae, &c. 

Hibiscadelphus Rock. Malvaceae (4). 3 Hawaiian Is. 

Hibiscus L. (excl. Abelmoschm Medic.). Malvaceae (4). 160 trop. 
and subtrop. The 5 ante-sepalous sta. are repres. by teeth at the 
top of the stamen-tube. Several are cult., esp. H. Rosa-sinensis L. 
(shoe-flower, fls. showy), H. Sabdariffa L. (Rozelle, fr. for jelly, 
&c.), H. (A.) esculentus L. (Okra or Bandakai, mucilaginous young 
fr. in soups, c.). 

Hickory, Carya. 

Hicksbeachia F. Muell. Proteaceae (n). i Austr. 

Hicoria Rafin. = Carya Nutt. (Jugland.). 

Hidalgoa La Llave. Compositae (5). 2 W.I., C. Am. 

Hiemalis (Lat.), winter. 

Hieracium (Tourn.) L. Compositae (13). 450 *_, S. Afr., Andes; 
several in Brit, (hawk-weeds). Innumerable varieties have been 
raised by various botanists to specific rank (see London Cat. of Brit. 
Plants). Some are parthenogenetic. 


Hiernia Sp. Moore. Scroph. (in. 2). Formerly Acanth. i Angola. 

Hierobotana Briq. ( Verbena p. p. ) . Verben. (i). i Colombia. 

Hierochloe S. G. Gmel. Gramineae (7). 13 temp, and cold, i Brit. 

Hieronima Allem. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 10 trop. Am., W.I. 

Hieronymiella Pax. Amaryllidaceae (i). i Argentina. 

Higginsia Pers. = Hoffmannia S\v. (Rubi.). 

Higinbothamia Uline. Dioscoreaceae. i C. Am. 

Hilairella Van Tiegh. Ochnaceae. 2 Brazil. 

Hilaria H. B. et K. Gramineae (3). 5 C. Am. to S.W. U.S. 

Hilbertia Thouin. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Hildebrandtia Vatke. Convolvulaceae (i). i Afr., As. K enlarged 

on fr. 

Hillebrandia Oliv. Begoniaceae. i Hawaiian Is. 
Hilleria Veil. (Mohlana BH.). Phytolaccaceae. 3 trop. S. Am. 
Hillia Jacq. Rubiaceae (I. 5). 5 Brazil to W.I. 
Hilum, the scar where stalk separates from the seed. 
Himalayan spruce, Picea Morinda Link. 
Himantochilus T. Anders. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 6 Afr. 
Himantoglossum Spreng. (Orchis p.p. BH.}. Orchid, (n. i). i 

Medit., mid-Eur. 

Himantophyllum Spreng. =Clivia Lindl. p.p. (Amaryll.). 
Himantostemma A. Gray. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). i N. Am. 
Himeranthus Endl. (Jaborosa p.p. EP.}. Solanac. (2). 5 Argentina. 
Hindsia Benth. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 7 trop. S. Am. 
Hing (India), asafoetida, Ferula. 

Hinterhubera Sch. Bip. 1855. Compositae (3). 3 Andes. 
Hip, the fr. of Rosa. 
Hippeastrum Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 75 trop. and subtrop. Am. 

Cult. orn. fl. 

Hippeophyllum Schlechter (Oberonia p.p.). Orchid, (n. 4). 2 N.G. 
Hippia L. Compositae (7). 4 S. Afr. 
Hippia L. f. = Plagiocheilus Arn. (Comp.). 
Hippia F. W. Schmidt = Gentiana Tourn. p.p. (Gent.). 
Hippobromus Eckl. et Zeyh. Sapindaceae (n). i S. Afr. 
Hippocastanaceae (EP.; Sapindaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 

Sapindales). Only genus Aesculus (q.v.). 

Hippocastanum Tourn. ex Rupp. = Aesculus L. p.p. (Hippocast.). 
Hippocratea L. Hippocrateaceae. 80 trop. Twining shrubs. 
Hippocrateaceae (EP.; Celastraceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. 

Sapindales). 3 gen., 150 sp. trop. and subtrop. Shrubs, mostly 

lianes, with opp. or alt. simple 1. Fls. in cymes, $ , reg., with disc. 

K 5, C 5, A 3 (rarely 5, 4, 2), G (3), with 210 anatr. ov. in each 

loc. Berry or schizocarp. No enclosp. Genera: Campylostemon, 

Hippocratea, Salacia. 
Hippocrepis L. Leguminosae (ill. 7). 12 Medit., Eur. H. coinosa 

L. to Scotland. Fl. mechanism like Lotus. Useful fodders. 
Hippodamia Decne. (Solenophora BH.}. Gesner. (n). 3 Mex., Costa 

Hippomane L. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). i C. Am., W. Ind., 

Columbia (manchineel). Latex poisonous. 
Hippomarathrum Hoffmg. et Link. Umbelliferae (in. 4). 12 Medit. 


Hippophae L. Elaeagnaceae. i N. temp. |^r, H. rhainnoides L. 
(sea buckthorn) Brit. In the 3 fl. the hracteoles form a hood over 
the sta. in wet weather; when the air is drier, they separate at the 
sides, and the pollen may be blown away. 

Hipposelimim Britton et Rose (Ligusticuni p.p.). Umb. (in. 5). i 
S. Eur. 

Hippotis Ruiz et Pav. Rubiaceae (i. 7). 5 trop. S. Am. 

Hippoxylon Rafin. = Oroxylum Vent. (Bignon.). 

Hippuridaceae (EP. ; Haloragidaceae p.p. BH.}. Dicots. (Archichl. 
Myrtiflorae). Only genus Hippuris, q.-v. 

Hippuris L. Hippuridaceae. i, H. vulgaris L. (mare's-tail) almost 
cosmop. A water plant, with creeping rhiz. and erect shoots, whose 
upper parts usu. project above the water. L. linear, in whorls, the 
submerged ones longer and more flaccid than the aerial. Fl. sessile 
in axil of 1., (or sometimes ? on some stocks; cf. Labiatae), con- 
sisting of i epig. sta. and i cpl., with i pend. ov. and no integuments, 
and a slight seam representing the K; wind fertilised. 

Hiptage Gaertn. Malpighiaceae (i). 10 Mauritius to China. 

Hiraea Jacq. (Mitscagma'Bert.). Malpighiaceae (i). 30 trop. Am. 

Hircinus (Lat.), with goaty smell. 

Hirpicium Cass. Compositae (10). 2 S. Afr. 

HirscMa Baker. Compositae (4). i S. Arabia. 

Hirsute, with long distinct hairs. 

Hirtella L. Rosaceae (vi). 40 S. and Cent. Am., i Madag. Fl. -|-, 
axis deeply hollowed on one side. The sta. and cpl. are not in the 
hollow, but on the other side of the surface of the axis. 

Hirtus (Lat.), hirsute. 

Hising-era Hellm. = Xylosma Forst. (Flac.). 

Hispid, with rough bristly hairs. 

Hispidella Barnad. ex Lam. Compositae (13). i Iberian Penins. 

Histiopteris (Agardh) J. Sm. Polypodiaceae. 2 warm, and ^. 

Hitchenia Wall. Zingiberaceae (i). 4 India. 

Hitoa Nadeaud. Rubiaceae (n. 4). i Society Is. 

Hladnikia Koch {Plenrospermum p.p. BH,}. Umbell. (in. 4). i 

Hoarea Sweet= Pelargonium L'Herit. p.p. (Geran.). 

Hoary, grey with fine pubescence. 

Hobble-bush (Am.), Viburnum. 

Hochstetteria DC. (Dicoma p.p. EP.}. Compositae (12). i trop. Afr., 

Hockinia Gardn. Gentianaceae (i). i Rio de Janeiro. 

Hodgkinsonia F. Muell. Rubiaceae (n. 3). i S.E. Austr. 

Hodgsonia Hook. f. et Thorns. Cucurbitaceae (3). j Indomal. 

Hodgsoniola F. Muell. Liliaceae (in), i S.W. Austr. 

Hoeckia Engl. et Graebn. Valerianaceae. i China. 

Hoehnelia Schweinf. Compositae (i). i E. Afr. 

Hoelzelia Neck. = Swartzia Schreb. (Legum. ). 

Hoepfneria Vatke (Abrus p.p. EP.}. Leguminosae (in. 9). i trop. Afr. 

Hoffimannia Sw. Rubiaceae (i. 8). 24 trop. Am. 

Hoffmanniella Schlechter. Compositae. Nomen. i trop. Afr. 

Hoffmannseggia Cav. Leguminosae (n. 7). 20 S. Afr., S. Am. 


Hofmeisterella Reichb. f. in Walp. Orchid, (n. 19). i Ecuador. 

Hofrueisteria Walp. Compositae (2). 5 Calif, to Mexico. 

Hog gum (W.I.), Moronobea; false- (W.I.), Rhits Metopium L.; 

-plum, Spondias; -weed, (W.I.), Boerhaavia\ poisoned -meat or 

weed (W.I.), Aristolochia grandiflora Sw., (Am.) Ambrosia artcmi- 

siaefolia L. 

Hohenackeria Fisch. et Mey. Umbelliferae (in. 5). 2 Medit., W. As. 
Hohenbergia Schult. f. p.p. (Aechmea p.p. BH.}. Bromeliaceae (4). 

1 8 trop. Am. 

Hoheria A. Cunn. Malvaceae (2). 3 New Zealand. 
Hoitzia Juss. = Loeselia L. (Polemon.). 
Holacantha A. Gray. Simarubaceae. i New Mexico. 
Holalafia Stapf. Apocynaceae (n. i). i Guinea. 
Holarrhena R. Br. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 10 palaeotrop. 
Holboellia Wall. Lardizabalaceae. 5 Himal., China. 
Holcophacos Rydberg (Astragalus p.p.). Leguminosae (ill. 6). 2 

N. Am. 
Holcus L. Gramineae (9). 8 Eur., N. and S. Afr. 2 in Brit., //. 

mollis L., and H. lanatits L., Yorkshire fog or soft-grass. 
Holigarna Buch. -Ham. ex Roxb. Anacardiaceae (4). 5 Indomal. 
Hollandaea F. Muell. Proteaceae (n). 2 E. Austr. 
Hollisteria S. Wats. Polygonaceae (i. i). i Calif. 
Hollrungia K. Schum. Passifloraceae. i New Guinea. 
Holly, Ilex ; -fern, Aspidium Lonchitis Sw. ; -hock, Althaea; -oak 

Quercus Ilex L.; -rose (W.I. ), Turnera; sea-, Erynginm. 
Holmbergia Hicken (Chenopodium p.p.). Chenopodiaceae (A). i 


Holmia Borner Cobresia Pers. p.p. (Cyper.). 

Holmskioldia Retz. Verbenaceae (4). 4 Madag. , trop. Afr., Himal. 
Holo- (Gr. pref.), complete. 

Holocalyx M. Micheli. Leguminosae (n. 9). 2 Brazil, Haraguay. 
Holocarpa Baker (Pentanisia EP.). Rubiaceae (n. i). i Madag. 
Holocarpha Greene (Heinizoitia p.p.)- Compositae (5). i Calif. 
Holochlamys Engl. Araceae (n). 2 New Guinea. 
Holochloa Nutt.= Heuchera L. p.p. (Saxifrag.). 
Holodictyum Maxon (Aspknimn p.p.). Polypodiaceae. 2 Mexico. 
Holodiscus Maxim (Spiraea p.p. BH.}. Rosaceae (i. 3). 5 W. N.Am. 


HolograpMs Nees. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Mexico. 
Hologyne Pnlzer (Coelogyne p.p.). Orchid, (n. 3). 2 Malay Archip. 
Hololachna Ehrenb. Tamaricaceae. 2 C. As. 
Holophyllum Less. = Athanasia L. p.p. (Comp.). 

Holopleura Regel et Schmalh. Umbelliferae (inc. sed.). i Turkestan. 
Holoptelea Planch. Ulmaceae. i Indomal. 
Holoschoenus Link. = Scirpus L. p.p. (Cyper.). 
Holostemma R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. i). 3 Indomal., China. 
Holosteum Dill, ex L. Caryophyllaceae (i. i). 6 N. temp. |# 

(i Brit.). 

Holostigma Spach = Oenothera L. p.p. (#//.). = Chamissoa Link. 
Holostylis Duch. Aristolochiaceae. i S. Centr. Brazil. 
Holothrix L. C. Rich. Orchidaceae (n. i). 25 Afr., trop. and S. 


Holozonia Greene (Lagophylla i>.p. EP.}. Compositae (5). i N. Am. 
Holstia Pax. Euphorbiaceae (A. 11.2). 2 trop. Afr. 
Holubia Oliv. Pedaliaceae. i S. Afr. 
Holy grass (Am.), Hierochloe. 

Homalanthus A. Juss. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). 10 Indomal., Polynes. 

Homalium Jacq." Flacourtiaceae (9). 80 trop. After fert. the sepals 

or petals, or both, grow large and form wings (often hairy) to the fr. 

Homalobus Nutt. ex Torr. et Gray (Astragalus p.p.). Leguminosae 

(in. 6). 10 N. Am. 

Homalocalyx F. Muell. Myrtaceae (n. i). i N.E. Austr. 
Homalomena Schott. Araceae (v). 80 trop. As. and S. Am. 
Homalopetalum Rolfe. Orchidaceae (n. 6). i Jamaica. 
Homalosciadium Domin (Hydrocotyle p.p.). Umbellif. (i. i). i Austr. 
Homalostachys Boeck. (Scleria p.p. EP.). Cyperaceae (n). i China. 
Homeria Vent. Iridaceae (u). 8 S. Afr. Bulbils in axils of lower 1. 

Cult. orn. fl. 

Homilacanthus Sp. Moore. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i E. trop. Afr. 
Hominy, the meal of maize, Zea Mays L. 
Homochaete Benth. Compositae (4). i S. Afr. 
Homochroma DC. Compositae (3). i S. Afr. 
Homogyne Cass. Compositae (8). 3 Mts. of Eur. 
Homoianthus Bonpl. ex DC. = Perezia Lag. p.p. (Comp.). 
Homoio-, Homo- (Gr. pref.), alike, similar; -chlamydeous (P), with 1. 
of one kind only; -dromous (aestivation), all 1. turned the same 
way, not to r. in one, to 1. in another, fl.; -gamous (fl.) one in which 
sta. and stigma ripen together, and cf. Compositae; -geneous, uni- 
form ; -logous, equivalent by descent ; -morphous, uniform in shape ; 
-nym, the same specific name of the same pi., in another genus; 
-plastic, equivalent in structure and mode of origin, but of parallel, 
not common, descent ; -sporous, with spores of one kind only, Pteri- 

Homolepis Chase (Panic it in p.p.). Gramineae (5). 3 trop. S. Am. 
Homonoia Lour. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 2). 4 Indomal. 
Homonoma Bello (Nepsera EP.). Melastomaceae (i). i Porto Rico. 
Homopogon Stapf. Gramineae (2). i French Soudan. 
Homoranthus A. Cunn. ex Schau. Myrtaceae (n. 2). i E. Austr. 
Homozeugos Stapf. Gramineae (2). i W. Afr. 
Honckenya Bartl. - Arenaria Rupp. (#//.) =Alsine Scop. p.p. 
Honckenya Willd. Tiliaceae. 3 trop. W. Afr. 
Honesty, Lunaria biennis Moench. 

Honey, a sweet secretion formed (usu. in fl.) by nectaries; cf. especially 
Bee-flowers ; -dew, Acer, Tilia ; -guides, marks, &c. to show the 
way to the honey, Myosotis ; -leaves, Berberidaceae, Lardizabalaceae, 
Rannnculaceae ; -locust, Gleditschia ; -palm,/Hl>afa ; sham-, Lopezia, 
Parnassia; -suckle, Lonicera, (W.I.) Desmodiitm, Tecoma, (Austr.) 
Banksia ; - - French, Hedysanim. 

Hoodia Sweet. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 5 trop. and S. Afr. Cactus-like. 
Hook-Climbers, cf. Climbing Plants; -S on fruit, &c., aiding animal- 
dispersal, cf. Agrimonia (on receptacle), Bidens (pappus), Cenchrus 
(sterile spikelets), Emex (P), Geum (style), Tragoceros (C), Triglo- 
chin (cpl.), Uncinia (axis of origin), Xantkium (invol.). 


Hookera Salisb. = Brodiaea Sm. (Lili.). 

Hoop pine, Araitcaria; -tree (W.I. ), Melia; -withe (W.I.), Cohibrina, 


Hoorebekia Cornelissen (Aplopappus p.p.)- Compos. (3). 7 W. Am. 
Hop, Hi i in it I us Lnpuliis L. 
Hopea L. = Symplocos L. (Symploc. ). 
Hopea Roxb. Dipterocarpaceae. 50 Indomal. 
Hopkinsia Fitzgerald. Restiaceae. i Austr. 
Hoplestigma Pierre. Flacourtiaceae (2). 2 trop. Afr. 
Hoplestigmataceae, a fam. sometimes made to contain the last. 
Hoplophyllum DC. Compositae (i). 2 S. Afr. 

Hoplophytum Beer (Aechmea p.p. BH.}. Bromeliaceae (4). 2 Brazil. 
Hoppea Willd. Gentianaceae (i). 2 India. 
Hoppia Nees (Bisboeckelera O. Ktze.). Cyperaceae (u). 5 Brazil, 


Horaninovia Fisch. et Mey. Chenopodiaceae (B). 3 W. As. 
Hordeum (Tourn.) L. Gramineae (12). 20 temp. 4 in Brit, (barley- 
grass). Spikelets in groups of 3 on the main axis, forming a dense 
spike. Each is i -flowered when perfect, but commonly either the 
central or the two lat. fls. are aborted. The cult, barley is H. vul- 
gare L. (ff. sativuin Pers.). The most common form is the var. 
distichum or 2-rowed barley, where the central fl. of each group is 
fertile, but 6-rowed barley (var. hexastichum), and 4-rowed barley 
or bere, are also grown. The last is the most hardy and is cult, as 
far as 70 N. (in Norway). 
Horehound, Marrubinm vulgare L. ; foetid-, Ballota nigra L.; white-, 

MarrnbiiiDi vulgare L. 
Horkelia Cham, et Schlecht. (Potentilla p.p. BH.}. Rosaceae (ill. 2). 

35 W. U.S. 

Horkeliella Rydberg (Horkelia p.p.). Rosaceae (in. 2). 3 N. Am. 
Hormidium Lindl. ex Heynh. (Epidendrum p.p. EP.}. Orchidaceae 

(n. 6). 6C. Am., Cuba. 

Horminum Mill. = Salvia Tourn. p.p. (Labiat.). 
Horminum (Tourn.) L. Labiatae (vi). i Mts. of S. Eur. 
Hormogyne A. DC. (Sideroxylon p.p. EP.}. Sapotaceae (f). i Austr. 
Hornea Baker. Snpindaceae (i). i Mauritius. 
Hornemannia Vahl. Ericaceae (in. 2). 2 Guiana, W.I. 
Hornera Jungh. Inc. sed. 2 Japan. 
Horn-beam, Carfinus; -nut, Trapa; - of plenty, Fedia; -wort, Cera- 


Hornschuchia Nees. Anonaceae (i). 2 Brazil. 
Hornschuchia Spreng. Inc. sed. r Brazil. 

Hornstedtia Retz (Ainoiiimn p.p. BH.}. Zingiberaceae (i). 40 Indomal. 
Hornungia Bernh. (Gagea p.p.). Liliaceae (iv). 6 Eur. 
Horse Cassia (W.I.), Cassia polyphylla Jacq. ; -chestnut, Aesculus 
Hippocastanum L. ; -gram, Dolichos hiflorus L. ; -hair, vegetable, 
Tillandsia; -mint (Am.), Monarda ; -purslane (W.I. ), TriantAema ; 
-radish, Cochlearia Armoracia L. ; -radish tree, Moringa pterygo- 
sperma Gaertn. ; -tail, Equisttuiii; -wood (W.I. ), Calliandra. 
Horsfleldia Bl. ex DC. (Harmsiopanax EP.}. Araliaceae (2). i Java. 
Horsfieldia Chitilot (Monophyllaea Reichb.). Gesner. (i). i Java. 


Horsfieldia Willd. (Myrhtica p.p. /?//.). Myristicaceae. 50 palaeo- 


Horsfordia A. Gray (Sida p.p. ). Malvaceae (2). 4 Mexico, Calif. 
Hortensis (Lat.), of gardens. 
Hortia Vand. Rutaceae (iv). 4 Brazil. 
Horticulture, cf. Ornamental Plants. 
Hortonia Wight. Monimiaceae. 2 Ceylon. 
Hortus siccus, a herbarium, or collection of dried pi. 
Hosackia Dougl. Leguminosae (in. 5). 30 W. N.Am. 
Hosea Dennst. Inc. sed. i Inclomal. 
Hosea Ridley. Verbenaceae (4). i Penang. 
Hosiea Hemsl. et E. H. Wilson (Natsiatnm p.p.). Icacinaceae. r 


Hoslundia Vahl. Labiatae (vn). 3 warm Afr. 
Host (of parasite), the pi. on which it feeds. 
Hosta Jacq. = Cornutia L. (Verben.). 
Hosta Tratt. (Fnnkia BH.). Liliaceae (in). 5 Japan, China. Cf. 


Hoteia C. Morr. et Dene. = Astilbe Buch.-Hani. (Saxifr.). 
Hotnima A. Chevalier. Euphorbiaceae (A. II. 4). i trap. Afr. 
Hottentot bread, Testudinaria\ -fig, Mesembrycmthemiuu. 
Hottonia Boerh. ex L. Primulaceae. 2, one N. Am., the other, H. 

paluslris L. (water-violet), Siberia and Eur. (inch Brit.). Floating 

water pi. with finely-divided submerged 1. The fls. project above the 

water; they are dimorphic like Primula. 

Houlletia Brongn. Orchidaceae (n. 13). 5 trop. S. Am. Cult. 
Hound's tongue, Cynoglossitm officinale L. 

Hounea Baill. Flacourtiaceae (6) (Passifl. BH.). i trop. Afr., Madag. 
Houseleek, Sempervwum. 
Houstonia Gronov. ex L. Rubiaceae (i. 2). 20 west N. Am. Fls. 

heterostyled as in Primula; similar differences in stigma and pollen. 
Houttea Decne. (Vanhonttea p.p. EP.). Gesneriaceae (n). 3 Brazil. 
Houttuynia Thunb. Saururaceae. i Himalaya to Japan. Partheno- 


Hovea R. Br. Leguminosae (in. 3). 12 Austr. 
Hovenia Thunb. Rhamnaceae. i Japan to Himal. Fr. axis ed. 
Hoverdenia Nees in DC. Acanthaceae (iv. B). i Mexico. 
Howardia Klotzsch = Aristolochia L. p.p. (Arist.). 
Howea Becc. Palmae (iv). 2- Lord Howe's Island. Cult. orn. 
Howellia A. Gray. Campanulaceae (in). 2 N. Am. 
Howittia F. Muell. Malvaceae (2). i Austr. 
Hoya R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 100 Indomal., Austr. Twiners 

and root-climbers with fleshy 1. Cult. orn. fl. (wax-flower). 
Hoyopsis Leveille. Celastraceae. i China. 
Hua Pierre et de Wild. Sterculiaceae. i trop. Afr. 
Huanaca Cav. (Azorella p.p. EP.). Umbelliferae (i. 2). 6 S. Am., 

Austr., Tasm. 

Huberia DC. Melastomaceae (i). 10 Brazil, Peru. 
Huckleberry, Gaylnssacia; blue-, Vacdniumpennsylvanicum Lam. 
Hudsonia L. Cistaceae. 3 N. Am. 
Huegelia Benth. = Gilia Ruiz et Pav. (Polemon.). 


Huegelia R. Br. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Huernia (Heurnia) R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). 20 S. and trop. 

Huernlopsis N.E. Br. Asclepiadaceae (n. 3). I Cape Colony. 

Huertea Ruiz et Pav. Staphyleaceae. 2 Peru, Cuba. 

Hufelandia Nees (Bdlschiniedia p.p. BH.). Lauraceae (n). i C. Am. 

Hugeria Small (I'accinium p.p.)- Ericaceae (in. i). i N. Am. 

Hugonia L. Linaceae. ntrop. |^. The lower twigs of the infl. are 
modified into hooks for climbing. 

Hulletia King. Moraceae (in). 2 Malay Peninsula. 

Hulsea Torr. et A. Gray. Compositae (6). 6 W. U.S. 

Humata Cav. Polypodiaceae. 20 palaeotrop. 

Humbertia Lam. Convolvulaceae (i). i Madag. 

Humble-bees, cf. Bee-flowers; robbery by -, Aconitutn, Delphinium. 

Humblotia Baill. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). i Comoro Is. 

Humboldtia Vahl (Batschia Vahl). Leguminosae (n. 3). 4 Ceylon 
and S. India. H. laurifolia Vahl is myrmecophilous. The non- 
flowering twigs are normal, but those that bear fls. have hollow 
obconical internodes. In each of these, at the top, opposite the 1., is 
a slit leading to the cavity which is inhabited by ants. 

Humea Sm. Compositae (4). 4 S. Austr. 

Humifusus (Lat.), spreading on surface. 

Humilis (Lat.), dwarf. 

Eumiria Jaume St. Hil. Humiriaceae. 3 trop. Am. 

Humiriaceae (EP., BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Geraniales). 3 gen., 
20 sp., trop. Am., Afr. Shrubs with alt. 1. and $ , reg- fls., 5-merous 
with 10 oo sta. and cup-like disc. Ovules i 2 per cpl. Drupe. 
CAief genera: Humiria, Saccoglottis. 

Humming-bird flowers, A bud Ion, Erythrina, Marcgravia. 

Humulus L. Moraceae (iv). 2 N. temp. Perennial climbing herbs. 
Infl. cymose, dioec., the <? a much-branched pseudo panicle, the ? a 
few-flowered pseudo-catkin with 2 fls. in the axil of each scale. Fl. 
protog., wind fert. Achene. //. Liipulus L. is the hop, largely 
cult. ; the fr. catkin is used in brewing, &c. 

Humus, decaying organic matter in the soil ; cf. Saprophytes. 

Hunga Panch. ex Guillaumin. Elaeocarpaceae. i New Caledonia. 

Hunnemannia Sweet. Papaveraceae (n). i Mexico. 

Hunteria Roxb. Apocynaceae (i. 3). 5 palaeotrop. 

Huntleya Baleman (Zygopetaluin p. p. BH.}. Orchid, (n. 14). 2 trop. 

Huon pine, Datrydhun Franklinii Hook. f. 

Hura L. Euphorbiaceae (A. 11.7). 2 or 3 trop. Am. , incl. H. crepitans 
L., the sand box tree. Fr. with numerous hard woody cpls. Each, 
as the ripe fr. dries, tries to expand from the A shape to a U shape. 
Presently an explosion occurs and the seeds are shot out. The fr. 
used to be wired together and used as sand boxes before the era of 

Husemannia F. Muell. Menispermaceae. r N.E. Austr. 

Husnotia Fourn. (Ditassa p.p. EP.). Asclepiadaceae (11. i). i Brazil. 

Hutchinsia R. Br. Cruciferae (4). 8 N. temp, (i in Brit.). 

Hutera Porta (Coincya p-p-). Cruciferae (3). i Spain. 



Huthia Brand. Polemoniaceae. i Peru. 

Huttonaea Harv. Orchidaceae (n. i). 3 S. Afr. 

Huttonella T. Kirk (Carmichaelia p.p.). Legumin. (in. 6). 4 N.Z. 

Huxleya Ewart. Verbenaceae (4). i N. Austr. 

Hyacinth, Hyacinthus; grape-, Mnscari; wild-, Scilla nittans Sm. 

Hyacinthus (Tourn.) L. Liliaceae (v). 30 Medit., Afr. Many forms 

of hyacinth (derived from //. orientalis L.) are cult. orn. fi. 
Hyalea Jaub. et Spach = Centaurea L. p.p. (Comp.). 
Hyaline, transparent. 
Hyalis D. Don ex Hook, et Am. (Plazia p.p. EP.). Comp. (12). 

4 S. Am. 

Hyalocalyx Rolfe. Turneraceae. 2 Madag. 
Hyalocystis Hallier f. Convolvulaceae (i). i trop. Afr. 
Hyaloseris Griseb. Compositae (12). 2 Mts. of Argentina. 
Hybanthus Jacq. (lonidium Bff.). Violaceae. 75 trop. and subtrop. 
Hybophrynium K. Schum. Marantaceae. i Cameroons. 
Hybosperma Urb. Rliamnaceae. i W.I. 
Hybrid, a cross between two species; graft-, Cytisits. 
Hydatella Diels. Centrolepidaceae. 2 W. Austr. 
Hydathodes, pores through which the pi. excretes water. 
Hydnocarpus Gaertn. Flacourtiaceae (3). 25 Indomal. 
Hydnophytum Jack. Rubiaceae (n. 5). 30 E. As., New Guinea, Fiji, 

&c. Epiphytes with ant-inhabited tubers, like Myrmecodia (q.v.}- 
Hydnora Thunb. Hydnoraceae. 7 Afr. 
Hydnoraceae (EP. ; Cytinaceae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Aristo- 

lochiales). 2 gen. with 7 sp., Afr., S. Am. Parasitesjike Rafflesiaceae. 

Fls 5 , reg. P (34) fleshy, A 34 epiphyllous, G (3) with parietal 

plac. and <xov. Berry. Enddsp. andperisperm. Chief genm: Hydnora. 
Hydrangea Gronov. ex L. Saxifragaceae (m). 25^. Shrubs with 

opp. L, some climbing. Fls. in cymose corymbs, the outer (or in 

cult, forms all) neuter with petaloid calyx, giving conspicuousness to 

the infl. (cf. Compositae, Umbelliferae). 
Hydrangeaceae ( Warming) = Saxifragaceae ( ill). 
Hydranthelium H. B. et K. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). 2 trop. S. Am. 
Hydrastis Ellis. Berberidaceae, sometimes in Ranunculaceae (i). 2, 

i in Japan, i in N. Am. (//. canadensis L. , golden-seal, a tonic). 
Hydrastylis Steud. = Sisyrinchium L. p.p. (Irid.). 
Hydriastele H. Wendl. et Drude. Palmaceae (iv. i). 2 Austr. 
Hydrilla L. C. Rich. Hydrocharidaceae. i \%. 
Hydro- (Gr. pref.), water-; -chore, pi. distributed by water; -philous, 

water pollinated, Zostera ; -phytes, cf. Water-plants ; -phytium (Cl.), 

a water-pi, formation; -tropism, irritability to presence of water. 
Hydrobryum Endl. Podostemaceae. 5 India, Ceylon. 
Hydrocaryaceae. A family sometimes made to include Trapa, usu. 

placed in Onagraceae. 

Hydrocera Blume. Balsaminaceae. i Indomal. 
Hydrocharideae (Bfl.} = Hydrocharitaceae. 
Hydrocharis L. Hydrocharitaceae. i Eur. (incl. Brit.), As., H. Morsus- 

ranae L., the frog-bit, a rootless water-pi, with orbicular floating 1. 

Fls. dioec., produced upon the surface. During summer the pi. 

multiplies by horizontal stolons, which form new pis. at the ends. 


In autumn large buds are formed on the stolons and drop off to winter 
at the bottom. In spring they float up and develop into new pis. 

Hydrocharitaceae (Ef\, BH.}. Monocots. (Helobieae; Microspermae 
BH.). 13 gen., 65 sp. trop. and temp., all water pi., some marine 
(Halophila, Enalus, Thalassia). Most have ribbon-like submerged 
1., a few have floating 1. (Hydrocharis, &c.); some have 1. projecting 
above the water. In the leaf-axils are 'squamulae intravaginales ' 
((/. Potamogetonaceae). Several buds are frequently found in one 

Sexes usu. in different fls., commonly on different plants. Infl. 
axillary, usu. i -flowered when ? , often more than i if <? , enclosed at 
first in a spathe of two or more (i in Hydrocharis?) fused 1. Fl. 
usu. reg., 3-merous. P usu. in two whorls, the outer sepaloid, the 
inner petaloid; sta. in i 5 whorls, the innermost often staminodial; 
G (2 15), i-loc. with parietal plac. ; ovules oo, ortho- to ana-tr., 
erect to pend. ; stigmas as many as cpls. Fr. irreg. dehisc., containing 
ooexalb. seeds. Chief genera: Halophila, Elodea, Vallisneria, Stra- 
tiotes, Hydrocharis. 

Hydrochloa Beauv. Gramineae (6). r S.E. U.S. 

Hydrocleys Rich. Butomaceae. i Brazil, H. nymphoides Buchenau, 
a water pi. with striking resemblance to Nymphaea or Limnanthemum. 
Cult. orn. fl. 

Hydrocotyle (Tourn.) L. Umbelliferae (n. i). 70 trop. and temp. 
i in Brit., H. vulgaris L. (white-rot or pennywort), easily recognised 
among native U. by its peltate 1. 

Hydrolea L. Hydrophyllaceae. 1 2 trop. Several have axillary thorns 
(branches). Fl. self-fertilising (cf. Phacelia). 

Hydrolirion Leveille. Hydrocharitaceae. t Corea. 

Hydrolytnrum Hook. f. (Rotala p.p. EP.}. Lythraceae. i Indomal. 

Hydromystria G. F. W. Mey. (Limnobium p.p. BH.). Hydrochari- 
taceae. 3 trop. Am. Cult. orn. fl. 

Hydrophylax L. f. Rubiaceae (n. 10). 3 coasts of Ind. Ocean. 

Hydrophyllaceae (EP. , H.}. Dicots. (Sympet. Tubiflorae ; Pole- 
moniales BH.}. 17 gen. 170 sp., chiefly in N. Am.; a few in S. Am., 
trop. As., Afr., &c. Herbs or undershrubs with simple or cpd. 
exstip. L, radical, alt. or opp. Plant usu. hairy. Fls. scattered or in 
cincinni like those of Boraginaceae, usu. without bracteoles, , reg., 
usu. 5-merous. K (5), imbr., the odd sepal post.; C (5), rotate, or 
bell- or funnel-shaped, usu. imbr.; A 5, epipet. and alt. with pets., 
often with scale-like appendages at base (see below); G (2), i 2-loc., 
with i or 2 styles; ovules on each cpl. oo 2, sessile or pend., anatr. 
Fr. usu. a loculic. caps. Embryo small, in rich endosp. The fls. are 
visited chiefly by bees ; honey is secreted below the ovary and pro- 
tected by the appendages of the sta., which are frequently united to 
the corolla, sometimes (Hydrophyllum) forming tubes leading down 
to the honey. Fl. usu. protandrous. See Phacelia. Chief genera: 
Hydrophyllum, Nemophila, Phacelia, Nama, Hydrolea. 

Hydrophyllum L. Hydrophyllaceae. 6 N. Am. Fl. protandrous, 
with the staminal appendages united to the corolla so as to form tubes 
through which alone the honey is accessible. 

Hydropyrum Link = Zizania Gronov. (Gramin.). 


Hydropyxis Rafin. Inc. sed. Nomen. 

Hydrosme Schott (Amorphophalhts p.p. EP.). Araceae (iv). 15 

Hydrostachydaceae (EP.; Podostemareaew BH.). Dicots. Archichl. 

Resales). Only genus Hydrostachys, q.v. 
Hydrostachys Thou. Hydrostachydaceae. 10 Madag., Afr. Water pi. 

of the type of Podostemaceae, with spikes of dioecious naked fl., $ of 

i sta., ? of (-2) cpls. and oo ovules. Capsule. 

Hydrotaenia Lindl. (Tigridia EP.). Iridaceae (n). 3 Mex., Peru. 
Hydrothrix Hook. f. Pontederiaceae. i Ceara. 
Hydrotriche Zucc. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i Madag. Water pi. 

with dimorphic 1. 

Hyeronima Allem. Euphorbiaceae (A. I. i). 12 trop. Am. 
Hygea Hanst. Gesneriaceae (inc. sed.). i Chili. 
Hygea Klotzsch. Asclepiadaceae (inc. sed.). i Guiana. 
Hygrocharis Hochst. (Nephrophylhun BH.}. Convolvul. (i). i Abyss. 
Hygrochastic (fr.), one opening by water-absorption. 
Hygrochilus Pfitz. (Vanda p.p.). Orchidaceae (n. 20). i Burma. 
Hygrophila R. Br. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 40 trop., in marshes. 
Hygrophytic, living with plentiful water supply. 
Hygroryza Nees. Gramineae (6). i Indomal. 
Hylaea, the upper regions of the Amazon valley. 
Hyline Herb. Amaryllidaceae (i). i Brazil. 
Hylium (Cl. ), a forest formation. 
Hylocereus Britton et Rose (Cereus p.p.). Cact. (in. i). 8 C. Am., 


Hylodendron Taub. Leguminosae (n. 3). i Gaboon. 
Hylodium (Cl.), a dry open woodland. 

Hylomecon Maxim. (Stylophorum BH.\ Papaveraceae (n). i Japan. 
Hylophila Lindl. Orchidaceae (n. 2). 2 Malaya, Phil. Is. 
Hymenachne Beauv. = Panicum L. p.p. (Gram.). 
Hymenaea L. Leguminosae (n. 3). 10 trop. Am. H. Courbaril L. 

(West Indian Locust) has buttress roots. The wood is valuable. 

From the stem exudes a resin (copal or anime) which is often found 

in lumps underground near the trees (cf. Agathis, Trachylobium); it 

is used in varnish, &c. 

Hymenandra A. DC. ex Spach. Myrsinaceae (n). i Bengal, Assam. 
Hymenanthera R. Br. in Tuckey. Violaceae. 4 E. Austr., N.Z., 

Norfolk I. 
Hymenatherum Cass. (Dysodia^-V- EP-)- Compositae (6). 15 warm 

Hymenella (Mo9- et Sesse ex) DC. (Alsine p.p. EP.). Caryo. (i. i). 

i Mexico. 
Hymenocallis Salisb. Amaryllidaceae (i). 30 trop. Am. The stipular 

appendages of the sta. are united into a tube, on the summit of which 

the filaments stand, and which surpasses the perianth in conspicuous- 
ness (cf. Eucharis). Cult. orn. fl. 

Hymenocardia Wall. Euphorbiaceae (A. i. i). 6 trop. Afr. and As. 
Hymenocarpos Savi (Circinus Med.). Legumin. (in. 5). i Meclit. 
Hymenocharis Salisb. (Ischnosiphon^.^.). Marantaceae (n). 20 trop. 
Hymenoclea Torr. et A. Gray. Compositae (5). 2 Texas to Calif. 



Hymenocnemis Hook. f. Rubiaceae (n. 5). i Madag. 

Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. Labiatae (vi). 9 W. As. 

Hymenodictyon Wall. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 8 trop. Afr. and As. 

Hymenolaena DC. = Pleurospermum Hoffm. p.p. (Umbell.). 

Hymenolepis Cass. = Athanasia L. p.p. (Comp.). 

Hymenolepis Kaulf. Polypodiaceae. 4 Indomal., Madag. 

Hymenolobium Benth. Leguminosae (in. 8). i N. Brazil, Vene- 

Hymenolophus Boerl. Apocynaceae (i. 3). i Sumatra. 

Hymenonema Cass. Compositae (13). 2 Greece. 

Hymenopappus L'Herit. Compositae (6). u N. Am. 

Hymenophyllaceae. Filicales Leptosporangiatae. 2 gen., 400 sp. trop. 
and temp, (filmy ferns), chiefly in damp woods. Stem very slender, 
often creeping; sometimes it bears roots, in other cases only root 
hairs. It grows more rapidly than the L, so that its leafless tip appears 
naked like a root. L. pinnate, filmy in texture (only one cell thick, 
except at the veins), with no stomata. The placenta is at the leaf-edge, 
a continuation of the vein ; it bears sporangia and is surrounded by a 
cup-shaped indusium. Sporangia sessile, with oblique or transv. 
complete annulus, opening by a longitudinal fissure. The prothalli 
are capable of long life ; in some they produce gemmae or buds on 
the margin, and may thus multiply veg. to a considerable extent. 
Chief genera: Hymenophyllum (indusium 2-valved), Trichomanes 
(indusium tubular or cup-like). 

Hymenophyllum L. Hymenophyllaceae. 250 cosmop. 2 in Brit. 
(filmy ferns), H. tunbridgense Sm. and H. peltatum Desv. 

Hymenophysa C. A. Mey. Cruciferae (inc. sed.). 2 Cent. As. 

Hymenopogon Wall. Rubiaceae (i. 5). 2 Himal., Assam. 

Hymenoptera, the bees, wasps, &c.; cf. Bee-flowers. 

Hymenopyramis Wall. Verbenaceae (5). i India, Burma. 

Hymenorchis Schlechter. Orchidaceae (11. 20). 7 N. Guinea, Java. 

Hymenosicyos Chiov. Cucurbitaceae (2). i E. Afr. 

Hymenosporum R. Br. ex F. Muell. Pittosporaceae. i E. Austr. 

Hymenostegia Harms. (Cynometra p.p.). Leguminosae (n. 2). 3 
trop. Afr. 

Hymenostephium Benth. Compositae (5). 2 Mexico, Colombia. 

Hymenothrix A. Gray (Hymenopapptis p.p. EP.}. Compos. (6). 2 
Mex., Texas. 

Hymenoxys Cass. (Actinella Nutt. p.p. EP.). Compositae (6). 17 

Hyobanche L. Scrophulariaceae (in. 2). 2 S. Afr. 

Hyophorbe Gaertn. Palmae (iv. i). 3 Mascarenes. 

Hyoscyamus (Tourn.) L. Solanaceae (2). n N. Afr., Eur., As. 
H. niger L. (henbane) in Brit., probably an escape, it having formerly 
been largely cult, as a narcotic. The fls. are in cincinni. The 
capsule stands erect enclosed in the calyx, and opens by a lid (censer- 

Hyoseris L. Compositae (13). 3 Medit. 

Hyospathe Mart. Palmaceae (iv. i). 4 trop. S. Am. 

Hypargyrium Fourr. = Potentilla L. (Ros.). 

Hyparrhenia Anderss. = Andropogon L. p.p. (Gram.). 




Hypecoum Tourn. ex L. Papaveraceae (i). \i Medit. , Cent. As. FL 
2-merous throughout. The inner petals are 3-sect, and the middle 
lobe stands erect and encloses the sta. (if. Eichler, Bliithendia- 
gramme). In H. procumbens L. the pollen is shed in the bud into 
pockets on the inner surface of the inner petals, which close up before 
the stigma developes. When pressed by an insect the pockets open 
and dust it with pollen. The stigma only ripens after it has grown 
above the level of the pollen. Cult. orn. fl. 

Hypelate P. Br. Sapindaceae (n). i W.I. , Florida. White ironwood. 
Hyperanthera Forsk. = Moringa Juss. (Moring.). 
Hyperaspis Briquet. Labiatae (vn). i trop. Afr. 

Hyperbaena Miers (Pachygone BH.}. Menispermaceae. 12 trop. Am., 

Hyperborean, northern. 

Hypericaceae (Warming: Cistiflorae) = Hypericineae. 

Hypericineae (BH.; Guttiferae p.p. EP.}. Dicots. (Polypet., Gutti- 
ferales). Cf. Guttiferae (classification) for chars. 

Hypericophyllum Steetz (Jaumea Pers.). Compositae (6). 5 trop. Afr. 

Hypericopsis Boiss. (Frankenia p.p. BH.}. Frankeniaceae. i Persia. 

Hypericum Tourn. ex L. Guttiferae (n). 220 temp, (i i Brit., St John's 
wort, tutsan, &c.), nearly all perennial herbs with opp., often gland- 
dotted 1. and cymes of fls., often forming pseudo-racemes or -umbels. 
Sta. oo , united into 3 or 5 groups. Developmental study shows that 
each of these groups arises as a simple papilla, and afterwards 
branches ; a comparison with other Guttiferae however shows that in 
H. we have more probably to do with a union of originally free sta. 
The fls. contain no honey, but offer abundant pollen, and the larger 
are frequently visited. They are homogamous, but the stigmas stick 
out through the sta. and there is thus a chance of a cross. 

Hypertelis E. Mey. ex Fenzl (Pharnaceum p.p. BH.}. Aizo. (i). 4 
S. Afr. 

Hypertrophy, excessive development of one part to loss of others. 

Hyphaene Gaertn. Palmae (n). 15 warm Afr. (doum palms). The 
stem is frequently branched, a rare occurrence in Palms. 

Hypo- (Gr. pref.), under; -cotyl, the part of the axis below the coty- 
ledons in a seedling; -crateriform, salver-shaped; -dermal, beneath 
the epidermis; -geal (germination), with cotyledons below ground; 
-gynous, inserted below ovary on a convex receptacle. 

Hypobathrum Blume. Kubiaceae (i. 8). 3 Malay Archipel. 

Hypocalymma Endl. Myrtaceae (II. i). 18 W. Austr. 

Hypocalyptus Thunb. Leguminosae (in. 3). i S. Afr. 

Hypochoeris L. Compositae (13). 60 N. temp, and S. Am. (3 Brit.). 

Hypocoton Urb. Euphorbiaceae (A. n. 7). i S. Domingo. 

Hypocylix Woloszczak. Chenopodiaceae (B). i Persia. 

Hypocyrta Mart. Gesneriaceae (i). 12 Brazil, C. Am. 

Hypodaphnis Stapf (Ocotea p.p.). Lauraceae (i). i trop. Afr. 

Hypodematium A. Rich. (Lissochilus BH.}. Rubiaceae (n. 10). i 

Hypoderris Br. Polypodiaceae. W. Ind., trop. Am. 

Hypodiscus Nees. Restionaceae. 158. Afr. 

Hypoestes Soland. Acanthaceae (iv. B). 85 palaeotrop., esp. Madag. 


Hypogomphia Bunge. Labiatae (vi). 2 W. As. 

Hypolaena R. Br. Restionaceae. 30 S. Afr., Austr. , N.Z. 

Hypolepis Beauv. =Ficinia Schrad. (Cyper.). 

Hypolepis Bernh. Polypodiaceae. 30 trop. and subtrop. 

Hypolobus Fourn. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). i E. Brazil. 

Hypolytrum Rich. Cyperaceae (i). 30 trop. and subtrop. 

Hypophyllanthus Regel (Helicteres p.p. EP.). Sterculiaceae (formerly 
Rutaceae). i Colombia. 

Hypopitys Dill, ex Adans. =Monotropa L. p.p. (Pyrol. ). 

Hypoporum Nees=Scleria Berg. (Cyper.). 

Hypoxis L, Amaryllidaceae (in). 60 S. Afr. 

Hypsela Presl. Campanulaceae (in). 5 Andes. 

Hypseocharis Remy. Oxalidaceae. 3 Andes. 

Hypserpa Miers (Limacia BH.}. Menispermaceae. 18 IndomaL 

Hypsipodes Miq. Menispermaceae. i Java. 

Hypsophila F. Muell. Celastraceae. 2 Austr. 

Hypsophyllary leaves, bracts. 

Hyptiandra Hook. f. Simai-ubaceae. i Queensland. 

Hyptianthera Wight et Arn. Rubiaceae (i. 8). i N. India. 

Hyptiodaphne Urb. (Daphne p.p.). Thymelaeaceae. i W.I. 

Hyptis Jacq. Labiatae (vii). 300 warm Am. 

Hyrtanandra Miq. = Pouzolzia Gaudich. (BH.). = Memorialis Buch.- 

Hyssop, Hyssopiis officinalis L. 

Hyssopus (Tourn.) L. Labiatae (vi). i Eur., Medit., As., H. offici- 
nalis L., the hyssop, formerly used in medicine. 

Hysterionica Willd. Compositae (3). 6 S. Brazil, Argentina. 

Hysterophyta (Warming). The last cohort of Choripetalae. 

lantlie Salisb. \Hypoxis L.). Amaryllidaceae (in). 20 Afr. 

Ibatia Decne. (Lachnostoma BH.}. Asclepiadaceae (n. 4). 3 trop. 

Iberidella Boiss. (Eunomia EP.). Cruciferae (2). to Mts. E. Medit. 

Itaeris Dill, ex L. Cruciferae (2). 30 Eur., As. /. ainara L. (candy- 
tuft), cult. orn. fl., a good example of the corymb. The outer petals 
of the fls. are longer than the rest, thus adding to the conspicuousness 
(cf. Umbelliferae). 

Ibidium Salisb. (Spiranthes Rich.). Orchid, (n. 2). 20 N. temp. 

Iboga J. Braun et K. Schum. (Tabernanthe Baill.). Apocynaceae 
(i. 3). i Cameroons. 

Iboza N. E. Brown. Labiatae (vi). 128. and trop. Afr. 

Icacina A. Juss, Icacinaceae. 5 trop. W. Afr. 

Icacinaceae (EP.; Olacineae p.p. BH.). Dicots. (Archichl. Sapindales). 
38 gen., 200 sp. , trop. Trees and shrubs (often lianes) or rarely 
herbs, with alt. exstip. 1., usu. entire and often leathery. Fls. in 
cpd. panicled infl., reg., usu. . K (5) or (4), not enlarged when 
the fr. is ripe; C 5 or 4, rarely united, valvate or imbr.; A 5 or 4, 
alt. with petals, with usu. intr. anthers ; disc rarely developed ; G (3) 
or rarely (5) or (2), rarely multi-loc., usu. i-loc. by abortion of the 
remaining cavities ; ovules 2 per loc. , pendulous from its apex, anatr., 
with dorsal raphe and rnicropyle facing upwards ; funicle usu. thick- 
ened above the micropyle; style simple with 3 stigmas (or 5 2). 

22 2 


Fr. t-loc. , i -seeded, usu. a drupe, sometimes a samara. Endosp. 
usu. present; embryo straight or curved. Chief genera: Lasianthera, 

Icacorea Aubl. = Ardisia Sw. p.p. (Myrsin.). 

Icaque (W.I.), Chrysobalamis Icaco L. 

Ice-plant, Mesembryanthemum. 

Ichnanthus Beauv. Gramineae (5). 20 trop. Am., W.I. 

Ichnocarpus R. Br. Apocynaceae (n. i). 6 Indomal. 

Ichthyothere Mart, in Buchn. Compositae (5). 12 trop. S. Am. 

Icianthus Greene (Streptanthus p.p.). Cruciferae (i). 3 W. U.S. 

Icica Aubl. = Protium Burni. f. (Burs.). 

Icma Phil. (Baccharis p.p. EP.). Compositae (12). i Chili. 

Icomum Hua (Aeolanthus p.p. EP.}. Labiatae (vn). 5 trop. Afr. 

Icosandra Phil. Lauraceae (n). i Chili. 

Idahoa A. Nelson et Macbride. Cruciferae (2). i W. U.S. 

Idaneum O. Ktze. et Post = Adenium Roem. et Schult. (Apocyn.). 

Idesia Maxim. Flacourtiaceae (4). i China, Japan. 

Ifloga Cass. Compositae (4). 8 S. Afr., Medit. 

Iguanura Blume. Palmaceae (iv. i). 10 Malaya. 

Ilang-ilang, Cananga odorata Hook. f. 

Ildefonsia Gardn. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). i trop. Brazil. 

Ilex (Tourn.) L. Aquifoliaceae. 180 Cent, and S. Am., As., Afr., 
Austr., Eur. /. Aquifolium L., the holly, in Brit. Fls. dioecious, 
but in the ? the sterile sta. are so large that the fl. appears 5 . Truly 
5 fls. sometimes occur. I.paraguensis A. St Hil. is the Mate or Para- 
guay tea, largely used in S. Am. The 1. contain caffeine; they are 
dried, broken up and used like tea. 

Ilianma Greene (Alatva p.p.). Malvaceae (2). 4 W. U.S. 

Ilicineae ( BH. ) = Aquifoliaceae. 

Illecetaraceae (BH. ; Caryophyllaceae \>.\>. EP.). Dicots. (Monochlam. 
Curvembryae). A fam. unnaturally divorced from its true relation- 
ships. Herbs, rarely shrubby, with 1. usu. opp. entire, slip. Infl. 
usu. cymose, fl. usu. , inconspic. P herbaceous or leathery, persistent 
(4 5)> A. 4 5, rarely more or less, opp. P; G i-loc. style i, rarely 
2 3. Ovule i, rarely 2, amphitr. or anatr. Endosp. Includes the 
last four groups of I of Caryophyllaceae. 

Illecebrum Rupp. ex L. Caryophyllaceae (i. 4). i W. Eur. (incl. 
Devon and Cornwall), Medit., W. Afr. ' 

Illegitimate fertilisation, Ly thru in, Primula. 

Illicium L. Magnoliaceae. 10 Atl. N. Am., As. I. verum Hook. fil. 
(star-anise ; China) is used for flavouring. There is a gradual 
transition in the spiral P from sepaloid to petaloid structure (cf. 
Nymphaea). The fr. is an aggregate of follicles. 

Illigera Blume. Hernandiaceae (Combret. BH.). 10 palaeotrop. 

Illipe Koenig, F. Muell. (Bassia p.p. BH.). Sapotaceae (i). 35 In- 
Ilyphilos Small (Elatine p.p.). Elatinaceae. i W. U.S. Wild 


Ilysanthes Rafin. Scrophulariaceae (n. 6). 25 trop. and subtrop. 
Imantina Hook. f. (Morindd p.p. EP.). Rubiaceae (n. 9). i New 


Imantophyllum Benlh. et Hook. f. (Imatophyllum Hook. ) = Clivia 
Lindl. p.p. (Amaryll.). 

Imbricaria Comm. ex fuss. (Mimusops p.p. EP.). Sapotaceae (2). 7 

Imbricate (aestivation, y.v.), overlapping. 

Imhofia Herb. = Hessea Herb. p.p. (Amaryll.). 

Immersed (venation), below surface. 

Immobilis (Lat), immoveable. 

Immortelles, everlastings, q. z<. 

Imparipinnate (1.), pinnate with odd leaflet at end. 

Impatiens Riv. ex L. Balsaminaceae. 340 trop. and N. temp., esp. 
Mts. of India and Ceylon. /. Noli-tangere L., the touch-me-not, in 
Brit. The name is derived from the explosive fr. , a caps, with fleshy 
pericarp ; the outer layers of cells are highly turgid and thus a great 
strain is put upon the whole. Dehiscence is septifragal and is started 
by a touch when the fr. is ripe. The valves roll up inwards with 
violence (starting at the base) and the seeds are scattered in all 
directions. Many cult. orn. fl. 

Imperata Cyrilli. Gramineae (2). 6 trop. and subtrop. /. arun- 
dinacea Cyrilli (lalang) is a very troublesome weed in Malaya. 

Imperatorla (Tourn.) L. = Peucedanum Tourn. p.p. (Umbell.). 

Imphee, Sorghum zmlgare Pers., var. 

Inaequale (Lat.), unequal. 

Inarticulate, not jointed. 

Incanus (Lat.), hoary-white. 

Incarvillea Juss. Bignoniaceae (2). 5 E. and Cent. As. L. alt. 

Incense, Boswellia, Dactyodes, Styrax. 

Incertae sedis, of uncertain position. Numerous gen. here given are 
so described, usu. because their original descriptions leave much to 
theimagination, but sometimes because of real difficulty in placing them. 

Incised (L), notched at the margin. 

Included, not projecting. 

Incompletae (BH.} = Monochlamydeae. 

Incomplete (fl.), wanting one or more kinds of organs. 

Incumbent, Cruciferae. 

Incurved, bending inwards. 

Indefinite (growth), continuing till checked by the cold; (infl.), with 
the first axis not ending in a fl. 

Indehiscent, not opening. 

Indeterminate (infl.), indefinite. 

Indian almond, Terniinalia Catappa L.; -bean (Am.), Catalpa; -butter 
tree, Bassia biityracea Roxb.; -chickweed (Am.), Mollugo; -copal, 
Vateria indica L.; -cork tree, Millingtonia hortensis L. f.; -corn, 
Zea Mays L. ; -cress, Tropaeolunr, -date, Tamarindus; -fig, Opimtta; 
-grass (Am.), Sorghum ; -hemp, Cannabis sativa L. ; -lilac, Melia, 
Lagers froemia; -liquorice, Abnts precatorius L. ; -madder, Rubia 
cordifolia L.; -mallow (Am.), Abutilon ; -meal, ZcaMays L. ; -millet, 
Panicnm ; -mulberry, Morinda citrifolia L.; -physic (Am.), Gillenia; 
-pink, Spigelia; -pipe (Am.), Monotropa; -redwood, Chickrassia 
ta&u/arisA..]uss.',-Tice, Zizaniaaqnatica L. ; -rubber, cf. Rubber; -shot, 
Canna ; -tobacco,( Am.), Lobelia inflata L. ; -turnip (Am.), Arisaema. 


Indigenous, genuinely native. 

Indigo, Indigofera\ China green-, Rhamnus chlorophora Decne. ; 
Chinese -, Polygonum tinctorium Ait. 

Indigofera L. Leguminosae (in. 6). 300 trop. /. kptostachya DC., 
tinctoria L. and Anil L. furnisli indigo. The plant is mown just 
before flowering, and soaked in water, whereby a yellowish solution 
is obtained. This on stirring and exposure to the air oxidises, and 
an insoluble precipitate of indigo is formed. The fls. are slightly 
explosive (cf. Genista). 

Indokingia Hemsl. Araliaceae (i). i Seychelles. 

Indomalaya, cf. Floral Regions, it (6) and (7). 

Indovethia Boerlage. Ochnaceae (Violaceae BH.}. i Borneo. 

Induplicate (aestivation), leaf margins turned inwards; (vernation), 

Indusium, Filicales, Pteridophyta. 

Inermis (Lat.), unarmed, thornless. 

Inferae (BH.}. The ist series of Gamopetalae. 

Inferior (ovary), enclosed in the receptacle. 

luflexed, bent inwards. 

Inflorescence, the reproductive shoot, composed of, or bearing, a number 
of shoots of limited growth, termed flowers. Of two types, mono- 
podial or racemose, where the first axis does not as a rule terminate 
in a fl., but grows steadily onwards; and sympodial or cymose, 
where the main axis soon terminates in a fl., and the growth is taken 
up by the lat. axes in succession. The typical raceme has an axis 
growing indefinitely up the middle, and successively younger fls. on 
lat. branches, Cruciferae, Primus, Ribes. There are also the cpd. 
raceme or panicle, the raceme with sessile fls. or spike, with its var. 
the catkin or pendulous spike, the corymb, or raceme with all the fl. 
stalks elongating to the same level, Iberis, the umbel, which may be 
imagined as a corymb with all the fls. springing from one point, 
Umbelliferae, the cpd. umbel, the head, which is a common re- 
ceptacle with the fls. arranged in a dense mass with the youngest to 
the centre, Compositae, the cpd. head. The cyme may be mono-, 
di- or pleiochasial, according as each branch bears upon itself r, 2 or 
more branches; cf. dichasial cymes, &c. Many pi. possess mixed 
infls., with some branchings racemose, some cymose, Aesciilus, Be- 
tulaceae, Labiatae, Verbascum. 

Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped. 

Inga Scop. Leguminosae (i. i). 150 trop. and subtrop. Am., W.I. 

Ingenhouzia (Moc. et Sesse ex) DC. Malvaceae (4). i Mexico. 

Ink berry (W.I.), Randia aculeata L.; - nut, Semecarpus Anacardium 
L. f., Terminalia. 

Innate (anther), joined to filament by its base. 

Inobulbum Schlechter et Kranzlin (Dendrobium p.p.). Orchidaceae 
(n. 15). 2 New Caledonia. 

Inocarpus F\>rst. Leguminosae (in. 8). i Malaya, Polynesia. Seed 

Inodes O. F. Cook (.SVz/Wp.p.). Palmaceae (i. 2). 9 N. Am., W.I. 

Inrolled leaf, Capparidcifcae, Einpctrum. 

Insect powder, Chrysanthemum. 


Insectivorous plants, pi. which capture insects, &c., by special appa- 
ratus, and absorb the resulting products, whether after a special 
fermentation, or as humus. About 400 spp. belonging to Droseraceae 
(Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophylluin, &c.), Cephalotaceae 
(Cephalotus), Lentibulariaceae (Pingiticiila, Utricularia, &c.), Ne- 
penthaceae (Nepenthes), and Sarraceniaceae (Sarracenia, &